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COMPREHENSIVE CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA
Edward Robinson

[1]

WAFER

WAFER, in Scripture, a thin cake of fine flour, which was used in various offerings, anointed with oil, Ex. xxix. 2, 23; Lev. ii. 4; vii. 12; Num. vi. 15. R.

WAGES

WAGES, reward for service performed. The wages, the reward, the deserved retribution, of sin is death, Rom. vi. 23.

WAGON

WAGON, see Chariot.

WALK

WALK, WALKING. This word, in Hebrew, signifies, not merely to proceed or advance, step by step, steadily, but to proceed with increased velocity : it signifies to swell out louder a musical note or voice, a crescendo, as musicians term it ; and so, generally, to augment a moderate pace till it acquires rapidity. Under this idea, examine Isa. xl. 31 : " The youths shall faint and grow weary, the young men shall ut- terly fail of their power ; but they who wait on the Lord shall renew strength ; shall mount up with wings as eagles ; they shall run and not be weary, they shall walk, shall increase their swiftness, aug- ment their velocity, and not faint." The passage re- quires the admission of some idea to this effect, since walking after running is an anti-climax, and there- fore could not be the poetical prophet's meaning. To walk signifies the conduct of life, the general course of a party, his deportment, demeanor, &c. To worship and serve God truly, is to walk before him. Enoch walked with God, maintained and in- creased in piety towards him ; so did Noah. God promises to walk with his people, and his people de- sire his influence, that they may walk in his statutes. The pestilence is said to walk in darkness, spread-, ing its ravages by night as well as by day. God is said to walk on the wings of the wind, and the heart of man to walk after detestable things. To walk in darkness, (1 John i. 6, 7.) is to be misled by error; to walk in the light, is to be well informed; to walk by faith, is to expect the things promised or threatened, and to maintain a conduct accordingly; to walk after the flesh, is to gratify fleshly appetites; to walk after the spirit, is to pursue spiritual objects, to cultivate spiritual affections, to be spiritually mind- ed, which is life and peace.

WALL

WALL, an enclosure or separation. (See Fence.) The Lord tells the prophet Jeremiah, (i. 18 ; xv. 20.) that he will make him as a wall of brass, to with- stand the house of Israel. Paul says, (Eph. ii. 14.) that Christ, by his death, broke down the partition- wall that separated us from God, or rather the wall that separated Jew and Gentile ; so that these two people, when converted, may make but one. WAR. The Hebrews were formerly one of the most warlike nations in the world. The books that relate their wars are by neither flattering authors, nor ignorant, but inspired by the spirit of truth and wisdom. Their warriors were not fabulous heroes, but, commonly, wise and valiant generals, raised up by God, to fight the battles of the Lord ; such were Joshua, Gideon, Jephtbah, Samson, David, the Maccabees, &c. Their wars were not undertaken on slight occasions, nor performed with a handful of people. Under Joshua the affair was no less than the conquest of a country, allotted, by God, to Israel, from several powerful nations, who were devoted to an anathema ; to vindicate an offended Deity, and human nature, debased by wicked and corrupt people of different nations, which had filled up the measure of their iniquities. Under the Judges, the purpose was to assert their liberty, by shaking off the yoke of powerful kings, who kept them in subjection. Under Saul and David, to these motives were added that of subduing such provinces as God had promised to his people. [ 923 ] In the latter times of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, we find their kings bearing the shock of the greatest powers of Asia, the kings of Assyria and Chaldea, Shalmaneser, Sennacherib, Esar-Haddon and Nebuchadnezzar, who made the whole East to tremble. Under the Maccabees, the business was, with a handful of men, to oppose the whole power of the kings of Syria, to uphold the religion of their fathers, and to free themselves from the despotism which designed to subvert both their religion and liberty. In the last times of their nation, with what courage, intrepidity and constancy did they sustain the war against the Romans, then masters of the world ! Under Moses and Joshua, the Israelites were all soldiers, and men bearing arms. They came out of Egypt in number 600,000 fighting men. When Joshua entered Canaan, he fought sometimes with detachments, and sometimes with his whole army. To signalize his omnipotence, and to humble the pride of man, God often gave victory to very small armies. For example, under Gideon, when he ordered that general to dismiss the greater part of his attendants, and only to keep with him three hun- dred men, with which he defeated an innumerable multitude of Midianites and Amalekites. See Ar- mies. We may distinguish two kinds of wars among the Hebrews. Some were of obligation, being expressly commanded by the Lord ; others were free and volun- tary. The first were such as those against the Amale- kites, and the intrusive and wicked Canaanites, nations devoted to an anathema. The others were to avenge injuries, insults, or offences against the nation. Such was that against the city of Gibeah, and against the tribe of Benjamin ; and such was that of David against the Ammonites, whose king had insulted his ambassadors. Or they were to maintain and defend their allies, as that of Joshua against the kings of the Canaanites, to protect Gibeon. In fact, the laws of Moses suppose that Israel might make war, and oppose enemies. The first law of war is, that it should be declared to the enemy, and that reparation should be demand- ed for the wrong supposed to have been suffered, before the enemy is attacked, Deut. xx. 10, 11, &c. In the sacred writings, we have several examples of defiance, challenge, or declaration of war ; and com- plaints of those who were attacked, without having had war formally declared. When the Ammonites by surprise attacked the Israelites beyond Jordan, Jeph- thah sent to inquire of them, " What hast thou to do with me, that thou art come against rne, to fight in my land ?" &c. Judg. xi. 12. When the Philis- tines entered the territory of Judah, to avenge them- selves for the fire that Samson, had put to their corn, the men of Judah came out to inquire of them, "Why are ye come up against us ?" Judg. xv. 10, &c. They answered, they had no quarrel against any but Samson, who had destroyed their fields. The men of Judah promised to deliver up the guilty person, and the Philistines retired. Ainaziah, king of Judah, puffed up with some advantages he had obtained over the Edomites, sent a challenge to Joash, king of Israel, saying, "Come, let us look one another in the face," 2 Kings xiv. 8—10. But the king of Is- rael, without disquieting himself about it, sent him a parable in answer : Amaziah would not hearken to his advice, and Judah was beaten. Benhadad, king of Syria, came with his army before Samaria, and sent to declare war against Ahab, king of Israel, say- ing, "Thy silver and thy gold is mine ; thy v\ ves, also, and thy children, even the goodliest are mino." 1 Kings xx. 1, 3. Ahab at first submitted, but Ben- hadad becoming more arrogant, Ahab determined to resist him, and the Syrian failed of his purpose. When a war was resolved upon, all the people capable of bearing arms were assembled, or only part of them, according to the exigence of the case, and the necessity and importance of the enterprise ; for it does not appear, that before the reign of David there were any regular troops in Israel. A general rendezvous was appointed, and a review made of the people by tribes, and by families. When Saul, at the beginning of his reign, was informed of the cruel proposal made by the Ammonites to Jabesh- Gilead, he cut in pieces the oxen belonging unto his plough-team, and sent dissevered members through the country, saying, "Whosoever cometh not forth after Saul and Samuel, to the relief of Jabesh-Gilead, so shall it be done unto his oxen," 1 Sam. xi. 1. (See Covenant.) After this he marched to meet the ene- my. When the children of Israel had heard of the crime committed by the inhabitants of Gibeah, against the wife of the Levite of Bethlehem, (Judg. xx. 8.) they resolved not to return to their houses till they had adequately punished it. They consulted the Lord, who appointed the tribe of Judah to lead the enterprise. They chose ten men out of every hundred, to bring provisions to the army, after which they proceeded to action. In ancient times, those who went to war common- ly carried their own provisions with them ; hence the wars were generally of short continuance. When David, Jesse's younger son, staid behind to look after his father's flocks, while his elder brothers ac- companied Saul in the army, he was sent by Jesse with provisions to his brothers, 1 Sam. xvii. 13. Each one also provided his own arms ; for the kings did not begin to form magazines of warlike imple- ments till the time of David. The Officers of War were, (1.) The generalissimo of the armies, or the military prince, such as Abner under Saul, Joab under David, and Benaiah under Solomon. (2.) The princes of the tribes, or princes of the fathers, or of the families of Israel, who were at the head of their tribes. (3.) Princes of a thou- sand, or tribunes, captains of a hundred, heads of fifty men ; also decurions, or chiefs of ten men. (4.) Shopherim, scribes or writers, a kind of commissa- ries, who kept the muster-roll of the troops ; and, (5.) Shoterim, or inspectors, who had authority to com- mand the troops under their inspection. Machines of War, proper for besieging cities and fortresses, are of comparatively late invention. They are not mentioned in Homer ; and Diodorus Siculus observes, (lib. ii. p. 80.) that Sardanapalus, king of Assyria, sustained a siege of seven years in Nineveh ; because at that time machines fit for demolishing and taking cities were not invented. But about the same time we read, that Uzziah, king of Judah, had stored up in his magazines "shields, and spears, and helmets, habergeons, and bows, and slings to cast stones." And that " he made in Jerusalem engines invented by cunning men, to be on the towers, and upon the bulwarks, to shoot arrows and great stones and his name spread far abroad, for he was marvel- lously helped, till he was strong," 2 Chron. xxvi. 14, 15. Here we have, perhaps, the first instance of machines of wai - , or, at least, of a collected armory of them. About seventy years after, in the sieges of Tyre and Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar used batter [ 924 ] ing ams and slings. The Hebrew -a, car, (Ezek. iv. 1 -j; xxi. 22.) in Greek Kqios, which Scripture uses v.o express this machine, signifies a real ram; by- metaphor a machine, with which they battered down gates and walls of cities. Ezekiel, (xxvi. 8, 9.) speaking of this siege, alludes to the ancient manner of besieging places : " He shall slay with the sword thy daughters in the field, and he shall make a fort against thee, and cast a mount against thee, and lift up the buckler against thee. And he shall set en- signs of war against thy walls, and with his axes he shall break down thy towers." When the ancients besieged a place, they usually surrounded it with mounds, towers and trenches, that the besieged might neither make sallies, nor re- ceive succors from without. To lift up the buckler may intimate what the Romans called facere testudi- nem, to make a tortoise ; when they caused their sol- diers to close each other to join their bucklers, in the form of a tortoise, in order to sap the walls, to beat down gates, or to burn them. The engines of war here mentioned, or machines of cords, were the Ba- listae, or Catapulta?, used for casting stones or darts ; or great hooks fastened to cords, and thrown on the tops of walls, to tear them down. Of these iron hooks or fangs, may be understood 2 Sam. xvii. 13 : " If he be got into a city, then shall all Israel bring ropes to that city, and we will draw it into the river, until there be not one small stone found there." But besides open and violent modes of attack, the besiegers, whenever it was possible, practised the less evident, but not less fatal, method, of sapping and undermining the walls of a city: the besieged, on their part, also, adopted the same mode for pur- poses of resistance, with design of ruining the works of their adversaries; or of issuing from the city, either for sudden attack on their enemies, or for escape from the consequences of the siege, when they considered resistance as desperate. We have a history of such an attempt at escaping in Zedekiah, (Jer. xxxix. 4.) " who fled and went forth out of the city by night, by the way of the king's gardens, by the gate between the two walls:" but he was over- taken. In 2 Kings xxv. 4, it is said, " all the men of war fled by night, by the way of the gate between two walls, which is by the king's gardens (now the Chaldees were against the city round about)." — Should not this rather be understood, " by the rough, rugged way, or track, between two walls ;" that is, one wall below the other, around a part of the king's gardens ; rather " between the defences," that is, of the city, in that part of the works of defence which went round the king's gardens ; for, as the Chaldeans surrounded the city, they would certainly watch every gate ; and Zedekiah would hardly have chosen to issue by a regular and customary passage, since he wished for secrecy, and to screen himself from observation ; in which, apparently, he in some degree succeeded. Thus understood, the history will agree with the figurative representation of it by Ezekiel : (chap. xii. 7.) " I brought forth my stuff, baggage, by day, as baggage for going into captivity ; and in the evening, at twilight, I digged through the wall with mine own hand : I brought it — my baggage — forth, in the twi- light : I bare it upon my shoulder," see verse 12. In like manner, Zedekiah passed over the precipices, or steps, and digged through a part of the defences of his city ; and endeavored to escape at this breach made by his own hands, or his own order in his own fortification. Probal'ly, too, Zedekiah carried about his person whatever of valuables he could convcv from his palace ; so that the resemblance to Ezekiel, in loading himself with baggage, was nearly, or alto- gether, perfect. It might be more complete than we are aware of, if Zedekiah digged through the wall of any part of his palace, as Ezekiel did of his house ; in which we see no improbability ; .and he might also have a subterraneous passage of some length, before he issued from the wall into any open place.

WASHING

WASHING, purification. See Baptism. of Feet. See under Foot, and Sandals. of Hands was very frequent among the Hebrews. See Baptism. Children were washed immediately after their birth. See Birth.

WATCH

WATCH, a period of time. See Hour. denote, metaphorically, (1.) posterity, Numb. xxiv. 7 ; Prov. v. 15, 16 ; Isa. xlviii. 1. — (2.) indefinitely, a large concourse of people, Rev. xvii. 15. Strange waters, stolen waters, (Prov. ix. 17.) denote unlawful pleasure with strange women. The Israel- ites are reproached with having forsaken the fountain of living water, to quench their thirst at broken cisterns ; (Jer. ii. 13.) i. e. with having quitted the worship of God for that of false and abominable deities. Waters sometimes denote afflictions and misfor- tunes, Lain. hi. 54 ; Ps. Ixix. 1 ; c.xxiv. 4, 5 ; cxvii. 16. Living ivaters, spring waters, running waters, streams ; in opposition to waters that stagnate in a cistern, or in a lake, which are dead waters. As in Scripture, bread is put for all sorts of food, or solid nourishment, so water is used for all sorts of drink. The Moabites and Ammonites are reproach- ed for not meeting the Israelites with bread and water, that is, with proper refreshments, Deut. xxiii. 4. Nabal says, insulting David's messengers, "Shall then take my bread and my water, and my flesh that 1 have killed for my shearers, and give it unto men, whom I know not whence they be ?" 1 Sam. xxv. 11. In Deut. xi. 10, it is said, the land of Canaan is not like Egypt, " where thou sowest thy seed, and waterest it with thy foot." Palestine is a country which has rains, plentiful dews, springs, rivulets and brooks, which supply the earth with the moisture necessary to its fruitfulness ; whereas Egypt has no river but the Nile ; and as it seldom rains, the lands which are not within reach of the inundation, con- tinue parched and barren. To supply this warn, ditches are dug, and water is distributed throughout the several villages and cantons, by the help of ma- chines ; one of which Philo describes as a wheel which a man turns with the motion of his feet, by ascending successively the several steps that are within it. But as, while he is thus continually turn- ing, he cannot keep himself up, he holds a stay in his hands, which is not movable, and this supports him ; so that in this work, the hands do the office of the feet, and the feet that of the hands.

WEDDING

WEDDING, see Marriage. WEEK. Among the Hebrews there were three kinds of weeks : (1.) Weeks of days, reckoned from one sabbath to another. [The Jews were accustom- ed, instead of the term week, to make use of the ex- pression eight days ; just as the Germans do at the present day ; and just as we also say fortnight (i. e. fourteen nights) instead of two weeks. This remark serves to illustrate John xx. 26, where the disciples [ 925 ] C are said to have met again after " eight days," i. e. evi- dently after a week, on the eighth day after our Lord's resurrection. R.] (2.) Weeks of years, reck- oned from one sabbattical year to another, and con- sisting of seven years. (3.) Weeks of seven times seven years, or of forty-nine years, reckoned from one jubilee to another.

WEEPING

WEEPING, see Funeral. WEIGHTS. The Hebrews weighed all the gold and silver they used in trade. The shekel, the half- shekel, the talent, are not only denominations of moneys, of certain values, in gold and silver, but also of certain weights. The Weight of the Sanctuary, or Weight of the Temple, (Exod. xxx. 13, 24 ; Lev. v. 15 ; Numb. iii. 50 ; vii. 19 ; xviii. 16, &c.) was probably the standard weight, preserved in some apartment of the temple, and not a different weight from the common shekel ; (1 Chron. xxiii. 29.) for though Moses appoints, that all things valued by their price in silver should be rated by the weight of the sanctuary, (Lev. xxvii. 25.) he makes no dif- ference between this shekel of twenty oboli, or twenty gerahs, and the common shekel. Ezekiel, (xlv. 12.) speaking of the ordinary weights and meas- ures used in traffic among the Jews, says, that the shekel weighed twenty oboli, or gerahs : — it was therefore equal to the weight of the sanctuary. Neither Josephus, nor Philo, nor Jerome, nor any ancient author, speaks of a distinction between the weights of the temple and those in common use. Besides, the custom of preserving the standards of weights and measures in temples is not peculiar to the Hebrews. The Egyptians, as Clemens Alexan- drinus informs us, had an officer in the college of priests, whose business it was to examine all sorts of measures, and to take care of the originals ; the Ro- mans had the same custom. Fannius, de Amphora ; and the emperor Justinian decreed, that standards of weights and measures should be kept in Christian churches. The following are the Jewish weights reduced to Troy :— lb.- ra. dwts. gs. The Gerah, the 20th part of a shekel, . 12. The Bekah, half a shekel, 5 0. The Shekel, 10 0. The Maneh, 60 shekels, 2 6 0. The Talent, 50 maneh, or 3000 shekels, 125 0. iveight of glory, of which Paul speaks, (2 Cor. iv. 17.) is opposed to the lightness of the evils of this life. The troubles we endure are really of no more weight than a feather, or of no weight at all, if com- pared to the weight or intenseness of that glory, which shall be hereafter a compensation for them. In addition to this, it is probable the apostle had in view the double meaning of the Hebrew word cabod, which signifies not only weight, but glory : glory, that is, splendor, is in this world the lightest thing in nature ; but in the other world it may be real, at once substantial and radiant.

WELLS

WELLS, or Springs, are frequently mentioned in Scripture. The Hebrews call a well beer; whence this word is often compounded with proper names, as Beer-sheba, Beeroth-bene-jaakan, Beeroth, Beerah, &c. How little do the people of this country under- stand feehngly those passages of Scripture which speak of want of water, of paying for that necessary fluid, and of the strife for such a valuable articlp as a well 1 So we read, " Abraham reproved .Abim elech, because of a well of water, which Abimelech'a servants had violently taken away," Gen. xxi. 25. So, chap. xxvi. 20, "The herdsmen of Gerar did strive with Isaac's herdsmen ; and he called the well Ezek, contention." — To what extremities contention about a supply of water may proceed, we learn from the following extracts: — "Our course lay along shore, betwixt the main land and a chain of little islands, with which, as likewise with rocks and shoals, the sea abounds in this part ; and for that reason, it is the practice with all these vessels to anchor every evening : we generally brought up close to the shore, and the land-breeze springing up about midnight, wafted to us the perfumes of Arabia, with which it was strongly impregnated, and very fragrant; the latter part of it earned us off in the morning, and continued till eight, when it generally fell calm for two or three hours, and after that the northerly wind set in, after obliging us to anchor under the lee of the land by noon. It happened that one morning, when we had been driven by stress of weather into a small bay, called Birk bay, the coun- try around it being inhabited by the Budoes, [Be- doweens,] the Noquedah sent his people on shore to get water, for which it is always customary to pay. The Budoes were, as the people thought, rather too exor- bitant in their demands, and not choosing to comply with them, returned to make their report to their master. On hearing it, rage immediately seized him, and, determined to have the water on his own terms, or perish in the attempt, he buckled on his armor, and attended by his myrmidons, carrying their match- lock guns and lances, being twenty in number, they rowed to the land. My Arabian servant, who went on shore with the fust party, and saw that the Bu- does were disposed for fighting, told me that I should certainly see a battle. I accordingly looked on very anxiously, hoping that the fortune of the day would be on the side of my friends ; but Heaven ordained it otherwise ; for, after a parley of about a quarter of an hour, with which the Budoes amused them till near a hundred were assembled, they proceeded to the attack, and routed the sailors, who made a pre- cipitate retreat, the Noquedah and two others having fallen in the action, and several being wounded ; they contrived, however, to bring off their dead," &c. (Major Rooke's Travels from India to England, page 52.) This extract especially illustrates the passage in Numb. xx. 17, 19 : — " We will not drink of the water of the wells : — If I and my cattle drink of thy water, then will I pay for if."— This is always expected ; and though Edom might, in friendship, have let his brother Israel drink gratis, had he recollected their consanguinity, yet Israel did not insist on such ac- commodation. How strange would it sound among us, if a person in travelling should propose to pay for drinking water from the wells by the road-side ! Nevertheless, still stronger is the expression, Lam. v. 4 : " We have drank our own water for money ;" we bought it of our foreign rulers, although we were the natural proprietors of the wells which furnish- ed it. is the principal and most valuable I ind of grain for the service of man, and is produced in almost any part of the world. It is comprehended under the" general name of grain or corn. See Corn.

WICKED

WICKED, vicious, sinful. " The wicked one," taken absolutely, is generally put for the devil ? " He- [ 926 ] liver us from the wicked or evil one" (Matt. vi. 13.); " Tlien corneth the wicked one, and catcheth away that which was sown in his heart," Matt. xiii. 19. The evil day (Ephes. vi. 13.) is the day of temptation, or trial ; the day in which one is most in danger of doing evil. The evil eye signifies jealousy, envy, or sordid niggardliness, being opposed to liberality and charity. Or it may denote a grudging or malign as- pect. In the East, they believe the eye to have great powers of striking the party looked on ; and perhaps the phrase alludes to this: a mischievous, malignant, injurious direction of the eye ; eye-shot, as our poets speak, "darting malignant fires." WIDOW. Widowhood, as well as barrenness, was a kind of shame and reproach in Israel. Isaiah (liv. 4.) says, "Thou shalt forget the shame of thy youth, [passed in celibacy and barrenness,] and shalt not remember the reproach of thy widowhood any more." It was presumed, that a woman of merit and reputation might have found a husband, either in the family of her deceased husband, if he died childless, (sec .Marriage,) or in some other family, if he had left children. It is true, indeed, that a widow was commended, who, from affection to her first husband, declined a second marriage, and con- tinued in mourning and widowhood, as was the case of Judith. It was thought the greatest misfortune that could happen to .a man, to die, and not be bewailed by his widow ; that is, without receiving the solemn hon- ors of sepulture, of which the tears and praises of the widow made a chief part. The wicked and his children shall die, says Job, " and their widows shall not mourn for them," (chap, xxvii. 15.) and the psalmist, speaking of the lamentable death of Hophni and Phinehas, observes, as a great disaster, that they were not bewailed by their widows, Ps. lxxviii. 64. God frequently recommends to his people to be very careful in relieving the widow and orphan, Exod. xxii. 22 ; Deut. x. 18 ; xiv. 29, et passim. Paul would have us honor widows that are widows in- deed, and desolate ; (1 Tim. v. 3, &c.) that is, the bishop should have a great regard for them, and sup- ply them in their necessity ; for this is often signified by the verb to honor. God forbids his high-priest to marry a woman who is either a widow, or divorced, Lev. xxi. 14. Formerly there were widows in the Christian church, who, because of their poverty, were placed on the list of persons to be provided for at the ex- pense of the church. There were others, who had certain employments in the church ; as, to visit sick women, to assist women at baptism, and to do several things which decency would not permit to the other sex. Paul did not allow any woman to be chosen into this number, unless she were threescore years old, at least, 1 Tim. v. 9. Such must have been mar- ried but once ; must have produced sufficient testi- mony of their good works ; must have given good education to their children ; must have exercised hospitality, washed the feet of the saints, and bestow- ed succor on the miserable and afflicted.. He for- bids that young widows should be admitted among these, or, at least, among such as were on the church list for maintenance.

WILDERNESS

WILDERNESS, see Desert. WILL. Besides the common acceptation of this word, to signify that faculty of willing, with which we are endued ; that is, of choosing, desiring and loving, it is taken, (1.) For the absolute and immu- table will of God, which nothing can withstand, Rom. ix. 19 ; Gen. 1. 19, 20 ; Isa. xlvi. 10. (2 ) For a will not absolute and immutable ; as when Christ desired that the cup of his passion might pass from him, if such had been the will of God, Matt. xxvi. 39. It is not the will of God, that the wicked should perish : (Ezek. xviii. 23.) " Have I any pleasure at all that the wicked should die, saith the Lord God, and not that he should turn from his ways and live ?" But if he determine to perish, and refuse to be con- verted, God is not obliged to interpose, and to hinder him from perishing against his will. (3.) To do the will of God is put for keeping his law, submitting to his authority, Matt. vii. 21 ; xii. 50. Paul says, (Heb. x. 26.) "If we sin willingly, there remains no other sacrifice for sin." In the old law, sacrifices for the expiation of offences committed against the ceremo- nies of the law, were repeated as often as those offences were acknowledged. But, under the new law, those who fall voluntarily and wilfully into great crimes, are not to expect that Christ will come to die for thern again: he died but once, and is not to die any more ; neither is there to be any succeeding me- diator. Those who fall into great crimes, it is true, may always hope for pardon, or may return and re- pent ; but this remedy and this return are not easy. By those voluntary crimes mentioned by Paul, many understand final impenitence, hardness of heart, de- spair, or the sin against the Holy Spirit.

WILLOW

WILLOW, a very common tree, which grows in marshy places, with a leaf much like that of the olive God commanded the Hebrews to take branches of the handsomest trees, particularly of the willows of the brook, and to bear them in their hands before the Lord, as a token of rejoicing, at the Feast of Taber- nacles, Lev. xxiii. 40.

WIMPLE

WIMPLE, a veil or hood. But the Hebrew nn=iao signifies, properly, a broad and large mantle or shawl. So in Ruth iii. 15, Boaz gives Ruth six meas- ures of barley, which she carries away in her mit- pahhath or mantle, not veil as in the English transla- tion. So in Isa. iii. 22. R. WINDS. [From the Calendar of Palestine, by Buhle, inserted under the article Canaan, (p. 240,) it appears, that the winds which most commonly pre- vail in Palestine are from the western quarter, more usually, perhaps from the south-west. This is also supported by the reports of intelligent travellers. The Rev. E. Smith, American missionary in the East, now (July 1832) on a visit to his native country, re- cently confirmed this statement to the writer; remark- ing, also, that a north wind not unfrequently arises, which, as in ancient days, is still the sure harbinger of fair weather ; illustrating the truth of the observation in Prov. xxv. 23, " The north wind driveth away rain." (For the tempestuous wind called Euroclydon, see that article.) But the principal object which we have here in view is the Kddim or East Wind of the Scriptures, which is represented as blasting and drying up the fruits, (Gen. xli. 6; Ezek. xvii. 10; xix. 12, &c.) and also as blowing with great violence, Ps. xlviii. 7; Ezek. xxvii. 26; Jonah iv. 8, &c. It is also the " horrible tempest," properly glow-wind, pepSx, of Ps. xi. 6. This is a sultry and oppressive wind blowing from the south-east, and prevailing only in the hot and dry months of summer. Coming thus from the vast Arabian desert, it seems to increase the heat and drought of the season, and produces universal lan guor and relaxation. Mr. Smith, who experienced its effects during the summer, at Beyrout, describes it as possessing the same qualities and characteristics. [ 927 ] as the Sirocco which he had felt at Malta, and which also prevails in Sicily and Italy ; except that the Si- rocco, in passing over the sea, acquires great damp- ness. The Sirocco is described by Brydone, as re- sembling a blast of burning steam from the mouth of an oven ; in a few minutes those exposed to it find every fibre relaxed in an extraordinary manner. This wind is more or less violent, and of longer or shorter duration at different times ; seldom lasting more than 36 or 40 hours ; and, notwithstanding its scorching heat, it has never been known to produce epidemical disorders, or to do any injury to the health of the people. These characteristics, except the dampness, apply entirely to the east wind of Pales- tine, which is dry and withering. Many interpreters, however, have chosen to refer the kdclim, or east wind of the Scriptures, to the oft described wind of the desert, called by the Arabs Simoom, (Semoom, Samoom, or Smoum,) by the Turks Samiel, and in Egypt Catnsin ; which has long re- tained the character of a pestilential wind, suddenly overtaking travellers and caravans in the deserts, and almost instantly destroying them by its poisonous and suffocating breath. The result, however of the re- searches of more modern and judicious travellers, seems to show, that the former accounts of the de- structive power of this wind have been, at least, much exaggerated ; and that the authors of these accounts either had their credulity imposed upon by the Arabs, or else have described certain facts in such a way, as to impart to them a coloring and cause them to make an impression, which the naked facts themselves would not warrant. Among writers of this class, we may probably reck- on with justice Mr. Bruce and sir R. K. Porter. The latter has every where given the first accounts which he received from by-standers, as matters of fact; without ever seeming himself to have any question of their correctness, and usually without even indi- cating that they are not matters of his own personal knowledge or experience. In 1830 and 1831, Messrs. Smith and Dwight, American missionaries, travelled in Armenia over much of the same ground as this writer ; and they do not hesitate to affirm that his accounts are, in general, to be received with great dis- trust, and that not a few of his statements are in direct variance with the reality. In regard to Mr. Bruce, it is well known, that his book was generally considered, on the first appearance of it, as a mere ro- mance ; later travellers, however, have confirmed the accuracy of his general accounts, i. e. they have estab- lished the fact, that his work has a broad basis of truth at the bottom ; while it is well understood, that in filling up the details he drew largely from his im- agination; — not perhaps with the design of stating any thing which he did not suppose to be true ; but partly in consequence of that tendency to exaggera- tion and high coloring, which is the characteristic of so many minds ; and partly, no doubt, from the cir- cumstance, that his narrative was first written out, sixteen years after the events therein described, when the whole had become to him, in a measure, like a dream. Mr. Salt, in his Travels in Abyssinia, has produced some strong instances, on the part of Bruce, of aberration from strict veracity and manly frankness. After these prefatory remarks, we proceed to give the accounts of the Simoom as furnished by various travellers, placing that of sir R. K. Porter first, as being, although one of the latest, yet, probably, one of the most exaggerated. \t Bagdad, October 9, 1 r jl8, sir R. K. Porter informs us, (Travels, vol. ii. p. 229.) the master of the khan " told me, that they consider October the first month of their autumn, and feel it delightfully cool in com- parison with July, August and September; for that during forty days of the two first-named summer months, the hot wind blows from the desert, and its effects are often destructive. Its title is very appropriate, being called the Samiel, or Baude Semoom, the pestilential wind. It does not come in continued long currents, but in gusts at dif- ferent intervals, each blast lasting several minutes, and passing along with the rapidity of lightning. No one dare stir from their houses while this invisible flame is sweeping over the face of the country. Previous to its approach, the atmosphere becomes thick and suffocating, and appearing particularly dense near the horizon, gives sufficient warning of the threatened mischief. Though hostile to human life, it is so far from being prejudicial to the vegetable creation, that a continuance of the Samiel tends to ripen the fruits. inquired what became of the cattle during such a plague, and was told they were seldom touched by it. It seems strange that their lungs should be so perfectly insensible to what seems instant destruction to the breath of man ; but so it is, and they are regu- larly driven down to water at the customary times of day, even when the blasts are at the severest. The people who attend them are obliged to plaster their own faces and other parts of the body usually ex- posed to the air, with a sort of muddy clay, which in general protects them from its most malignant effects. The periods of the winds' blowing are generally from noon till sunset ; they cease almost entirely during the night ; and the direction of the gust is always from the north-east. When it has passed over, a sul- phuric, and indeed loathsome, smell, like putridity, remains for a long time. The poison which occa- sions this smell must be deadly ; for if any unfortu- nate traveller, too far from shelter, meet the blast, he falls immediately ; and, in a few minutes his flesh be- comes almost black, while both it and his bones at once arrive at so extreme a state of corruption, that the smallest movement of the body would separate the one from the other." It is but justice to sir R. K. Porter to say, that his- account of the Simoom tallies entirely with that given by Chardin in his Travels in Persia. Both travellers doubtless drew from similar sources — the stories of the common people. Chardin says, (Travels, vol. iii. p. 286. edit, of Langles,) that "this wind blows with a great noise, appears red and inflamed, and kills those persons whom it overtakes by a kind of" suffocation. The most remarkable effect of it is, not so much that it causes death, as that the bodies of those who are destroyed by it are dissolved or corrupted, without losing either their form or color; so that one would suppose, they were merely asleep ; but if he takes hold of a member, it separates from the body and remains in his hand." Chardin then relates sev- eral instances of this kind which he had heard of. The following extract is from D'Obsonville's " Es- says, &c. on the East : " " Some enlightened travellers have seriously written, that every individual who falls a victim to this infection, is immediately reduced to ashes, though apparently only asleep ; and that when taken hold of to be awakened by passengers, the limbs part from the body and remain in the hand. Such travellers would evidently not have taken these tales on hearsay, if they had paid a proper attention to other facts, which they either did, or ought to have heard. Experience proves, that animals, by pressing [ 928 1 their nostrils to the earth, and men, by covering their heads in their mantles, have nothing to fear from these meteors. This demonstrates the impossibility, that a poison, which can only penetrate the most del- icate parts of the brain or lungs, should calcine the skin, flesh, nerves and bones. I acknowledge these accounts are had from the Arabs themselves ; but their picturesque and extravagant expressions are a kind of imaginary coin, to know the true value of which requires some practice." " I have twice had an opportunity of considering the effect of these siphons, with some attention. I shall relate simply what I have seen in the case of a merchant and two travellers, who were struck during their sleep, and died on the spot. I ran to see if it was possible to afford them any succor, but they were already dead, the victims of an interior suffocating fire. There were apparent signs of the dissolution of their fluids ; a kind of serous matter issued from the nostrils, mouth and ears ; and in something more than an hour, the whole body was in the same state. However, as, according to their custom, they [the Arabs] were diligent to pay them the last duties of humanity, I cannot affirm that the putrefaction was more or less rapid than usual in that country. As to the meteor itself, it may be examined with impu- nity at the distance of three or four fathoms ; and the country people are only afraid of being surprised by it when they are asleep ; neither are such accidents very common, for these siphons are only seen during two or three months of the year; and as their approach is felt, the camp-guards and the people awake, are always very careful to rouse those that sleep, who also have a general habit of covering their faces with their mantles." All these accounts bear, upon the face of them, the stamp of exaggeration. But this is not all. Of the accounts of Chardin, Mr. Morier, well known as a judicious observer, remarks, in speaking of this very passage, (p. 63.) "On inquiry, we learned that the present inhabitants of these countries [around the Persian gulf] know nothing of the fatal effects of this wind upon those who are exposed to it, and of which this traveller [Chardin] adduces examples. The Sam-wind occasions great devastation in this region, as I was informed, and is especially destructive to the vegetation. About six years before, this wind blew during all the summer months, and scorched all the grain, then nearly ripe, in such a manner, that no ani- mal would touch a leaf or a kernel of it." This account is far more probable in itself, apart from the well-known character of the writer ; and it is also sustained by the following extract from the Journal of Mr. Jackson, who made the over-land journey from India to Eng- land in 1797. This writer gives the following account of this wind, which is probably very near the truth. When on the Tigris, about five days' journey from Bagdad, (in the same region as sir R. K. Porter,) he remarks : " I had here an opportunity of observing the progress of the hot winds, called by the natives Samiel, which sometimes proves very destructive, par- ticularly at this season. They are most dangerous between twelve and three o'clock, when the atmos- phere is at its greatest degree of heat. Their force entirely depends on the surface over which they pass. If it be over a desert, where there is no vegeta- tion, they extend their dimensions with amazing ve- locity, and then their progress is sometimes to wind- ward ; if over grass, or any other vegetation, they soon diminish and lose much of their force; if over water, they lose all their electrical force, and ascend ; [see the extract from Riippell below ;] yet I have sometimes felt their effects across the river where it was at least a mile broad. An instance hap- pened here. Mr. Stephens, a fellow traveller, was bathing in the river, having on a pair of Turkish drawers. On his return from the water, there came a hot wind across the river, which made his drawers and himself perfectly dry in an instant. Had such a circumstance been related to him by another person, he declared he could not have believed it. I was present and felt the force of the hot wind, but should otherwise have been as incredulous as Mr. Stephens." (p. 81.) We subjoin here the account of Niebuhr, as being one of the most full and trustworthy, and as relating also to the same Asiatic regions. It will be perceived, however, that this is the result, not of his own ob- servations, but of his inquiries among the Arabs ; and that although according in the chief points with the descriptions of Porter and Chardin, the language is, nevertheless, much more moderate. The suggestions also occasionally thrown in, accord well with the character of this most sober and judicious of all travellers. He is speaking of the region around the Persian gulf, Bagdad, &c. (Descr. of Arab. p. 7. Germ, edit.) "The hot season is called by the Arabs, so far as I can learn, Smiim, [Simoom,] just as we call the same period, dog-days, and as the Egyptians also call their hot season, Camsin. In these months there are occasional instances at Bassora, though seldom, of persons in the street, both in the city and on the way to Zobier, falling down and dying from the heat ; indeed mules also are said to have died of the heat out of the city. " Of the poisonous wind Sam, Smiim, Samiel, or Samili, according to the pronunciation of the Arabs, of whom 1 inquired about it, one hears most in the desert between Bassora, Bagdad, Aleppo and Mecca. It is said also not to be unknown in some districts of Per- sia and India, and also in Spain. This wind is also to be feared only in the hottest summer months. It is said always to come from the great desert ; indeed they say that the Simoom, (I am not sure whether the poisonous one is meant,) at Mecca, comes from the east, at Bagdad, from the west, at Bassorah, from the north-west, and at Surat, from the north. At Cairo, the hottest wind comes over the Libyan desert, and consequently from the south-west. As the Arabs of the desert are accustomed to a pure atmosphere, it is said that some among them are so keen-scented as to distinguish the fatal Simoom by its sulphuroussmell. Another token of this wind is said to be, that the whole atmosphere, in the quarter whence it blows, becomes of a reddish hue. Since, however, a wind moving regularly forwards has less power near the surface of the earth, being somewhat hindered and broken perhaps by hills, and rocks, and bushes, and also by the evaporation from the ground, it is there- fore usual for persons to throw themselves upon the earth when they perceive the approach of the Si- moom. Nature also is said to have taught the beasts to hold their heads to the earth in like circumstances. One of my servants was overtaken by this wind, in a caravan on the way from Bassorah to Aleppo. Some of the Arabs cried out in time for them all to throw themselves on the ground, and none of those who did this received any injury. But some of the caravan, and among them a French surgeon, who wished to examine this phenomenon more closely, were too secure, and in consequence died. Some- times years are said to elapse, during which there [ 929 ] appears no trace of the poisonous Simoom on the way between fiaesorah and Aleppo. "According to the Arabs, both men and beasts are suffocated by this wind, in the same manner as by the ordinary hot wind, of which I have spoken above. When the heat of the season is extraordinarily great, there comes sometimes a slight blast which is still hotter; and when men or beasts have already be- come so weak as almost to perish from the heat, it would seem that this additional degree of heat, though small, takes away their breath entirely. In the case of those who are suffocated by this wind, or, as they say, whose heart has burst, it is said that the blood starts from the nose and ears sometimes in two hours after death. Their bodies are said to remain a long time warm, to swell, to turn blue and green, and, if the attempt is made to raise them by the leg or arm, this separates itself at once. Some profess to have observed, that those who are not previously so weak- ened, usually suffer less ; and hence, in a large cara- van, sometimes not more than four or five have died on the spot, while others have lived several hours, and some have even been restored by refreshing cor- dials. The Arabs, it is said, take with them leeks and raisins 'upon their journeys, and by means of 'Aiese have often relieved persons who w«re well nigh suffocated. "After this description of the Simoom, it will io

WING

WING, Ma. By this word, the Hebrews under- stood not only the wings of birds, but also the lappet, skirt, or flap of a garment, the extremity of a coun- try, the wings of an army ; figuratively andt meta- phorically, protection or defence. God says, that he has borne his people on the wings of eagles, (Exod. xxi. 4 ;see also Deut. xxxii. 11.) that is, he had brought them out of Egypt, as an eagle carries ts young ones under its wings. The prophet begs of God to pro- tect them under his wings, (Ps. xvii.8.) and says that the children of men put their trust in the protection of his wings, Ps. xxxvi. 7. Isaiah, speaking of the army of the kings of Israel and Syria, who were coming against Judah, says, " The stretching out of his wings shall fill the breadth of thy land, O Im- manuel," chap. viii. 8.

WINTER

WINTER, in Palestine, see under Canaan, p. 240, seq. is a word used with great latitude in the Scriptures, and its precise import can only be ascertained by a close attention to the context. See Folly. 1. The term wisdom is used to express the under- standing or knowledge of things, both human and divine. It is often so used in the Psalms. It was this wisdom Avhich Solomon entreated and received of God. 2. It is put for ingenuity, skill, dexterity ; as in the case of the artificers Bezaleel and Aholiab, Exod. xxviii. 3 ; xxxi. 3. 3. Wisdom is used for subtlety, craft, stratagem, whether good or evil. Pharaoh dealt wisely with the Israelites, Exod. i. 10. Jonadab was very wise, i. e. subtle and crafty, 2 Sam. xiii. 3. In Proverbs, (xiv. 8.) it is said, "The wisdom of the prudent is to understand his way." 4. For doctrine, learning, experience, sagacity, Job xii. 2, 12 ; xxxviii. 37 ; Ps. cv. 22. 5. It is put sometimes for the skill or arts of ma- gicians, wizards, fortune-tellers, &c. 6. Wisdom is also the Eternal Wisdom, the Word, the Son of God, Prov. iii. 9 ; viii. 22, 23. (Compare also the Book ' f Wisdom, vii. 22, 26 ; viii. xvii. 12, 26, &c. Als< Ecclus. xxiv. 5, &c.) 7. Wisdom of the flesh, of this world, human wisdom, are opposed, by Paul, to true wisdom, the wisdom of Christ, the wisdom of the Spirit, 1 Cor. i. 19, &c. James also (iii. 14, &c.) speaks of a wisdom which is earthly, sensual, devilish, and opposed to the wisdom that is from above, which is pure, peaceable, gentle, &c.

WISDOM

WISDOM, Book of, [or, as it is also called, the Wisdom of Solomon. Just as the books of Tobit and Sirach give us a representation of the Jewish religious views and culture in Palestine, in the centuries next preceding the Christian era, so also the book of Wisdom does the same for the far nobler and purer religious culture of the Alexandrine Jews, in the same period. We see from this book, and from Philo, that a peculiar religious philosophy had formed itself in Alexandria among the Jews, arising out of a mixture of the national views, Platonic philosophy, and the oriental, or more especially Persian, ideas of dualism and emanation. The great object of the book is, to enforce the value of wisdom, i. e. of religion; and this is done by showing Jhat it leads not only to greater honor and esteem in this life, but to the rewards of a future state of existence. Solomon is every where introduced as the speaker, in the first part ; and it would seem to have been the plan of the writer, that he should be the speaker throughout. This, however, is not the case ; for in the latter part, the writer often speaks of Solomon in the third person. From chap. xv. onward, God is every where addressed. The book was originally written in the Alexandrine Greek ; the style, for that of a later Jew, is uncom- monly good. It has in it something eloquent and wo [ 933 1 worn. rhetorical, which verges sometimes towards the arti- ficial and pompous. This is more particularly the case with the latter part. There is, however, along with this, such a variety of allusion, as to betray a very extensive knowledge, and especially an ac- quaintance with heathen learning. As to the author and the time in which he wrote, nothing can be said definitely, except that he must have been a Jew of Alexandria, in the centuries next preceding Christ. In consequence of the similarity of some points in the book with the doctrines of the Essenes, it has been supposed that the author was of this sect ; but there are also, in other places and re- spects, certain resemblances between the Essenes and Alexandrians. Others, as Grotius, have assumed certain interpolations from some Christian hand, viz. in respect to the doctrine of immortality ; but, re- garded more closely, the immortality of this book is not that of Christianity, inasmuch as it speaks only of the immortality of the pious. In a philological respect, moreover, interpolations are not admissible. The assertion of Jerome, perhaps, deserves the most attention, viz. that Philo was the author. But yet, after all the points of close resemblance with Philo's writings, there is still a difference ; nor can it well be explained, if Philo were the author, why the book should not stand among his acknowledged works. The Latin version of this book, which is found in the Vulgate, is not by Jerome, but is of an earlier date. See Versions. *R. of Endor, see in Samuel.

WITNESS

WITNESS, one who bears testimony to any thing : thus it is said, you are a witness — a faithful witness — a false witness — God is witness, &c. Christ is the faithful witness ; (Rev. i. 5.) the martyr of truth and justice. God promises to give to his two wit- nesses (which some think to be Enoch and Elijah) the spirit of prophecy, (Rev. xi. 3.) after which (he says) they shall be put to death. The law appoints, that two or three witnesses should be credited in matters of judicature ; but not one witness only, Deut. xvii. 6, 7. The law con- demned a false witness to the saine punishment as that he would have subjected his neighbor to, Deut. xix. 16—19. The prophets are the witnesses of our belief ; they witness the truth of our religion, Heb. xii. 1. The apostles are still further witnesses of the coming, the mission, and the doctrine of Christ. If Christ is not risen, says Paul, then are we false witnesses, 1 Cor. xv. 15. We are witnesses, says Peter, Acts x. 39, 41.) of all that Jesus did in Judea ; and when the apostles thought fit to put another in the place of Judas, (Acts i. 22.) they selected one who had been a witness of the resurrection along with themselves.

WIZARD

WIZARD, see Magic, and Inchantments. is used in our translation where a softer expression would be at least equally proper: "Wo to such an one ! " is in our language, a threat, or im- precation, whicn comprises a wish -for some calamity, natural or judicial, to befall a person ; but this is not always the meaning of the word in Scripture. We have the expression " Wo is me," that is, Alas, for my sufferings ! and " Wo to the women with child, and those who give suck," &c. that is, Alas, for their redoubled sufferings, in times of distress ! It is also more agreeable to the gentle character of the com- passionate Jesus, to consider him as lamenting the sufferings of any, whether person, or city, than as imprecating, or even as denouncing, them ; since his character of judge formed no part of his mission. If, then, we should read, "Alas, for thee, Chorazin ! Alas, for thee, Bethsaida ! " we should do no injustice to the general sentiments of the place, or to the character ot the person speaking. This, however, is not the sense in which wo is always to be taken ; as when we read, " Wo to those who build houses by unrighteousness, and cities by blood :" wo to those who are " rebellious against God," &c. in numerous passages, especially of the Old Testament. The import of this word, then, is in some degree qualified by the application of it ; where it is directed against transgression, crime, or any enormity, it may be taken as a threat- ening, a malediction ; but in the words of our Lord, and where the subject is suffering under misfortunes, though not extremely wicked, a kind of lamentatory application of it should seem to be most proper.

WOLF

WOLF, a wild creature, very well known. The Scripture notices these remarkable things respecting the wolf: (1.) It lives upon rapine. (2.) Is violent, cruel and bloody. (3.) Voracious and greedy. (4.) Seeks its prey by night. (5.) Is very sharp-sighted. (6.) Is the great enemy of sheep. That Benjamin shall raven as a wolf, Gen. xlix. 27. False teachers are wolves in sheep's clothing. Persecutors of the church, and false pastors, are also ravenous wolves. The prophets speak of evening wolves. Jer. v. 6, " A wolf of the evening shall spoil them." And Hab. i. 8, " Their horses are more fierce than the evening wolves." And Zeph. iii. 3, "Her judges are evening wolves." The Chaldee interpreters explain — Benja- min shall raven as a wolf— of the altar of burnt-offer- ings at Jerusalem, which stood in the tribe of Ben- jamin. Others refer it to that violent seizure, by the sons of Benjamin, of the young women that came to the tabernacle at Shiloh, Judg. xri. 21. Others refer it to Mordecai, or to Saul, who were of the tribe of Benjamin. Others explain it of Paul, who was also of this tribe ; and this interpretation has com- monly prevailed among Christian interpreters. The wolf is a fierce .creature, dwelling in forests, ravenous, greedy, crafty, and of exquisite quickness of smell. Isaiah, (xi. 6 ; lxv. 25.) describing the tranquil reign of the Messiah, says, " The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid ; and the calf, and the young lion, and the fading together, and a little child shall lead them." Our Saviour, (Matt. x. 16.) says, that he sends his apostles as sheep among wolves, (Luke x. 3.) and it is known, that both Jews and pagans, like ravenous and vo- racious wolves, persecuted and slew almost all of them. At last, however, these same wolves them- selves became converts, and docile as lambs. Paul, one of the most eager persecutors of the church, was afterwards one of its most zealous defenders. was created as a companion and assist- ant to man ; (see Adam ;) equal to him in authority and jurisdiction over the animals ; but after the fall, God subjected her to the government of man : (Gen. iii. 16.) " Thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee." In addition to the duties pre- scribed by the law, common to men and women, certain regulations were peculiar to this sex ; as those respecting legal uncleanness during their ordinary infirmities, those attending child-bearing, &c. The law did not allow any action of the woman against the man ; but it permitted the husband to divorce his wife, and to cause her to be stoned, if she violated her conjugal vow, &c. If a married woman made a vow, of whatevej nature, she was not bound by it, if her husband for 934 ] bade it the same day. But if he 9 .aid till the next day, before he contradicted it, or knowing the thing, if he held his peace, he was then supposed to consent to it : and the woman was bound by her vow, Numb, xxx. 7, &c. (See 1 Cor. vii. 2, &c. for the duties of women towards their husbands.) The apostle would have them submissive, as to Christ, Eph. v. 2. He forbids them to speak or teach in the church ; or to appear there with their heads uncovered, or without veils, 1 Cor. xi. 5 ; xiv. 34. He docs not allow women to teach, or to domineer over their husbands, but would have them continue in submission and silence. (See Veil.) He adds, that the woman shall be saved in bearing and educating her children, if she bring them up in faith, charity, sanctity, and a sober life. See Titus ii. 4, 5, and 1 Pet. iii. 1—3, where modesty is recommended to them, with great care in avoiding superfluous ornaments and unnecessary finery. WOMB. The fruit of the womb is children, (Gen. xxx. 2.) whom the psalmist (cxxvii. 3.) describes as the blessing of marriage. Ps. xxii. 10, " Lord, thou art my God from my mother's womb." is some occurrence, or thing, which so strongly engages our attention, by its surprising greatness, rarity, or other properties, that our minds are struck by it into astonishment. Wonder is also nearly synonymous with sign : " If a prophet give thee a sign, or a wonder," says Moses, (Deut. xiii. 1.) and "if the sign or wonder come to pass," &c. Isaiah says, he and " his children are for signs and wonders," (chap. viii. 18.) that is, they w r ere for signs, indications of, allusions to, prefigurations of, things future, that should certainly take place ; and they were to excite notice, attention and consideration in beholders ; to cause wonder in them. Wonder also signifies the act of wondering, as resulting from the observation of something extraordinary, or beyond what we are accustomed to behold. is in Hebrew often put for thing or matter ; as Exod. ii. 14: "Surely this thing [Heb. ivord) is known." "To-morrow the Lord shall do this thing [Heb. word] in the land," Exod. ix. 5. " I will do a thing [Heb. toord] in Israel, at which both the ears of every one that heareth it shall Tingle," 1 Sam. iii. 11. "And the rest of the acts [Heb. ivords] of Solomon," 1 Kings xi. 41. Sometimes Scripture ascribes to the word of God supernatural effects ; or represents it as animated and active. So, "He sent his word, and healed them." The Book of Wisdom ascribes to the word of God, the death of the first-born of Egypt ; (Wisd. xviii. 15 ; xvi. 26 ; ix. 1 ; xvi. 12.) the miraculous effects of the manna ; the creation of the world ; the healing of those who looked up to the brazen ser- pent. The centurion in the Gospel says to our Sa- viour, (Matt. viii. 8.) " Speak the word only, and my servant shall be healed." And Christ says to the devil that tempted him, (Matt. iv. 4.) "Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceed- eth out of the mouth of God." Hence we see that word is taken either, (1.) for that eternal word heard by the prophets, when under inspiration from God. Or, (2.) for that which they heard externally, when God spoke to them ; as when he spoke to Moses, face to face, or as one friend speaks to another, Exod. xxxiii. 11. Or, (3.) for that word which the minis- ters of God, the priests, the apostles, the servants of God, declare in his name to the people. (4.) For what is written in the sacred books of the Old and New Testaments. (5.) For the only Son of the Father, the uncreated Wisdom : " In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him, and with- out him was not any thing made that was made," John i. The Chaldee paraphrasts, the most ancient Jewish writers extant, generally use the name Memra, oi Word, where Moses puts Jehovah; and it is thought that under this term they allude to the Son of God. Now, their testimony is so much the more consider- able, as, having lived before or at the time of Christ, they are irrefragable witnesses of the sentiments of their nation on this article; since their Targum, or explication, has always been, and still is, in universal esteem among them. In the greater part of the passages where the sacred name occurs, these para- phrasts substitute M'tnra Jehovah,("i Kmn)tke Word of God ; and as they ascribe to Memra all the attri- butes of deity, it is concluded that they believed the divinity of the Word. In effect, according to them, Memra created the world ; appeared to. Abraham in the plain of Mamre, and to Jacob at Bethel. It was to Memra Jacob appealed to witness the covenant between him and Laban : " Let the Word see be- tween thee and me." The same Word appeared to Moses at Sinai ; gave the law to Israel ; spoke face to face with that lawgiver ; marched at the head of that people ; enabled them to conquer nations ; and was a consuming fire to all who violated the law of the Lord. All these characters, where the paraphrasts use the word Memra, clearly denote Almighty God. This Word, therefore, was God ; and the Hebrews were of this opinion at the time when the Targum was composed. The author of the Book of Wisdom expresses him- self much in the same manner. He says that God created all things by his. Word, (ch. ix. 1.) that it is not what the earth produces that feeds man ; but the Word of the Almighty that supports him, ch. xvi. 26. It was this Word that fed the Israelites in the desert; healed them after the biting of the serpents ; (ch. xvi. 12.) and who, by his power, destroyed the first-born of the Egyptians, (ch. xviii. 15; Exod. xii. 29, 30 and by which Aaron stopped the fury of the fire that was kindled in the camp, which threatened the de- struction of all Israel, Wisd. xviii. 22. (See Numb, xvi. 46.) But the most full and distinct testimony is home to the personality and real deity of the Word, by the evangelist John in his Gospel, in his First Epistle and in the Book of Revelation. The following remarks on the different appli- cations of the terms Rhema and Logos, in the New Testament, are from Mr. Taylor. We do not find that Rhema is ever personified, or that personal actions are attributed to the term, but generally speaking, when relating to events, the force of our English word facts, unquestionable facts, k intended; in other cases, authority, influence, oi power. The word Logos imports simple speech ; that by which the party "hearing it may be instructed ; alsc written information, that by which the reader may- be edified. Acts i. 1, "The former treatise (l&yor) I have made." Also commandments, John viii. 55 Rom. xiii. 9 ; 1 Thess. iv. 1 5, et al. Prophecy, prom- ises, disputes, threatenings, evil speakings, and, in \ short, whatever is the subject of words, whether good or bad. Hence, teaching in all its branches ; hence i teacher, instructer, wisdom ; hence heavenly wisdom, the heavenly teacher- the heavenly instructer, &c t 935 ] And this word Logos is personified, and personal actions are attributed to it. It is not easy to suggest English terms by which to fix this distinction in every instance ; but it is very desirable to represent the original as accurately as possible, and to avoid interchanging terms which, certainly, were not adopted by the sacred writers, to express such difference, without valid and efficient reasons. In addition to these remarks on the application of the word Logos, Mr. Taylor has elsewhere some ob- servations on the probable origin of its personal ref- ererce. The following extracts are from Bruce's Travels : — "An officer, named Kal Hatze, who stands always upon steps at the side of the lattice window, where there is a hole covered in the inside with a curtain of green taffeta; — behind this curtain the king sits." (Vol. iv. p. 76.) "Hitherto, while there were stran- gers in the room, he [the king] had spoken to us by an officer called Kal Hatze, the voice or word of the king." (Vol. iii. p. 231.) " — But there is no such ceremony in use ; and exhibitions of this kind, made by the king in public, at no period seem to have suited the genius of this people. Formerly, his face was never seen, nor any part of him, excepting some- times his foot. He sits in a kind of balcony, with lattice windows and curtains before him. Even yet he covers his face on audiences, or public occasions, and when in judgment. On cases of treason, he sits within his balcony, and speaks through a hole in the side of it, to an officer called Kal Hatze, 1 the voice or word of the king,' by whom he sends his questions, or any thing else that occurs, to the judges, who are seated at the council tabis." (Vol. iii. p. 265.) Of the use of this officer, Mr. Bruce gives several striking instances : in particular, one on the trial of a rebel, when the king, by his Kal Hatze, asked a ques- tion, by which his guilt was effectually demonstrated. It appears, then, that the king of Abyssinia makes in- quiry, gives his opinion, and declares his will by a deputy, a go-between, a middle-man, called "his word." Assuming for a moment that this was a Jew- ish custom, we see to what the ancient Jewish par- aphrasts referred by their term, " Word of Jehovah," instead of Jehovah himself ; and the idea was fa- miliar to their recollection, and to that of their readers ; a no less necessary consideration than that of their own recollection. If it be inquired, What traces of this officer, as an attendant on official dignity, occur in Scripture ? we may reply that to trace allusions to the office of this deputy in Scripture would be too extensive for this place; but by way of selection, consult the history of the calling of Samuel, 1 Sam. iii. 21. "Jehovah re- vealed himself to Samuel, in Shiloh, by the word of the Lord (Jehovah) ;" why not say at once, simply, "by himself," without this interposing "word?" What shall we say to Job xxxiii. 23 ? and does not Elisha (2 Kings v. 10.) assume somewhat of the same state ? And is it not probable, that Naaman felt him- self treated like an inferior, a subject, by the prophet's sending a messenger (a Kal Hatzi) to him, instead of coming out to him ? See also 1 Kings xiii. 9, &c. a prophet directed by the word of the Lord. There is something very remarkable in the terms employed by the old prophet : (v. 18.) An angel spake to me by the word of the Lord: what a circuitous combination of phraseology ! Why not at once, " The Lord spake to me." Why not at most, "The word of the Lord spake to me ? " The author of the Wisdom of Solomon has given an activity to his " Word of God," which exceeds what appears to be the duty of Abyssinian Kal Hatze. Thine Almighty Word leaped down from heaven, from the royal throne, [or, according to the representation of Bruce, down the steps at the side of the window next the throne,] and brought thine unfeigned com- mandment, as a sharp sword, and filed all with death, &c. chap, xviii. 15, 16. It may now be considered as hardly bearing a question, whether the ancient Jewish writers (Philo included) derived this idea, or mode of speech, from the heathen, or from the customs and manners of the kings of the East, and those of their own country in particular. Shall we not, hereafter, acquit the evangelists from adopting the mythological concep- tions of Plato ? Rather, did not Plato adopt eastern language ? and is not the custom still retained in the East ? See all accounts of an ambassador's visit to the grand seignior; who never himself answers, but directs his vizier to speak for him. So in Europe, the king of France directs his keeper of the seals to speak in his name ; and so the lord chancellor in England proi-ogues the parliament, expressing his majesty's pleasure, and using his majesty's name, though in his majesty's presence.

WORLD

WORLD, in addition to its natural meaning, as embracing the whole of created nature, and more particularly the respective parts of our own planet, is used in Scripture to denote its inhabitants, as in John viii. 12 ; xvii. 25 ; xv. 18, &c. In several pas- sages of the New Testament, the Greek word yijs, now translated world, would be more correctly ren dered land.

WORMWOOD

WORMWOOD, a plant which grows wild about dunghills, and on dry waste grounds. It flowers in summer ; the leaves have a strong, offensive smell, and a very bitter, nauseous taste ; the flowers are equally bitter, but less nauseous. Its bitter qualities are ^"'-.tinned in several comparisons in Scripture V\ OnrsHIP or God is an act of religion, which consists in paying a due respect, veneration and hom- age to the Deity, from a sense of his greatness, of benefits already received, and under a certain expec- tation of reward. This internal respect is to be shown and testified by external acts ; as prayers, sacrifices, (formerly,) thanksgivings, &c. Worship may be taken as (1.) internal, or (2.) ex- ternal: (1.) private, or (2.) public: (1.) personal, or (2.) social: (1.) active, or (2.) passive ; for there is a worship of God in sentiment, in submission to his will, in intentional obedience, &c. which is not exter- nal or active, but which becomes a habit of the mind, and indeed forms it to a devout disposition for active worship. That it is the duty of man to worship his Maker, no one can deny ; it is not, indeed, easily to be con- ceived how any one who has tolerably just notions of the attributes and providence of God, car possibly ueglect the duty of private worship ; and if we admit that public worship does not seem to be expressly en- joined in that system which is called the religion of nature, yet it is most expressly commanded by the religion* of Christ, and will be regularly performed and promoted by every one who reflects on its great utility, or who enjoys its extensive benefits.

WRITING

WRITING, see Book, Bible, Letters I. YEAR. The Hebrews had always years of twelve months. But at the beginning, and in the time of Moses, they were solar years of twelve months, each month having thirty days, excepting the twelfth, which had thirty-five days. We see, by the enumer- ation of the days of the deluge, (Gen. vii.) that the Hebrew year consisted of 365 days. It is supposed that they had an intercalary month at the end of 120 years ; at which time the beginning of their year would be out of its place full thirty days. It must be admitted, however, that no mention is made in Scrip- ture of the thirteenth month, or of any intercalation ; and hence some think that Moses retained the order of the Egyptian year, which was solar, and consisted of twelve months of thirty days each. After tin; time of Alexander the Great, and of the Grecians, in Asia, the Jews reckoned by lunar months, chiefly in what related to religion and to the festivals; (see Kcclus. xliii. 6, 7.) and since the completing of the Talmud, they use years wholly lunar ; having alternately a full month of thirty days, and a defective month of twenty- nine days. To accommodate this lunar year to the course of the sun, at the end of three years they in- tercalate a whole month after Adar, which inter- calated month they call Vc-adar, that is, second Adar. Their civil year has always begun in autumn, at the month Tizri ; but their sacred year, by which the festivals, assemblies and other religions acts were regulated, began in the spring, at the month Nisan. See Months, and Jewish Calendar, infra. Nothing is more equivocal among the ancients than the term year; and hence it has always been, and still is, a source of dispute among the learned. Some think, that from the beginning of the world to the 160th year of Enoch, mankind reckoned only by weeks ; and that the angel Uriel revealed to Enoch the use of months, years, the revolutions of the stars, and the return of the seasons. Some nations formerly made their year to consist of one month, others of four, others of six, others of ten, others of twelve. Some have made one year of winter, another of sum- mer. The beginning of the year was fixed sometimes at autumn; sometimes at spring; sometimes at mid- winter. Some used lunar months, others solar. Even the days have been differently divided ; some begin- ning them at evening, others at morning, others at noon, others at midnight. With some, the hours were equal, both in winter and summer ; with others, they were unequal. They counted twelve hours to the day, and twelve to the night. In summer the hours of the day were longer than those of the night ; on the contrary, in winter the hours of the night were longest. See Hour. In some parts of the East, particularly in Japan, says baron Thunberg,) the year ending on a certain day, any portion of the foregoing year is taken for a whole year ; so that, supposing a child to be born in the last week of our December, it would be reckoned one year old on the first day of January. This sounds like a strange solecism to us : a child not a week old, | not a month old, is yet one year old ! because born in the old year. If this mode of computation obtained among the Hebrews, the principle of it easily accounts for those anachronisms of single years, or parts of years taken for whole ones, which occur in sacred writ; it removes the difficulties which concern the half years of several princes of Judah and Israel, in which the latter half of the deceased king's last year has hitherto been supposed to be added to the former half of his successor's first year. We cannot but observe how this mode of enumer- ation clears the phrase " three days," &c. where it occurs, reckoning as the entire first day, whatever small portion of that day was included, even if only a quarter of it ; and the same as to the third day ; so that a few hours pass for a whole day in this case, as a few months or a few weeks pass for a whole year in the other case. This may contribute to explain a passage or two which are not commonly seen in this light. 1 Sam. xiii. 1, " A son of one year was Saul in his kingdom ; and two years he reigned over Israel," that is, say he was inaugurated in June ; he was consequently one year old as king on the first day of January following, though he had only reigned six months ; the son of a year : but after [and on] this first of January, he was in the second year of his reign, although, accord- ing to our computation, the first year of his reign wanted six months of being completed : in this, his second year, he chose three thousand military, &c. guards. This passage has been noticed as a difficulty ; may we now perceive the reason of this remarkable phraseology? The same principle may account for the phrase [an'o SitTi',g) used to denote the age of the infants slaughtered at Bethlehem, (Matt. ii. 16.) " from two years old and under." If these words, as they stand, do not form an absolute contradiction, they come pretty near one. This difficulty has been strongly felt by the learned, and has been made the most of by the antagonists of Christianity — " What," say they, "some infants two weeks old, others two months, others two years, equally slain ! Surely those born so long before could not possibly be included in the order, which purposed to destroy a child certainly born within a few months." This is regulated at once, by admitting the existence of this manner of calculating time, or rather of expressing a mode of calculating time ; by the idea that they were all of nearly equal age, being all recently born ; some not long before the close of the old year, others not long since the beginning of the new year. Now, those born before the close of the old year, though only a few months or weeks, would be in their second year, as the ex- pression implies ; and those born since the beginning of the year would be well described by the phrase "and under;" that is, under one year old; — some two years old, though not born a complete twelve- month, (perhaps, in fact, barely six months,) others under one year old, yet born three, or four, or five [ 937 1 months ; and therefore a few days younger than those previously described : "according" to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men :" — in their second year and under. The influence of this remark, on the proper placing of the birth of our Lord, before the death of Herod, is considerable : it lessens, too, the number of infants slain by his order ; it draws a strong distinction be- tween those appointed to death, and those allowed to escape ; while it shortens the interval between the appearance of the star to the Magi, and their visit to Jerusalem, if we are not mistaken, full one half of what some have allowed for it. is used to denote all time past, how- ever distant; as to-day denotes time present, but of a larger extent than the very day on which one speaks: Exod. xxi. 29. " If the ox was wont to push with his horn in time past ; Heb. yesterday. And it came to pass, when all that knew him before time ; Heb. yesterday ; whereas thou earnest but yesterday," 2 Sam. xv. 20, or lately, et al.freq. "Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, to-day and for ever," Heb. xiii. 8. His doctrine, like his person, admits of no change ; his truths are invariable. With him there is neither yesterday nor to-morrow, but one continued to-day. Job says, (viii. 9.) " We are but of yesterday, and know nothing ; because our days upon earth are a shadow." Y^OKE. It appears that yokes were of two kinds, as two words are used to denote them in the Hebrew: one refers to such yokes as were put upon the necks of cattle, and in which they labored, Numb. xix. 2. Deut. xxi. 3. The subjects of Solomon complain that he had made his yoke heavy to them, (1 Kings xii. 10.) and they use the same word ; but Jeremiah (xxvii. 2.) made him bonds and yokes of another con- struction, and fitted to the human neck ; which he expresses by another word ; most probably they were such as slaves used to wear when at labor ; however, they were the sign of bondage. We read of yokes of iron, Deut. xxviii. 48 ; Jer. xxyiii. 13. The ceremo- | nies of the Mosaic ritual are called a yoke, (Acts xv. 10 ; Gal. v. 1.) as also tyrannical authority ; but Christ says, his yoke is easy, and his burden is light, Matt, xi. 29.



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