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Edward Robinson

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TABERAH, or Tabeera, burning, an encamp- ment of Israel in the desert, (Numb. xi. 3 ; Deut. ix. 22 ) and so called, because here a fire from the tab- ernacle of the Lord burned a great part of the camp. TABERNACLE. We have an account of three public tabernacles among the Jews, previous to the building of Solomon's temple. The first, which Moses erected for himself, is called " the tabernacle of the congregation." In this he gave audience, heard causes, and inquired of God. Perhaps the public offices of religious worship were also per- formed in it for some time, and hence its designation. The second tabernacle was that which Moses built for God, by his express command, partly to be the place of his residence asking of Israel, (Exod. xl. 34, 35.) and partly to be the medium of that solemn wor- ship which the people were to render to him, ver. 17, 26 — 29. The third public tabernacle was that which David erected in his own city, for the reception of the ark, when he received it from the house of Obed-edom, 2 Sam. vi. 17 ; 1 Chron. xvi. 1. But it is the second of these, called the tabernacle, by way of distinction, that we have more particularly to notice. Moses having been instructed by God to rear the tabernacle, according to the pattern which had been shown to him in the mount, called the people to- gether and informed them of his proceedings, for the purpose of affording them an opportunity of con- tributing towards so noble and honorable a work, Exod. xxv. 2; xxxv. 5. And so liberally did the people bring their offerings, that he was obliged to restrain them in so doing, ver. 21 — xxxvi. 6. The structure which we are now about to describe, was built with extraordinary magnificence, and at a pro- digious expense, that it might be in some measure suitable to the dignity of the Great King, for whose palace it was designed, and to the value of those spiritual and eternal blessings, of which it was also designed as a type or emblem. The value of the gold and silver, only, used for the work, and of which we have an account in Exod. xxxviii. 24, 25, amounted, according to bishop Cumberland's reduction of the Jewish talent and shekel to English coin, to upwards of 182,568?. or more than 810,600 dollars. If we add to this the vast quantity of brass or copper, that was also used ; the shittim wood, of which the boards of the taberna- cle, as well as the pillars which surrounded the court and sacred utensils, were made ; as also the rich embroidered curtains and canopies that covered the tabernacle, divided the parts of it, and surrounded the court ; — and if we further add, the jewels that were set in the high-priest's ephod and breastplate, which are to be considered as part of the furniture of the tabernacle, the value of the whole materials, exclusive of workmanship, must amount to an im- mense sum. This sum was raised, partly by volun- tary contributions and presents, and partly by a poll tax of half a shekel a head for every male Israelite above twenty years old, (chap. xxx. 11 — 16.) which amounted to a hundred talents and 1775 shekels, [ 873 j toat is, 35,359L 7 s. 6d. sterling, or nearly 157,000 dollars, chap, xxxviii. 25. The learued Spencer imagined that Moses bor- rowed his design of this tabernacle from Egypt. But this notion, as Jennings has shown, is directly at variance with matter of fact; the structure of Moses differing from those used in the heathen worship most essentially, both in situation and form, and also with its typical design and use, as pointed out by the apostle in the ninth chapter of the Hebrews. The tabernacle was of an oblong rectangular form, thirty cubits long, ten broad, and ten in height; (Exod. xxvi. 18—29 ; xxxvi. 23—34.) which, accord- ing to bishop Cumberland, was fifty-five feet long, eighteen broad, and eighteen high. The two sides, and the western end, were formed of boards of shit- tim wood, overlaid with thin plates of gold, and fixed in solid sockets, or vases of silver. Above, they were secured by bars of the same wood, over- laid with gold, passing through rings of gold, which were fixed to the boards. On the east end, which was the entrance, there were no boards, but only five pillars of shittim wood, whose chapiters and fillets were overlaid with gold, and their hooks of gold, standing on five sockets of brass. The tabernacle, thus erected, was covered with four different kinds of curtains. The first and inner curtain was com- posed of fine linen, magnificently embroidered with figures of cherubim, in shades of blue, purple and scarlet ; this formed the beautiful ceiling. The next covering was made of goats' hair; the third of rams' skins, died red; and the fourth and outward cover- ing was made of badgers' skins, as our translators have it, but which is not quite certain, as it is gener- ally thought that the original intends only skins of some description, dyed of a particular color. We have already said, that the east end of the tabernacle had no boards, but only five pillars of shittim wood ; it was, therefore, enclosed with a richly embroidered curtain, suspended from these pillars, Exod. xxvii. 16. Such was the external appearance of the sacred tent, which was divided into two apartments, by means of four pillars of shittim wood, overlaid with gold, like the pillars before described, two cubits and a half distant from each other ; only they stood on sockets of silver, instead of sockets of brass; (Exod. xxvi. 32 ; xxxvi. 36.) and on these pillars was hung a veil, formed of the same materials as the one placed at the east end, Exod. xxvi. 31 — 33 ; xxxvi. 35. We are not informed in what proportions the interior of the tabernacle was thus divided ; but it is generally conceived that it was divided in the same proportion as the temple afterwards built according to its model ; that is, two thirds of the whole length being allotted to the first room, or the holy place, and one third to the second, or most holy place. Thus the former would be twenty cubits long, ten wide, and ten high, and the latter ten cubits every way. It is observa- ble, that neither the holy nor most holy places had any window. Hence the need of the candlestick in the one, for the service that was performed therein ; the darkness of the other would create reverence, and might, perhaps, have suggested the similar con- trivance of the Adyta in the heathen temples. The tabernacle thus described stood in an open space, of an oblong form, one hundred cubits in length, and fifty in breadth, situated due east and west, Exod. xxvii. 18. This court was surrounded with pillars of brass, filleted with silver, and placed at the distance of five cubits from each other. Their sockets were of brass and were fastened t » the earth 110 with pins of the same metal, Exod. xxxviii. 10, 17 20. Their height is not stated, but it was probably five cubits, that being the length of the curtains that were suspended on them, Exod. xxxviii. 18. These curtains,, which formed an enclosure round the court, were of fine twined white linen yarn, (Exod. xxvii. 9 ; xxxviii. 9, 16.) except that at the entrance on the east end, which was of blue, and purple, and scarlet,, and fine white twined linen, with cords to draw it either up, or aside, when the priests entered the court, Exod. xxxviii. 18 ; xxxix. 40. Within this area stood the altar of burnt-offerings, and the laver and its foot. The former was placed in a line between the door of the court and the door of the tabernacle, but nearer the former ; (Exod. xl. 6, 29.) the latter stood between the altar of burnt-offering and the door of the tabernacle, Exod. xxxviii. 8. But although the tabernacle was surrounded by the court, there is no reason to think that it stood in the centre of it ; for there was no occasion for so large an area at the west end as at the east, where the altar and other utensils of the sacred service were placed. It is more probable that the area at this end was fifty cubits square ; and indeed a less space than that could hardly suffice for the work that was to be done there, and for the persons who were immedi- ately to attend the service. We now proceed to no- tice the furniture which the tabernacle contained. In the holy place were three objects worthy of no- tice, viz. the altar of incense, the table for the shew- bread, and the candlestick for the lights, each of which have been described in their respective places. The altar of incense was placed in the middle of the sanctuary, before the veil, (Exod. xxx. 6 — 10 ; xL 26, 27.) and on it the incense was burnt morning and evening, Exod. xxx. 7, 8,34 — 38. On the north side of the altar of incense, that is, on the right hand of the priest as he entered, stood the table for the shew- bread, (Exod. xxvi. 35 ; xl. 22, 23.) and on the south side of the holy place, the golden candlestick, Exod. xxv. 31 — 39. In the most holy place were the ark, the mercy-seat, and the cherubim, for a description of which their articles may be consulted. The remarkable and costly structure thus de- scribed was erecteu in the wilderness of Sinai, on the first day of the first month of the second year, after the Israelites left Egypt ; (Exod. xl. 17.) and when erected was anointed, together with its furniture, with holy oil, (ver. 9 — 11.) and sanctified by blood, Exod. xxiv. 6 — 8; Heb. ix. 21. The altar of burnt-offering, especially, was sanctified by sacrifices during seven days, (Exod. xxix. 37 ) while rich donations were given by the princes of the tribes, for the service of the sanctuary, Numb. vii. We should not omit to observe, that the tabernacle was so constructed as to be taken to pieces and put together again, as occasion required. This was in- dispensable ; it being designed to accompany the Israelites during their travels in the wilderness. As often as they removed, the tabernacle was taken to pieces, and borne in regular order by the Levites, Numb. iv. Wherever they encamped it was pitched in the midst of their tents, which were set up in a quadrangular form, under their respective standards, at a distance from the tabernacle of 2000 cubits ; while Moses and Aaron, with the priests and Levites occupied a place between them. "Tabernacle" is sometimes put for heaven, for the dwelling-place of the blessed, Ps. xv. 1 ; lxi. 4. " I will abide in thy tabernacle forever." Ps. lxxxiv. 1, " How amiable are thy tabernacles, O Lord of hosts ! "? Paul says to the Hebrews, (chap. viii. 2.) that "Jesus Christ was a minister of the sanctuary and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man ;" and that, "being come a high-priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect taber- nacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building," &c. ch. ix. 11. (See also Rev. xiii. 6 ; xxi. 3.) The tabernacle of David that God was to raise (Amos ix. 11 ; Acts xv. 16.) is the church of Christ, the offspring of David, and heir of the promises made to that patriarch. Tabernacles, Feast of ; called 2xi]vonnyia, that is, the feast in which they set up tents or tabernacles, John vii. 2. In Hebrew it is called the feast of tents, (Lev. xxiii. 42 — 44.) because it was kept under green tents, or arbors, in memory of the dwelling in tents by the Israelites during their passage through the wilderness. It was one of their three great solemni- ties, in which all the males were obliged to appear before the Lord. It was celebrated after harvest, on the fifteenth of Tizri, the first month of the civil year, and was designed to return thanks to God for the fruits of the earth, then gathered in, Exod. xxiii. 16. The feast continued eight days, during which no labor was permitted, and certain sacrifices were offered. On the first day they cut down branches of the handsomest trees, with their fruit, which they carried in ceremony to the synagogue, where they performed what they called Lulab. Holding in their right hand a branch of a palm-tree, three branches of myrtle, and two of willow, tied together, and having in their left hand a citron with its fruit, they brought them together, waving them towards the four quar- ters of the world, and singing certain songs. These branches were also called Hosanna, because on that occasion they cried Hosanna ! not unlike what was done at our Saviour's entry into Jerusalem, Matt, xxi. 8, 9. On the eighth day they performed this ceremony more frequently, and with greater solem- nity than on the other days of the feast ; whence they called this day Hosanna Rabbah, or the great Hosanna. On this occasion Psalm cxviii. " O give thanks unto the Lord, for he is good — Let Israel now say," &c. seems to have been sung. The psalmist makes a plain allusion to it in ver. 25, &c. "Save now, I beseech thee, O Lord : O Lord, I be- seech thee, send now prosperity. Blessed be he that cometh in the name of the Lord," &c. The Hebrew says, " Hosanna Jehovah," &c. and these words the Jews sing at this day, when they make a procession about their desk, at the Feast of Tabernacles. They are the same as were sung at our Saviour's triumphal entry into Jerusalem. On the first day of the feast, besides the ordinary sacrifices, they offered as a burnt offering thirteen calves, two rams and fourteen lambs, with offerings of flour and libations of wine ; and also a goat for a sin-offering, Numb. xxix. 12. On the second day they offered twelve calves, two rams and fourteen lambs, for a burnt- offering, with their offerings of flour, oil and wine; as also a goat for a sin-offeriug; and this beside the ordinary morning and evening sacrifices, which were never interrupted ; nor those offered by the Israelites from private devotion, or for expiation of sin. On the third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh days of the feast were offered the same sacrifices as on the second day, with this difference, that every day they diminished from the former by one calf; so that on the third day they offered eleven, on the fourth ten, on the fifth nine, on the sixth eight, and on the seventh but seven. But the eighth day, which was kept with the greatest 1 solemnity, they offered but one calf, one ram and seven lambs for a burnt-offering, and one goat for a sin-offering ; with the other accustomed offerings and libations. On this day, too, the Jews presented at the temple the first-fruits of their later crop, that is, of such things as were the latest in coming to maturity. They also drew water out of the fountain of Siloam, which was brought into the temple, and, being first mingled with wine, was poured out by the priests at the foot of the altar of burnt-offerings ; the people in the mean time singing those words of the prophet Isaiah, (chap. xii. 3.) "Therefore with joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation." It is said this ceremony was instituted by Haggai and Zecha- riah, at the return from the captivity ; and it is thought that our Lord alluded to it, (John vii. 37, 38.) when he cried in the temple, on the last day of the Feast of Tabernacles, " If any thirst, let him come unto me and drink. He that believeth on me, as the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water;" — meaning, accoi-ding to John's observation, the Holy Ghost, which should be given to those who believed on him. Some commentators think, that at this feast were rehearsed Psalms viii. lxxxi. and lxxxviii. entitled " for the presses ; " but Leo of Modena says, they rehearsed those Psalms whose titles are Hallelujah, or, " praise God," — cxi. cxii. cxiii. cxvi. cxvii. cxviii. of Shew-Bread, see Breah, p. 209, seq.


TABITHA, a Christian widow,who lived at Joppa, and who, having fallen sick and died, was restored to life through the intercession of the apostle Peter, Acts ix. 36. The name Tabitha, Heb. iax, Syr. h-<^o, signifies gazelle ; as does also the corresponding Greek name, Dorcas. See Antelope, p. 70.


TABOR, or simply Azanoth, or Az- noth, a city of Naphtali, (Josh. xix. 34.) which Euse • bius places in the plain, not far distant from Dio- csesarea. is the Greek name of the same city which is called, in the Hebrew, Ashdod. It was not taken by Joshua, and, being surrounded with a wall of great strength, it became a place of great impor- tance, and one of the five governments of the Philis- tines. Hither was sent the ark of God, when taken from the Israelites ; and here was Dagon cast down before it, 1 Sam. v. 2, 3. Uzziah, king of Judah, broke down its wall, and built cities, or watch-tow- ers, about it, 2 Chron. xxvi. 6. It was taken by Tartan, general of the king of Assyria, (2 Kings xviii. 17.) when it appears to have been very severely treated ; as Jeremiah (chap. xxv. 20.) gives the cup of desolation to be drunk by "the remnant of Ashdod." It was not wholly destroyed, however, for Amos (chap, i. 8.) mentions "the inhabitant of Ashdod ;" Zepha- niah(chap. ii.4.) says, " Ashdod shall be driven out at noon-day ;" and Zechariah (ix. 6.) says, " a bastard shall dwell in Ashdod." From these notices, it appears, [ 120 ] that Ashdod was a place of great strength and conse- quence. Its New Testament name is Azotus, and here Philip was found, after his conversion of the eunuch at Gaza, distant about thirty miles, Actsviii. 40. Azotus was a port on the Mediterranean, between Askalon and Ekron, or between Jamnia and Aske- lon, (Judith iii. 2. G?\) or between Gaza and Jamnia, (Josephus, Antiq. xih. 23.) i. e. it lay between these cities, but not directly, nor in the same sense. The present state of the town is thus described by Dr. Wittman : (Travels in Syria, &c. p. 285.) " Pur- suing our route through a delightful country, we came to Ashdod, called by the Greeks Azotus, and under that name mentioned in the Acts of the Apos- tles ; a town of great antiquity, provided with two small entrance gates. In passing through this place, we saw several fragments of columns, capitals, cor- nices, &c. of marble. Towards the centre is a hand- some mosque, with a minaret. By the Arab inhab- itants Ashdod is called Mezdel. Two miles to the south, on a hill, is a ruin, having in its centre a lofty column still standing entire. The delightful verdure of the surrounding plains, together with a great abundance of fine old olive trees, rendered the scene charmingly picturesque. In the villages, tobacco, fruits and vegetables are cultivated abundantly by the inhabitants ; and the fertile and extensive plains yield an ample produce of corn. Ashdod may be seen from the 'sloping hill of easy ascent,' nea) Jaffa, or Joppa." See Ashdod.


TABOR, an isolated mountain which rises on the north-eastern side of the plain of Esdraelon, in Gal- ilee. Its shape is that of a truncated cone, and Burckhardt states its composition to be entirely cal- careous. Travellers vary in their estimate of its height, which is probably about 2500 to 3000 feet. Tabor is extremely fertile, and is covered by trees and odoriferous plants. On its summit is a plain about a mile in circumference, where are the remains of a citadel of some considerable exteDt, but for what purpose it was erected is not known. Mr. Buckingham, who ascended this mountain, describes the view from its summit as being the finest in the country : "We had on the north-west a view of the Mediterranean sea, whose .iiie surface filled up an open space left by a downward bend in the outline of the western hills ; to the west-north-west a small- er portion of its waters were seen ; and on the west again, the slender line of its distant horizon was just perceptible over the range of land near the sea coast. From the west to the south, the plain of Esdraelon extended over a vast space, being bounded on the south by the range of hills generally considered to be Hermon, whose dews are poetically celebrated, (Ps. cxxxiii. 3.) and having in the same direction, nearer the foot of Tabor, the springs of Ain-el-Sher- rar, which send a perceptible stream through its centre, and form the brook Kishon of antiquity, Ps. lxxxiii. 9. From the south-east to the east is the plain of Galilee, being almost a continuation of Es- draelon, and like it, appearing to be highly cultivated, being now ploughed for seed thoughout. Beneath the range of this supposed Hermon is seated Endor, famed for the witch who raised the ghost of Samuel ; (1 Sam. xxviii.) and Nain, equally celebrated, as the [ 875 1 A L place at which Jesus raised the only son of a widow from death to life, and restored him to his afflicted parent, Luke vii. 11 — 15. The range which bounds the eastern view is thought to be the mountains of Gilboa, where Saul, setting an example of self-de- struction to his armor-bearer and his three sons, fell on his own sword, rather than fall into the hands of the uncircumcised Philistines, by whom he was de- feated, 1 Sam. xxxi. The sea of Tiberias, or the lake of Gennesaret, famed as the seat of many mira- cles, is seen on the north-east, filling the hollow of a deep valley, and contrasting its light blue waters with the dark brown shades of the barren hills by which it is hemmed around. Here, too, the steep is pointed out, down which the herd of swine, who were possessed by the legion of devils, ran headlong into the sea, Luke viii. 33. In the same direction, below, and on the plain of Galilee, and about an hour's distance from the foot of mount Tabor, there is a cluster of buildings, used as a bazaar for cattle ; somewhat further on is a rising ground, from which, it is said, that Christ delivered the long and excellent discourse, called the ' Sermon on the mount,' and the whole view in this quarter is bounded by the high range of Gebel-el-Telj, or the mountain of Snow. The city of Saphet, supposed to be the ancient Be- thuliah, a city said to be seen far and near, and thought to be alluded to in the apophthegm which says, 'a city set on a hill cannot be hid,' (Matt. v. 14.) is also pointed out in this direction. To the north were the stony hills over which we had jour- neyed hither ; and these completed this truly grand and interesting panoramic view." (Travels, p. 107 —109.) Deborah and Barak assembled their army on Ta- bor, from which they marched to give battle to Sisera ; (Judg. iv. 6.) and subsequently, Hosea (chap. v. 1.) reproaches the princes of Israel, and the priests of the golden calves, with having been a snare on Mizpah, and a net spread upon Tabor; referring, no doubt, to the idols, or superstitious altars, which they here set up. When Josephus was governor of Gali- lee, he strongly fortified the top of Tabor ; hut Ves- pasian by stratagem drew down the Jews into the open country, and there cut them to pieces.


TABRET, or Tabouret, a small species of drum, e. g. Timbrel, which see.


TADMOR, subsequently called Palmyra by the Greeks, was a city founded by Solomon in the desert of Syria, on the borders of Arabia Deserta, near the Euphrates. Its situation was remote from human habitations, in the midst of a dreary wilderness ; and it is probable that Solomon built it to facilitate his commerce with the East, as it afforded a supply of water, a thing of the utmost importance in an Ara- bian desert. It is one day's journey from the Euphra- tes, two from Upper Syria, and six from Babylon. The original name was preserved till the time of Alexander, who extended his conquests to this city, which then exchanged Tadmor for the title of Pal- myra. It submitted to the Romans about the year 130, and continued in alliance with them during a period of 150 years. When the Saracens triumphed in the East, they acquired possession of this city, and restored its ancient name of Tadmor. Of the time of its ruin there is no authentic record ; but it is thought, with some probability, that its destruction occurred during the period in which it was occupied by the Saracens. Of its present appearance Messrs. "Wood and Dawkins, who visited it in 1751, thus speak: "It is scarcely possible to imagine any thing more striking than tnis view. So great a number of Corinthian pillars, mixed with so little wall or solid building, afforded a most romantic variety of pros- pect." Captain Mangles, who travelled more recent- ly, observes, " On opening upon the ruins of Palmyra, as seen from the valley of the Tombs, we were much struck with the picturesque effect of the whole, pre- senting the most imposing sight of the kind we had ever seen." But on a minuter inspection, the ruins of this once mighty city do not appear so interesting as at a distance. Volney observes, "In the space covered by these ruins, we sometimes find a palace of which nothing remains but the court and walls ; sometimes a temple, whose peristile is half thrown down ; and now a portico, a gallery, a triumphal arch. If from this striking scene we cast our eyes upon the ground, another almost as varied pre- sents itself. On which side soever we look, the earth is strewed with vast stones half buried, with broken entablatures, mutilated friezes, disfigured re- liefs, effaced sculptures, violated tombs, and altars defiled by the dust." It is situated under a ridge of barren hills to the west, and its other sides are open to the desert. The city was originally about ten miles in circumference ; but, such have been the destructions effected by time, that the boundaries are with difficulty traced and determined. In the Modern Traveller there is a very excellent description of the present aspect of this ruined city, by Mr. Josiah Conder. (Vol. iii. p. 1. Amer. edit.)


TAHAPANES, (Jer. ii. 16.) or Tahpanhes, (Jer. xliii. 7, 9.) or Tehaphnehes, (Ezek. xxx. 18.) the name of an Egyptian city, for which the Seventy put Taphne, (Tu<>vr;, Tuyvai,) and this is probably the same name which the Greeks write Daphne. This city lay in the vicinity of Pelusium, (see Sin II.) to- wards the south-west, on the western bank of the Pe- lusiac branch of the Nile ; and is therefore called by Herodotus the Pelusiac Daphne. To this city many of the Jews retired, after the destruction of Jerusa- lem by the Chaldeans, taking with them the proph- et Jeremiah, Jer. xliii. 7—9 ; xliv. 1. That Taha- panes was a large and important city, is apparent from the threats uttered against it by Ezekiel, c. xxx. 18. *R. TALENT. Several authors have supposed that among the Hebrews there were two sorts of talents, a larger and a smaller ; the talent of the sanctuary, and the common talent; the former being double the weight or value of the other. But we cannot find this distinction in Scripture. The weight of the Jewish talent, according to Dr. Arbuthnot was 113 pounds, 10 ounces, 1 pennyweight and 10 2-7ths grains troy weight. Its value in (Eng- lish) money was 342Z. 3s. 9d. or about $1520. The talent of gold was of the same weight ; its value, 54,752Z. or $243,100. The following thought of Mr. Bruce is perhaps worth inquiring into ; that is, that the talents appro- priated to different commodities might be of different weights; and adds, that if a talent could be dis- covered, which, at the mine, was of less weight than the talent of Judea, we might, perhaps, be justified in estimating the riches in gold of David, or of Solo- mon, by the weight of that talent. " David took possession of two ports, Eloth and Ezion-gaber ; (1 Kings ix. 26; 2 Chron. viii. 17.) from which he carried on trade to Ophir and Tarshish, to a very great extent, to the day of his death. We are struck with astonishment, when we reflect on the sum that prince received in so short a time from these mines [ 876 ] AM of Ophir. For what is said to be given by David (1 Chron. xxii. 14, 15, 19 ; xxix. 3 — 7, three thousand Hebrew talents of gold, reduced to our money, is 21,600,000L sterling) and his princes, for the build- ing of the temple of Jerusalem, exceeds in value 800,000,00(M. of our money, if the talent there spoken of be a Hebrew talent, (the value of a Hebrew talent appears from Exod. xxxviii. 25, 26. For 603,550 persons being taxed at half a shekel each, they must have paid in the whole 301,774 ; now that sum is said to amount to 100 talents, 775 shekels only ; deduct the two latter sums, and there will remain 300,000, which, divided by 100, will leave 3000 shekels for each of these talents,) and not a weight of the same denomination, the value of which was less, and peculiarly reserved for, and used in the traffic of, these precious metals, gold and silver. It was probably an African or Indian weight, proper to the same mine whence was gotten the gold, appro- priated to fine commodities only, as is the case with our ounce trov different from the avoirdupois."


TALISMAN, see Amulet. is the name of a Jewish work contain- ing the body of the doctrines, religion and morality of the Jews ; and having among them an authority equal to, if not greater than that of the Hebrew Scriptures. The name comes from the Hebrew lamad, to teach, and signifies therefore teaching, or rather traditional doctrine. There are strictly two works under this name, viz. the Talmud of Jerusa- lem, and the Talmud of Babylon. See under Lan- guage, p. 609. The Talmud of Jerusalem was compiled by Rabbi Jochanan, who presided in the school of Pal- estine fourscore years, and who is said to have fin- ished it 230 years after the ruin of the temple, or about A. D. 300, for the use of the Jews in Judea. This Talmud is shorter and more obscure than that of Babylon, but is doubtless more ancient. It is composed of two parts, the Mishna and the Gemara. The Mishna (which is also common to the Babylo- nian Talmud) is the work of Rabbi Judah Hakko- desh, or " the Holy," who compiled it about A. D. 190 or 220, at Tiberias. The name Mishna signifies the second law ; and the work is a collection of the traditions of the Jewish doctors, which Hakkodesh gathered into one body, for fear they should be lost and forgotten because of the dispersion of the Jews and the interruption of their schools. About a century later, Rabbi Jochanan, as is said above, composed the Gemara, i. e. completion, perfection, in order to perfect and finish the Mishna of Rabbi Judah. It consists of illustrations of the Mishna, and things supplementary to it, and is in the nature of a com- mentary upon it. The two constitute the Talmud of Jerusalem. The Talmud of Babylon is composed of the same Mishna of Judah the Holy, and of a Gemara, composed, as is said by some, by Rabbi Asa, who lived at Babylon about A. D. 400 ; or, as is affirmed by others, by Rabbi Jose, in the beginning of the sixth century. It is called the Talmud of Babylon, because it was compiled in that city, and was chiefly prevalent among the Jews beyond the Euphrates. The Jews prefer this to the Talmud of Jerusalem, because it is clearer and more extensive. It abounds with a multitude of fables and ridiculous stories, of the truth of which, however, they must entertain no doubt, unless they would pass for heretics. The Jews even prefer the authority of the Talmud to that of Scripture. They compare the Bible to water, the Mishna to wine, and the Gemara to hypo- eras. It is a part of their belief, that the traditions and explications contained in the Talmud are derived from God himself ; that Moses revealed them to Aaron and his sons, and to the elders of Israel ; that these communicated them to the prophets, and the prophets to the members of the great synagogue, who transmitted them down till they came to the doctors or rabbis, and these reduced them to the form of the Mishna and Gemara. The Mishna is written in Hebrew, in a very close and obscure style. See Language, p. 609; noble edition of it was given by Surenhusius, in six parts, folio, Amst. 1698, &c. The Talmud of Jerusalem was printed by Bomberg, at Venice, in one volume folio: that of Babylon at Amsterdam, in twelve volumes folio. Other editions are also extant. *R.


TAMMUS, the tenth month of the Hebrew civil year, and the fourth of the sacred year. (See the Jewish Calendar at the end of the volume.)


TAMMUZ, a pagan idol, mentioned in Ezek. viii. 14, where the women are represented as weeping for it. It is generally thought that Tammuz was the same deity as Adonis, to which article the reader is referred, as also to the article Idolatry.


TANACH, or Taanach, a city of the half-tribe of Manasseh, east of the Jordan, (Josh. xii. 21 ; xx. 25 ; Judg. i. 27.) yielded to the Levites. Eusebius, Jerome and Procopius of Gaza say, that in their time it was a considerable place, three miles from Legio.


TANNIM, or Thannim, see Dragon.


TARGUMS, or Chaldee versions of the Hebrew Scriptures, see Versions.


TARTAN, an officer of king Sennacherib, sent with Rabshakeh on a message to Hezekiah, 2 Kings xviii. 17.


TATNAI, an officer of the king of Persia, and governor of Samaria, and of the provinces on this side Jordan, opposed the rebuilding of the temple and the walls of Jerusalem, Ezra v. 6.


TAVERNS, Three, see Afpii Forum.


TAXING, see Ctrenius.


TEARS, Vale of, see Baca.


TEBETH, the Babylonish name of the tenth ecclesiastical month of the Hebrews, Esth. ii. 16. See Jewish Calendar, infra.


TEHAPHNEHES, see Tahapanes.


TEIL-TREE, see Terebinth.


TEKEL, he was weighed, one of the words that appeared written on the wall at the sacrilegious feast of Belshazzar, indicating that this wretched prince, had been weighed in the balance, and was found wanting, Dan. v. 25. See Belshazzar, and Daniel,.


TEKOA, a city of Judah, (2 Chron. xi. 6.) which Eusebius and Jerome place twelve miles from Jeru- salem, south. The wilderness of Tekoa, mentioned 2 Chron. xx. 20, is not far from the Dead sea.


TEL-ABIB, the name of a place to which some of Israel were carried captive, (Ezek. iii. 15.) and probably the same place as is now called Thelabba, in Mesopotamia, on the river Chebar. In D'Anville's Chart of the Euphrates and Tigris, it is placed be- tween 36 and 37 north latitude, and 53 and 54 east longitude.


TEL-HARSA, perhaps the same as Telasser. Those who returned with Zerubbabel out of this coun- try, could not prove their genealogies, or show that they were of the race of Israel, Ezra ii. 59; Neh. vii.61.

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