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Edward Robinson

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ZAANANNIM, a city of Naphtali, (Josh. xix. 33 ; Micah i. 1L) contracted into Zenan, Josh. xv. 37.


ZABADEANS, Arabians who dwelt east of the mountains of Gilead, and who were overcome by Jonathan Maccabeus, 1 Mac. xii. 31. Calmet thinks that, instead of Zabadeans, which is a name entirely unknown, we should read Nabatheans, as Josephus does.


ZACCHEUS, chief of the publicans ; that is, farmer-general of the revenue, Luke xix. When Christ passed through Jericho, Zaccheus greatly de- sired to see him, but could not, because of the mul- titude, and because he was low of stature. He therefore ran before, and climbed up into a sycamore tree. Jesus, observing him, called him down, and proposed to become hi, 1 ; guest. The result was, that the heart of Zaccheus was opened, and he declared he would make four-fold restitution to all whom he had injured.


ZADOK, or Sadoc, son of Ahitub, high-priest of the Jews, of the race of Eleazar. From the de- cease of Eli, the high-priesthood had been in the family of Ithamar ; but it was restored to the family of Eleazar, in the time of Saul, in the person of Za- dok, who was put in the place of Ahimelech, sluin by Saul, A. M. 2944, 1 Sam. xxii. 17, 18. While Za- dok performed the functions of the priesthood with Saul, Ahimelech performed them with David ; so that, till the reign of Solomon, there wer«i two high- priests in Israel, Zadok, of the race of Eleazar, and Ahimelech, of the race of Ithamar, 2 Sam. viii. 17. See Eli, and Abiathar. When David was forced to leave Jerusalem by the rebellion of his son Absalom, Zadok and Abiathar would have accompanied him with the ark of the Lord, (2 Sam. xv. 24.) but the king would not per- mit them. To Zadok he said, O seer, return into the city with Ahimaash your son, and let Abiathar and his son Jonathan return also. I will conceal myself in the country, till you send me news of what passeb'. Zadok and Abiathar returned, therefore, to Jerusalem ; but their two sons, Ahimaash and Jonathan, hid them- selves near the fountain of Rogel ; and when Hushai, the friend of David, had defeated the counsel of Ahitophel, they communicated this event to David. Subsequently, Zadok counteracted the party of Ado- nijah, who aspired at the kingdom, to the exclusion of Solomon, (1 Kings i. 5 — 10, &c.) and David sent Zadok with Nathan, and the chief officers of his court, to give the royal unction to Solomon, and to proclaim him king instead of his father. After the death of David, Solomon excluded Abiathar from the high-priesthood, because of his adherence to the party of Adonijah ; and Zadok was high-priest alone, 1 Kings ii. 35. It is not known when he died ; but his successor was his son Ahimaash, who enjoyed the high-priesthood under Rehoboam.


ZALMONAH, an encampment of Israel in the desert, (Numb, xxxiii. 41.) where, as some think, Moses set up the brazen serpent.


ZAMZUMMIM, ancient giants who dwelt beyond Jordan, in the country afterwards inhabited by the Ammonites, Deut. ii. 20. See Anakim.


ZARAH, son of Judah and Tamar, Gen. xxxviii 28, 29. He had five sons, Ethan, Zimri, Heman, Calcol and Dara.


ZARED, or Zered, a brook beyond Jordan, on the frontier of Moab, which falls into the Dead sea. See Zered.


ZAREPHATH, a city of the Sidonians, between Tyre and Sidon, in Phoenicia, on the coast of the Mediterranean sea, and afterwards called Sarepta. It is between Tyre and Sidon, and was the residence of the prophet Elijah, with a poor woman, during a famine in the land of Israel, 1 Kings xvii. 9, 10.


ZARETAN, a town in the land of Manasseh, on this side Jordan, called Zartanah, in 1 Kings iv. 12. It is said to be near Beth Shen, which was in the northern limits of Manasseh. From Adam to Zaretan, the waters dried up, (Josh. iii. 16.) from Zaretan upwards, they stood on a heap. The brazen vessels for the temple were cast in the clay ground between Zaretan and Succoth, 1 Kings vii. 46. is taken, (1.) For the eagerness with [ 939 ] which any thing is pursued : " I have been very jealous (or zealous) for the Lord God of hosts," 1 Kings xix. 10, 14. I burn with zeal for his honor. " Phinehas was zealous for his God, and made an atonement for the children of Israel," Numb. xxv. 13. Judith says that Simeon and his brethren were filled with the zeal of the Lord, to revenge the injury done to their sister, Judith ix. 4. — (2.) Zeal is put for anger : (2 Kings xix. 31.) " the zeal of the Lord of hosts shall do this :" that is, his anger. Ps. lxxix. 5, " How long, Lord ? wilt thou be angry for ever ? shall thy jealousy (or zeal) burn like fire ?" The whole land shall be devoured by the fire of his jealousy, or zeal, Zeph. i. 18 ; iii. 8. Zeal, Judgment of, see Judgment, ad Jin. The Idol of Zeal (Ezek. viii. 3, 5.) was Adonis ; called the idol of jealousy, because he was beloved by Venus ; and therefore Mars, stimulated by jeal- ousy, sent a wild boar against him, which killed him. I«n pursuing the discourse of Ezekiel, we see that the same idol, which at the fifth verse is called the idol of jealousy, ;s called Tliammuz at the fourteenth verse. See Adonis.


ZARETH-SHAHAR, a city of Reuben, beyond Jordan, Josh. xiii. 19.


ZEBEDEE, father of the apostles James, and John the evangelist, was a fisherman by profession. His wife was called Salome, and his two sons left him to follow our Saviour, Matt. iv. 21.


ZEBUL, governor of the city of Shechem for Abimelech, son of Gideon, Judg. ix. 28.


ZECHARIAH, see Zachariaii.


ZEDAD, a city of Syria, in the most northern part of the Land of Promise, Numb, xxxiv. 8; Ezek. xlvii. 15.


ZEER, a prince of Midian, was found at a wine- press, and slain by the Ephraimitcs, who sent his head to Gideon beyond Jordan, whither they pursued their enemies, Judg. vii. 25.


ZELAH, a city of Benjamin, (Josh, xviii. 28.) where Saul was buried in the tomb of his father Kish, 2 Sam. xxi. 14.


ZELOTES, a surname given to Simon the Ca- naanite, one of the apostles. It signifies, properly, one passionately ardent in any cause, a zealot, as in Titus ii. 14, in the Greek. Thus, among the ancient Hebrews, those who, from zeal for the institutions of their religion, reproved or punished such as commit- ted offences against them, were said to be itfi.arrai, zealots. (Comp. Numb. xxv. (3 — 13 ; 1 Mace. ii. 40.) In the age of Christ and the apostles, this name was applied particularly to an extensive association of private individuals, who undertook to maintain the purity of the national worship, by inflicting pun- ishment without the form of trial on all who should violate any of the institutions, Sec. which they held sacred. They were impelled, as they said, by a more than human zeal ; and were certainly guilty of the greatest excesses and crimes. (See Jos. B. J. iv. 6. 3. vii. 8. 1. Jahn, § 321.) The name Zelotes was, therefore, probably given to Simon from the circumstance of his having been one of the Zelotse. The name Canaanite, or more properly Cananite, is also most probably here of the same signification, being derived from the Heb. njp, Chald. |Njp, which is entirely equivalent in meaning to Zelotes. *R.


ZENAS, a doctor of the law, and disciple of Paul, Tit. hi. 13.


ZEPHATH, a city of Simeon, (Judg. i. 17.) prob- ably the same as Zephathah, near Mareshah, in the south of Judah, 2 Chron. xiv. 10. It was called Hor- mah, or Anathema, after the victory obtained by Is- rael over the king of Arad, Numb. xxi. 3 ; Judg. i. 17.


ZEPHATHAH, the Valley of, near Mareshah, is mentioned 2 Chron. xiv. 10. It was, perhaps, near Zephath, or Hormah ; or, perhaps, it should be read Shephalah, instead of Zephathah.


ZERAH, king of Ethiopia, or Cush, in Arabia Pe- traea, on the Red sea, and bordering on Egypt, (2 Chron. xiv. 9.) came to attack Asa, king of Judah, with- an army of a million of foot, (see Armies,) .and three hundred chariots of war. Asa went out to meet him, and set his army in battle array in the valley of Zephathah, near Mareshah. He called on the Lord, who cast terror and consternation into the hearts of the Ethiopians, so that they ran away. Asa and his army pursued them to Gerar, and obtained a great booty. See, however, in Pharaoh, p. 742.


ZERED, or Zared, a brook or torrent which takes its rise in the mountains of Moab, and, running from east to west, falls into the Dead sea. It seems to be the stream which Burckhardt calls Wady Beni Hammad, south of the Arnon, and about five hours north of Kerek, the ancient Charak Moab, Numb. xxi. 12; Deut. ii. 13, 14.


ZERERATH, a city in Manasseh, not far irom Bethshan, Judg. vii. 22. Also called Zereda, 1 Kings xi. 26, and Zeredetha, 2 Chron. iv. 17 ; perhaps also Zaretan, the narrow dwellings, Josh. iii. 16, 1 Kinga vii. 46, and Zaretanah, 1 Kings iv. 12. I L ,[ 041 ] OP ZER1, son of Jeduthun, the fourth among the twenty-four families of the Levites, which attended in the temple, 1 Chron. xxv. 3, 11.


ZERUBBABEL, or Zorobabel, son of Salathiel, of the royal race of David. Matthew (i. 12.) and the Chronicles (1 Chron. iii. 17, 19.) make Jeconiah, king of Judah, to be father of Salathiel, but they do not agree as to the father of Zerubbabel. The Chron- icles say Pedaiah was father of Zerubbabel ; but Matthew, Luke, Esdras and Haggai constantly make Salathiel his father. We must, therefore, take the name of son in the sense of grandson, and say that Salathiel having educated Zerubbabel, he was always afterwards considered as his father. Some think that Zerubbabel had also the name of Sheshbazzar, and that he is so called, Ezra i. 8. Josephus and the first book of Esdras describe him as one of the three famous body-guards of Darius, son of Hystas- pes ; but this must be a mistake, for he returned to Jerusalem long before the reign of Darius, son of Hystaspes. Cyrus committed to his care the sacred vessels of the temple, with which he returned to Jerusalem, Ezra i. 11. He is always named first, as being chief of the Jews that returned to their own country, Ezra ii. 2; iii. 8; v. 2. He laid the foundations of the temple, (Ezra iii. 8, 9 ; Zech. iv. 9, &c.) and restored the worship of the Lord, and the usual sacrifices. When the Samaritans offered to assist in rebuilding the temple, Zerubbabel and the principal men of Judah refused them this honor, since Cyrus had granted his commission to the Jews only, Ezra iv. 2, 3. When the Lord showed the prophet Zachariah two olive-trees, near the golden candlestick with seven branches, the angel sent to explain this vision informed the prophet, that these two olive-trees, which supplied oil to the great candlestick, were Ze- rubbabel, the prince, and Joshua, the high-priest, son of Josedech. Scripture says nothing of the death ?of Zerubbabel, but it informs us, (1 Chron. iii. 19.) that he left seven sons and one daughter. These were Meshullam, Hananiah and Shelomith, their sister; Hashuba, Ohel, Berechiah, Hasadiah and Jushabhesed. Matthew (i. 13.) makes the name of one of his sons to be Abiud, and Luke (iii. 27.) makes it Rhesa. Consequently, one of the sons of Zerubbabel, above enumerated, must have had more than one name. See Adoption.

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