KJV Study Bible

Home | Resources | Polyglot Old Testament | Polyglot New Testament | Bible Encyclopedia | Dictionary
Go to book

[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X] [Y] [Z]
Search Article

Edward Robinson

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

Next Page >>


SABAOTH, or rather Tsabaoth, a Hebrew word, signifying hosts or armies ; Jehovah, Sabaoth, is The Lord of Hosts ; whether we understand the host of heaven, or the angels and ministers of the Lord, or the stars and planets, which, as an army ranged in battle array, perform the will of God ; or, lastly, the people of the Lord, both of the old and new covenants, which is truly a great army, of which God is the general and commander. The Hebrew Tsaba is often used, also, to signify the service his ministers perform to God in the temple ; because they are there, as it were, soldiers or guards, attending the court of their prince, Numb. iv. 3, 23, 30, &c. This word is also used to express the duty of the women who watched at the door of the taber- nacle, and kept guard there during the night-time, Exod. xxxviii. 8.


SABBATH, rest; God, having created the world in six days, rested on the seventh ; (Gen. ii. 2, 3.) that is, he ceased from producing new beings in this creation ; and because he had rested on it, he blessed or sancti- fied it, and apoointed it in a peculiar manner for his worship. The Hebrews, afterwards, in consequence of this designation, and to preserve the memory of the creation, sanctified, by his order, the sabbath day, or the seventh day of the week, abstaining from all work, labor and servile employment, and applying them- selves to the service of the Lord, to the study of his law, and to prayer. The days of sabbath are taken sometimes for all the Jewish festivals. " Keep my sabbaths," (Lev. xix. 3, 30.) that is, my feasts; as the Passover, Pente- cost, Feast of Tabernacles, &c. It is disputed, whether, from the beginning of the world, God gave the law of the sabbath; and whether this day was also observed, at least among the more pious of the first men, as the patriarchs, before the promulgation of the law ; — whether this be the sense of those words, (Gen. ii. 2.) "And God blessed the seventh clay, and sanctified it"? — Some fathers, and some Jewish doctors, have asserted the affirmative ; and Manasseh Ben-Israel assures us that, according to the tradition of the ancients, Abraham and his pos- terity, having preserved the memory of the creation 796 ] observed the sabbath also, in consequence of the nat- ural law to that purpose. It is also believed that the religion of the seventh day is preserved among the pafrans, and that the observation of this day is as old as the world itself. Philo says that the sabbath is not a festival peculiar to any one people or couiitry, but is common to the whole world ; and that it may be named the general and public festival, and that of the nativity of the world ; and Josephus advances, that there is no city, Greek or barbarian, nor any nation, where the religion of the sabbath was not known. Aristobulus quotes Homer and Hesiod, who speak of the seventh day as sacred and venerable. Clemens Alexandrinus speaks of the sabbath in the same terms as Aristobulus, and he adds some passages from the ancients, who celebrate the seventh day. Some be- lieve that Job observed the sabbath day ; because at the end of seven days he offered a sacrifice to the Lord on account of his chi'dren, Job i. 2, 5. Some rabbins inform us that Joseph also observed the sab- bath in Egypt. But the contrary opinion is not without its sup- porters. The greater part of the fathers and com- mentators hold, that the sanctification of the sabbath, mentioned by Moses in the beginning of Genesis, signifies only that appointment then made of the seventh day, to be afterwards solemnized and sancti- fied by the Jews ; nor does it appear from any pas- sages of Scripture, that the ancient patriarchs observ- ed the sabbath ; or that God designed to oblige them thereto, before the law. Philo says that the Hebrews, having forgotten the day of the creation of the world, were again reminded of it, when God, having caused it to rain manna all the other days of the week, with- held it on the sabbath day. As to the seventh day, which was honored by some pagans, and of which they have spoken, as of a holy day, it was either ded- icated to Apollo, or it was an imitation of the Jewish sabbath, which some pagans held in honor, either out of superstition or devotion. . Ezekiel (xx. 12, 20.) says expressly, that the sab- bath, and the other feasts of the Jews, are signs given by God to his people, to distinguish them from other nations ; " I gave them my sabbaths, to be a sign be- tween me and them, that they might know that I am the Lord that sanctify them." And again, " Hallow my sabbaths, and they shall be a sign between me and you, that ye mav know that I am the Lord your God." And Moses(Deut. v. 15.) "The Lord hath brought thee out of Egypt, therefore the Lord thy God commanded thee to keep the sabbath day." Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Eusebius and Bernard advance, as a matter not to be doubted, that neither the patriarchs before the deluge, nor those after, ob- served the sabbath. Irenseus says expressly, that Abraham had faith, and was called {he friend of God, yet neither was circumcised, nor observed the sabbath. (See Selden, de Jure Nat. et Gent. lib. iii. cap. 13 — ? 15 ; and Spencer, de LegibusHeb. lib. i. cap. iv. sec. 7.) God gave the precept of the sabbath to the Hebrews at Marah, one month after their coming out of Egypt, Abib 15, A. M. 2513. Manna began to fall, accord- ing to several of the fathers, on the Sunday, six days before the sabbath ; but according to others, on the very eve of the sabbath. However this may be, it was probably on occasion of the manna, that God commanded the Hebrews to observe the seventh day ; and not to go out to gather any on that day, for that none would fall. The same command of celebrating the sabbath occurs several times in the law, Exod. xx. 8 — 11 ; Lev. xxiii. 3; Deut. v. 12. In Exod. xxxi. 13 ; xxxv. 2, it is said, that God established his sabbath among the children of Israel, as a sign to make them remember that he is the Lord who sanctifies them. Adding that whosoever shall profane the sabbath shall be punished with death. We see the execution of this law on the man who, having gathered wood on the sabbath day, aud was stoned, Numb. xv. 32, 35. On other holy days it was allowed to light a fire, and to dress victuals ; but this was expressly forbidden on the sabbath day, Exod. xxxv. 2, 3. The rabbins confine this prohibition to servile works only ; as to bake bread, to dress meat, to forge metals, &c. They suppose that for such sort of works, it is forbidden to light a fire, but not for one to warm himself. On the sabbath day the ministers of the temple entered on their week ; and those who had attended the foregoing week, went out. They placed on the golden table new loaves of shew-bread, and took away the old ones, Lev. xxiv. 8. Also, on this day were offered particular sacrifices of two lambs for a burnt- offering, with the wine and the meal. The sabbath was celebrated, as the other festivals, from evening to evening. The first obligation of the sabbath expressed in the law, is to sanctify it; (Numb, xxviii.9, 10; Exod. xx. 8.) " Remember to sanctify the sabbath day." It is sanctified by doing good works in it ; by prayers, praises and thanksgivings, by public and private worship of God, by the study of his law, by justice and innocence, and tranquillity of mind. The second obligation is that of rest : " Thou shalt do no work on the sabbath." Meaning any servile or laborious work, that might fix the mind, and interrupt that attention which is due to God, and which is necessary when we pay acceptable worship to him. The Jews have varied about the manner in which they ought to ob- serve the rest of the sabbath. In the time of the Maccabees they durst not so much as defend them- selves from an enemy on this day, even in the most pressing necessity, 1 Mac. ii. 32, 33, &c. Since that time they have not scrupled to take arms, and stand on their necessary defence. But it may be seen by Josephus, that they would not attack their enemies, nor hinder them from advancing their works ; nor would they march with their armies, even in time of war, or in the enemy's country, on the sabbath day. (Antiq. lib. xii. cap. 3 ; xiii. cap. 1. 16.) In the time of our Saviour, they would water their cattle, or take out of a ditch a beast that had happened to fall in on the sabbath day ; but by a false delicacy they could not bear with our Saviour's healing the sick on that day, Matt. xii. 11, 12. Since that time they have deter- mined, that a man might give food to a beast that had fallen into a pit, but must not take him out on that day. The Jews complained of our Saviour's disciples, who, passing through the corn-fields on the sabbath day, gathered some ears of corn, and rubbed them between their hands, in order to eat the grain. This action, however, our Saviour excused, from the neces- sity of the thing, and because they had need of nour ishment; adding, that the priests themselves in the temple do work, which, every where else, and in every one else, would be esteemed a violation of the sab- bath ; that the Son of man was Lord of the sabbath ; and that the sabbath was made for man, not man for the sabbath. The rabbins reckon thirty-nine primary prohibi- tions, which ought to be observed on the sabbath, and several other secondary ones dependent on them, i Their number is, in fact, so great, that it is almost im [ 797 ] possible to keep them all ; and the rabbins affirm, that if the people of Israel could keep but two sabbaths as they ought to be kept, they should soon see them- selves delivered from the evils under which they groan. Their scrupulosity even forbids to peel or to roast an apple ; to kill a flea, a fly, or other insect, if it is so big that the sex may be distinguished ; to sing, or to play on an instrument, so loud as to awaken a child. Yet, notwithstanding all this, the Samaritans pretend, that the Jews are not religious enough in their obser- vation of the sabbath. As for them, they will not light a fire on this day : they abstain from the use of marriage : they do not stir from their places, save only to go to the house of the Lord : they employ them- selves wholly in reading the law, in prayers and thanksgivings. (Letter of the Samaritans to Mr. Huntington.) Of all the festivals God has enjoined, there are none of which the Jews are so jealous, or of which they speak so magnificently, as of the sabbath. They call it their spouse, because God has given it to them, specially, exclusive of all other nations. Leo ofModena, who alone is equivalent to all the modern Jews, says, the rabbins have reduced all that is for- bidden on the sabbath day, to thirty-nine heads, each of which have their circumstances and dependences. But they are of little importance, and their enumera- tion would occupy much space. Such profane authors as have ventured to speak of the origin of the sabbath, have shown their ignorance of Jewish affairs. Tacitus thought they observed the sabbath in honor of Saturn, to whom Saturday was consecrated by the pagans. But Plutarch as- serts that it was kept in honor of Bacchus, who is called Sabbos ; and because in the festivals of this false deity they used to cry Saboi. Apion, the gram- marian, maintained that the Jews celebrated the sabbath in memory of their being cured of a shame- ful disease, which in the Egyptian language was called Sabbosis. Pagan authors speak pretty fre- quently of the fast of the sabbath ; as if the Jews had ordinarily fasted on this clay ; whereas fasting was utterly forbidden on the sabbath. The obligation of devoting a portion of our time to God, to be employed in his worship and service, is founded on natural right and reason. The law had fixed this to the seventh day, that is, the sabbath, for the nation of the Jews. It is believed by some that the apostles, to honor the day of our Saviour's resur- rection, determined it to every seventh day, and fixed it on the Sunday, that is, the first day of the week among the Hebrews ; and the day dedicated to the sun among the pagans. The change of the day, however, is rather to be gathered from the practice of the Christian church, than as clearly enjoined in the New Testament. It appears that believers came to- gether on this day to break bread, that collections for the poor were then made, and put into the gen- eral treasury of the church ; (as we understand 1 Cor. xvi. 2.) that on this day exhortations and discourses were made to the people ; and in short, we have the various parts of public worship noted, as being per- formed on this day. It will follow, that we may safely imitate those examples which the apostles and primitive Christians have left us ; and whatever ob- ligations the Jews might lie under to the observance of the Saturday sabbath, they do not bind Christians ; because those obligations were national, not general ; ana were commemorative, in some degree, of Israel- itish events, in which others have no interest ; where- as, the resurrection sabbath commemorates an event in which all Christians throughout the world are in- terested, and for which no equal mode of commem- oration can be devised. We have then good exam- ple and strong propriety in behalf of our observation, of the Lord's day, as a religious festival, though not as a Jewish sabbath ; and the same principles in- fluenced the Christians of early ages. We are informed by Eusebius, that from the be- ginning the Christians assembled on the first day of the week, called by them the " Lord's day," foi the purposes of religious worship, "to read the Scriptures, to preach, and to celebrate the Lord's supper ;" and Justin Martyr observes, "that, on the Lord's day, all Christians in the city, or country meet together, because that is the day of our Lord's resurrection, and then we read the writings of the apostles and prophets ; this being done, the president makes an oration to the assembly, to exhort them to imitate and to practise the things they have heard ; then we all join in prayer, and after that we celebrate the sacrament. Then they who are able and willing give what they think proper, and what is collected is laid up in the hands of the president, who distributes it to orphans and widows, and other necessitous Christians, as their wants require." (See 1 Cor. xvi. 2.) A very honorable conduct and worship ! would to God it were more prevalent among us; with the spirit and piety of primitive Christianity! John says, (Rev. i. 10.) " I was in the spirit on the Lord's day ;" so called, doubtless, to preserve the remembrance of his resurrection, which was the completion of our redemption. Barnabas, in his Epistle, says, that we joyfully celebrate the eighth day, in memory of the resurrection of our Saviour, because it was on this clay he rose again, and as- cended into heaven ; and Ignatius the martyr, in his letter to the Magnesians, would have us honor this day of the Lord, this day of the resurrection, as the first and most excellent of days. Sabbath Day's Journey. — " Pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the sabbath day," says our Saviour to his disciples, when dis- coursing to them of the approaching destruction of Jerusalem, Matt. xxiv. 20. And Luke informs us, (Acts i. 12.) that the mount of Olives was distant from Jerusalem about a sabbath day's journey. The rabbins generally fix this distance at two thousand cubits. Josephus says, that the mount of Olives was five stadia from Jerusalem, which makes six hun- dred and twenty-five paces. Thus the journey that was allowable on a sabbath day was about six or seven hundred paces, or something more. Origen says that the journey of a sabbath day is one mile or two thousand cubits. The Jews also used to make a mile consist of two thousand cubits ; so that their cubit must.be two feet and a half, since their mile contains a thousand paces, or five thousand feet, taking their paces at five feet each. Maimonides will have it, that he who does not know exactly the distance of a place, may walk on the sabbath day two thousand moderate paces, which makes a thou- sand geometrical paces of five feet each. Epipha- nius says, (Hseres. lxvi.) that the Jews believe they are forbidden from walking on the sabbath day above six stadia, or seven hundred and fifty paces. The Syriac translator of the Acts of the Apostles puts about seven stadia for a sabbath day's journey ; which is according to what some rabbins say, that a mile is seven stadia and a half. The Second Sabbath after the First (Luke vi. 1.) is an expression which has much divided com- [ 798 ] meritators. Some have taken it for the second, others for the last, day of unleavened bread ; and some, for the day of Pentecost. The Passover was the first sabbath, according to them, and Pentecost the sec- ond. Others have thought, that the first grand sab- bath was the first sabbath of the civil year, in the month Tizri ; and that the second grand sabbath was the first of the holy year, or of the month Nisan. But Joseph Scaliger, who is followed by most com- mentators, supposes it to have been the first sabbath which followed the second day of unleavened bread. Indeed, the Greek word SevTiQanQuiTo; properly means the first after the second. This second day of the Pass- over was a festival, in which the fruits of the harvest were offered to God, Lev. xxiii. 5, 9. From this second day, the Jews thus reckoned their sabbaths from the Passover to Pentecost ; the first was called the first [sabbath] after the second [day of unleavened bread.] The second was called the second [sabbath] after the second [day of unleavened bread.] The third was called the third [sabbath] after the second [day of unleavened bread.] And so of the restj as far as the seventh [sabbath] after the second [day of unleavened bread.] This seventh sabbath immediately preceded Pentecost, which was cele- brated the fiftieth day after the second day of un- leavened bread. The Preparation for the Sabbath is the Fri- day before ; for as it was forbidden to make a fire, to bake bread, or to dress victuals, on the sabbath day, they provided on the Friday every thing needful for their sustenance on the sabbath. YEAR was to be celebrated among the Jews from seven years to seven years, when the land was to rest, and be left without cul- ture, Exod. xxiii. 10 ; Lev. xxv. 2, 3, &c. They were then to set slaves at liberty, and each was to re-enter on his inheritance that had been alienated. God appointed the observation of the sabbatical year, to preserve the remembrance of the creation of the world ; to enforce the acknowledgment of his sove- reign authority over all things, particularly over the land of Canaan, which he had given to the Hebrews, by delivering up the fruits of their fields to the poor and the stranger. It was a kind of tribute which they paid for it to the Lord. Besides, he intended to inculcate humanity on his people, by commanding that they should resign to the slaves, to the poor, to strangers and to brutes, the produce of their fields, of their vineyards, and of their gardens, Lev. xxv. 2, &c. It has been much disputed, at what season of the year the sabbatical year began. Some have been of opinion, that it began on the first month of the sa- cred year, that is, Nisan, or in the spring. Others think it began at the first month of the civil year, or Tizri (September). Moses does not explain himself on this matter very clearly. He says only, that the land shall not be cultivated, and that there shall be no harvest that year. In Palestine, the time of sow- ing wheat and barley was in autumn ; barley-harvest began at the Passover, and wheat-harvest at Pente- cost. Therefore, to enter into the spirit of the law for observing the rest of the sabbatical year, that the land may not remain two years without cultivation, we must necessarily begin it at autumn, after the crops were gathered : they did not till the land in autumn, and they had no harvest after the winter ; but the autumn following they began again to cultivate the land, that they might reap their harvests in the spring and summer following. In the sabbatical year all debts were remitted, and slaves .were set at liberty, Deut. xv. 12; Exod. xxi. 2. But were debts absolutely forgiven, or was the pay- ment of them only suspended? Several think, that this remission was absolute, and that all debts were totally extinguished in the sabbatical year. The caution of rich men, noticed by Moses, (Deut. xv. 9.) who would not lend to their brethren at the approach of the sabbatical year, seems to prove, that after this year nothing was to be hoped for from their debtors. For if the payment of debts were only suspended till this year was over and past, it would not have been a sufficient motive to hinder them from lending. As there was no lending for interest in the case, which was forbidden to the Hebrews toward their brethren, as it could only be a simple loan, the creditor might require it again either before or after the sabbatical year, on the supposition of those who think that the remission was not absolute. Others, as the rabbins and Grotius, distinguish between debts mortgaged on security (the contracts of which included a clause of perpetual debt) and simple contracts ; the last being for ever acquitted on the sabbatical year, but not the others. Menochius also thinks, that the remission of debts was general and absolute, but not of loans or deposits. This regarded only the natural Hebrews, or proselytes to Judaism, and not strangers.


SABTAH, the third son of Cush, (Gen. x. 7.) peo- pled part of Arabia Fcelix, where is a city called Sabta, and a people called Sabatheans.


SABTECHA, fifth son of Cush, who also peopled, as is thought, part of Arabia, or some country toward Assyria, or Armenia, or Caramania ; for in all these re- gions are found traces of the name Sabtecha, Gen. x. 7.


SACK, SACK-CLOTH. These are pure He- brew words, and have spread into almost all lan- guages. Sack-cloth is a very coarse stuff, often of hair. In great calamities, in penitence, in trouble, they wore sack-cloth about their bodies, 2 Sam. iii. 31. " Gird yourselves with sack-cloth, and mourn for Abner." — "Let us gird ourselves with sack-cloth ; and let us go, and implore the clemency of the king of Israel," 1 Kings xx. 31. Ahab rent his clothes, put on a shirt of hair cloth next to his skin, fasted, and lay upon sack-cloth, 1 Kings xxi. 27. When Mordecai was informed of the destruction threatened to his nation, he put on sack -cloth, and covered his head with ashes, Esth. iv. Job says, that he sewed a sack over his flesh, chap. xvi. 15. The prophets were often clothed in sack-cloth ; and generally in coarse clothing. The Lord bids Isaiah put off the sack-cloth from about his body, and to go naked, Isa. xx. 2. Zechariah says, (xiii. 4.) that, false proph- ets should no longer prophesy in sack-cloth, to de- ceive the simple. John (Rev. xi. 3.) says, that the two prophets of God should prophesy 1260 years, clothed in sack-cloth. Baruch intimates, that this habit of sack-cloth was that in which good people clothed themselves Avhen they went to prayers, Ba- ruch iv. 20. But. sack-cloth was mourning, as ap- pears from numerous passages of Scripture , and it is very credible, also, that it was used for enwrapping the dead, when about to be buried. So that its be- ing worn by survivors was a kind of assimilation to the shroud, or dress, of the departed ; as its being worn by penitents was an implied confession of what their guilt exposed them to, that is, death. This we gather from an expression of Chardin, who, in his description of Ispahan, says — Kel Anayet, the Shah's buffoon, made a shop in the seraglio, " which he filled with pieces of that coarse kind of stuff of which winding-sheets for the dead are made." And again — "the sufferers die by hundreds ; — mortuary wrap- ping-doth is doubled in price." So that, however, in later ages, some eastern nations might bury in linen, yet others still retained the use of a coarser material, that is, sack-cloth. In times of joy, or on hearing good news, those who were clad in sack-cloth tore it from their bodies, and cast it from them, Ps. xxx. 11.


SACKBUT, a wind musical instrument, like a trumpet, which may be lengthened or shortened. Italian trombone. R. was an offering made to God on his altar, by the hand of a lawful minister. Sacrifice differed from oblation : in a sacrifice there was a real change or destruction of the thing offered ; whereas an oblation was but a simple offering or gift. As men have always been bound to acknowledge the supreme dominion of God over them, and over what- ever belongs to them, and as there have always been persons who have conscientiously acquitted them- selves of this duty; we may affirm, that there have always been sacrifices in the world. Adam and his sons, Noah and his descendants, Abraham and his posterity, Job and Melchisedec, before the Mosaic law, offered to God real sacrifices. That law did but settle the quality, the number, and other cir- cumstances' of sacrifices. Before that, they offered fruits of the earth, the fat or the milk of animals ; the fleeces of sheep ; or the blood and the flesh of vic- tims. Every one pursued his own mode of acknowl- edgment, his zeal, or his devotion : but among the Jews, the law appointed what they were to offer, and in what quantities. Before the law, every one was priest and minister of his own sacrifice ; at least he was at liberty to choose what priest he pleased, in offering his victim. Generally, this honor be- longed to the most ancient, or the head of a family, to princes, or to men of the greatest virtue and in- tegrity. But after Moses, this was, among the Jews, confined to the family of Aaron. It is disputed, whether, at first, there were any other sacrifices than burnt-offerings: no other ap- pear in Scripture. The Talmudists assure us, that Abel offered only holocausts, consuming the flesh of the victim by fire ; because it was not allowed to eat it. Grotius is of opinion, that this patriarch did not offer a bloody sacrifice. The text of Moses informs us, (Gen. iv. 4.) that he offered " of the firstlings of his flocks, and of the fat thereof." We are told by Servius, that the ancients put no fire to sacrifices, but obtained it by their prayers ; and most of the fathers think it was thus that God ac- cepted the sacrifice of Abel : he consumed it, say they, by fire from heaven ; which favor was not vouchsafed to Cain's sacrifice. In the same manner he consumed the sacrifices offered at Aaron's conse- cration, those offered by Gideon, those offered by Solomon, at the dedication of his temple, those of Elijah on mount Carmel, and those offered by the [ 800 ] Maccabees, at restoring the worship of the temple, after the profanation by Antiochus Epiphanes. The Hebrews had properly but three sorts of sac- rifices ; (1.) the burnt-offering or holocaust ; (2.) the sacrifice for sin, or sacrifice of expiation ; (3.) the pacific sacrifice, or sacrifice of thanksgiving. Be- side these, were several kinds of offerings, of corn, of meal, of cakes, of wine, of fruits ; and one manner of sacrificing, which has no relation to any now mentioned, that is, the setting at liberty one of the two sparrows offered for the purification of leprous persons ; (Lev. xiv. 4, 5, &c.) also the scape-goat, which was taken to a distant and steep place, whence it was thrown, Lev. xvi. 10, 26. These animals, thus left to themselves, were esteemed victims of expiation, loaded with the sins of those who offered them. The holocaust was offered and burnt up, on the altar of burnt-offerings, without any reserve to the person who gave the victim, or to the priest who killed and sacrificed it ; only the priest had the skin ; for before the sacrifices were offered to the Lord, their skins were flayed off, and their feet and entrails were washed. (See Lev. vii. 8.) The sacrifice for sin, or for expiation, or the puri- fication of a man who had fallen into any offence against the law, was not entirely consumed on the fire of the altar. No part of it returned to him who had given it, but the sacrificing priest had a share of it. If it were the high-priest who had offended through ignorance, he offered a calf without blem- ish ; he brought it to the door of the tabernacle, put his hand on the head of the sacrifice, confessed his sin, asked pardon for it, killed the calf, &c. (See Lev. iv. v.) If it were the whole people which had offended, they were to offer a calf, in like manner. The elders shall bring it to the altar of the tabernacle, shall put their hands upon its head, confess their offence, &c. If it be a prince of the people who had offended, he shall offer a goat, shall bring it to the door of the tabernacle, shall put his hands upon its head, shall confess his sin, &c. Calmet remarks, that though Moses orders a goat, it is understood, that they might offer a ram. (See Lev. vii. 1 — 4, and compare Lev. v. 6, 7.) If it be a private person who has committed an offence, he shall make an offering of a sheep, or ashe-goat without blemish, shall present it to the priest at the door of the tabernacle, shall put his hands upon the head of the sacrifice. The priest shall sacrifice it, &c. (See Lev. iv. v.) But if he be not of ability to offer a sheep, or a she-goat, he shall offer two turtles, or two young pigeons ; one for his sin, the other for a burnt-offering. That which is for the burnt-offering, shall be entirely consumed on the fire of the altar. That which is to be offered for his sin, sha'I be presented to the priest, who shall kill it, &c. If the person was extremely poor, he might offer the tenth part of an ephah of meal, that is, a little more than a gallon of meal, without oil or spice. He pre- sented it to the priest, who took a handful of it, and threw it on the fire : the rest was for himself. (For other circumstances belonging to this subject, see Lev. v. 15, 16 ; vi. 1 — 3.) When a ram was offered, his rump, or tail, was burnt along with the rest of the fat. But if it were a goat, the fat only was burnt, Lev. vii. 2, 3. See Rump. The peace-offering was offered to return thanks to God for benefits ; or to solicit favors from him ; or to satisfy private devotion ; or simply, for the honor of God. The Israelites offered this when they pleased; no law obliged them to it. They were free to choose what animal they would, among such as were al- lowed to be sacrificed. No distinction was observed of age, or sex, of the victim, as in the burnt sacrifices, and the sacrifices for sin, Lev. iii. The law only re- quired that the victim should be without blemish. He who presented it came to the door of the taberna- cle, put his hand on the head of the victim, and killed it. The priest poured out the blood about the altar of burnt sacrifices : he burnt on the fire of the altar the fat of the lower belly, that which covers the kid- neys, the liver and the bowels. Aud if it were a lamb, or a ram, he added to it the rump of the animal, which, in that country, is very fat. Before these things were committed to the fire of the altar, the priest put them into the hands of the offerer, then made him lift them up on high, and wave them toward the four quarters of the world, the priest sup- porting and directing his hands. . The breast and the right shoulder of the sacrifice belonged to the priest that performed the service ; and it appears, that each of them were put into the hands of him who offered them ; though Moses mentions only the breast of the animal. After this, all the rest of the sacrifice be- longed to him who presented it, and he might eat it with his family and friends, at his pleasure, Lev. viii. 30, &c. The sacrifices or offerings of meal, or liquors, which were offered for sin, were in favor of the poorer sort, who could not afford to sacrifice an ox, or goat, or sheep, Lev. vi. 14, &c. They contented them- selves with offering meal or flour, sprinkled with oil, with spice (or frankincense) over it. And the priest, taking a handful of this flour, with all the frankincense, sprinkled them on the fire of the altar ; and all the rest of the flour was his own : he was to eat it without leaven in the tabernacle, and none but priests were to partake of it. As to other offerings, fruits, wine, meal, wafers, or any thing else, the priest always cast a part on the altar, the rest belonged to him and the other priests. These offerings were always accompanied with salt and wine, but were without leaven, Lev. ii. Sacrifices, in which they set at liberty a bird, or a goat, were not properly such ; because there was no shedding of blood, and the victim remained alive ; e. g. the sparrow offered for the purification of a leper, or of a house spotted with leprosy, Lev. xiv. A couple of sparrows were presented to the priest, or two clean birds, with a bundle of hyssop, tied with a scarlet string. The priest killed one of the birds over running water, which was in a clean and new earthen vessel ; afterwards, tying the living sparrow to the bundle of cedar and hyssop, with the tail turn- ed towards the handle of the vessel, he plunged it in the water mingled with the blood of the first spar- row ; sprinkled the leper, or the house, with it, and then set the living sparrow at liberty, to go where it pleased. The other animal set at liberty was a goat ; on the day of solemn expiation. See Goat, Scape. Sacrifices of birds were offered on three occasions. (1.) For sin, when the person offering was not rich enough to provide an animal for a victim, Lev. v. 7, 8. (2.) For purification of a woman after her lying-in, Lev. xii. 6, 7. When she could offer a lamb and a young pigeon, she gave both ; the lamb for a burnt- offering, the pigeon for a sin-offering. But if she were not able to offer a lamb, she gave a pair of turtles, or a pair of young pigeons ; one for a burnt- offering, the other for a sin-offering. (3.) They offered two sparrows for those who were purified [ SOI ] C from the leprosy ; one was a burnt-offering, the other was a scape-sparrow, as above, Lev. xiv. 4, &c. 49—51. For the sacrifice of the paschal lamb, see Pass- over. The perpetual sacrifice (Exod. xxix. 38 — 40 ; Numb, xxviii. 3.) was a daily offering of two Iambs on the altar of burnt-offerings ; one in the morning, the other in the evening. They were burnt as holocausts, but by a small fire, that they might continue burning the longer. The lamb of the morning was offered about sunrise, after the incense was burnt on the golden altar, and before any other sacrifice. That in the evening was offered between the two even- ings, that is, at the decline of day, and before night. With each of these victims was offered half a pint of wine, half a pint of the purest oil, and an assaron, or about five pints, of the finest flour. Such were the sacrifices of the Hebrews ; sacrifices, indeed, very imperfect, and altogether incapable, in themselves, to purify the soul ! Paul has described these find other ceremonies of the law, " as weak and beggarly elements," Gal. iv. 9. They represented grace and purity, but they did not communicate it. They convinced the sinner of the necessity to purify himself, and make satisfaction to God ; but they did not impart holiness to him. Sacrifices were only prophecies and figures of the true sacrifice, which eminently includes all their virtues and qualities ; be- ing at the same time holocaust, a sacrifice for sin, and a sacrifice of thanksgiving ; containing the whole substance and efficacy, of which the ancient sacrifices were only representations. The paschal lamb, the daily burnt-offerings, the offerings of flour and wine, and all other oblations, of whatever nature, promised and represented the death of Jesus Christ. See further on Covenant. The sacrifice of a humble and contrite heart is that which, on our part, constitutes the whole merit of what we can offer to God, Ps. li. 17. " The sacri- fices of God are a broken spirit ; a broken and a con- trite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise." The Jews, without these dispositions, could not present any offering agreeable to God ; and he often explains himself on this matter in the prophets, Ps. xl. 6 : Isa. i. 11 — 14 ; Jer. xxxv. 15 ; Amos v. 21, 22 ; Hos. xiv. 2—4 ; Joel ii. 12, 13, &c. ; Ps. li. 16. The very natural notion common to mankind, that whatever we most value must be offered to God, has prevailed in several nations, so far as to induce them to offer human sacrifices. But it is not agreed who first introduced this custom. Some ascribe it to IIus, or Saturn, who, they say, practised it among the Phoenicians, offering up to the gods his own son Jehoud, whom he had by the nymph Anabreth. Philo insinuates that the custom of offering such sacrifices was known in Canaan before Abraham ; and some learned men think, that the example of these people abated much of that horror Abraham would otherwise have had, at the intention of sacri- ficing his own son. But it is much more probable, that Abraham's example, misunderstood and ill ap- plied, gave rise to this custom. Some learned men have thought, that among the Canaanites and Mo- abites, they contented themselves with making their children pass through the flames, or between two fires, which they called lustrarc per ignem. No doubt they often did so ; but often they really consumed them in the flames. Moses (Lev. xviii. 21.) forbids this practice, though we afterwards read of a son of king Ahaz. who had been offered to Moloch, and yet 101 reigned after his father, 2 Kings xvi. 3, compared with ch. xviii. 1. In Lev. xx. 1 — 3, it is said, " Whosoever he be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, that giveth any of his seed to Moloch, he shall surely be put to death, the people of the land shall stone him with stones. And I will set my face against that man, and will cut him off from among his people ; because he hath given of his seed unto Mo- loch, to defile my sanctuary, and to profane my holy name. And if the people of the land do any ways hide their eyes from the man, when he giveth of his seed unto Moloch, and kill him not, then I will set my face against that man, and against his family, and will cut him off, and all that go a whoring after him, to commit whoredom with Moloch, from among their people." Moses repeats these prohibitions, Deut. xviii. 10. It appears, however, from Amos v. 26, that the people did not forbear, even in the desert, to carry with them a tent consecrated to Moloch. It is beyond all doubt that the Canaanites put their children to death in honor of their gods, Ps. cvi. 37. Jeremiah (xix. 5.) says, " They have built also the high places of Baal, to burn their sons with fire, for burnt- offerings unto Baal." (See also chap, xxxii. 35.) For these crimes God drove out the Canaanites. (See Deut. xviii. 10, 12; Wisd. xii. 5.) The Phoenicians, a remnant of the Canaanites, con tinued this barbarous custom, which they justified by the example of Ilus, or Saturn, as above ; and carried it with their colonies into Africa, where it long con- tinued. When Gelo, king of Sicily, conquered the Carthaginians, by the treaty he made with them, he obliged them to renounce the custom of sacrificing their children to Saturn ; and Justin assures us, that Darius imposed the same commands on them by an embassy, to leave off human sacrifices. But notwith- standing this, they continued them till the procon- sulate of Tiberius, who caused the priests of Saturn to be hanged on trees around their temples. Diodorus Siculus gives a description of Saturn, as adored by the Carthaginians : the figure was of brass ; the hands of which were' turned backward, and bending toward the ground ; so that when they put upon his arms a child, to be consecrated to him, he immediately fell into a pan of burning coals beneath, and died mise- rably at the foot of the statue. It would be to little purpose to accumulate exam- ples of human victims. Porphyry assures us, that the book of Sanchoniathon was full of them. They were frequent, not only in Phoenicia, in Palestine, in the countries of Ammon and Moab, in Idumea, in Arabia, and in Egypt; but also in Gaul, among the Scythians, the Thracians, in the islands of Rhodes, Chios and Cyprus; even among the Athenians ; and also in India, the South seas, and America. In fact, they have been practised in all parts of the world, with very few exceptions. As to what is affirmed, that Ahaz had the same son for his successor, whom he had caused to pass through the fire in honor to Moloch, no proof can be given of this. It is true, his successor was Hezekiah ; but he might have had several other sons. We know another of his sons, whose name was Maaseiah, who was put to death at the command of the king of Israel, 2 Chron. xxviii. 7.


SACRILEGE, the action of profaning holy things, or of committing outrage against holy things, or holy persons. Theft, or abuse, or profanation of sacred things, is sacrilege. Scripture gives the name of sac- rilege to idolatry, and to other crimes which more [ 802 ] Al directly insult the Deity. He is called sacrilegious, who commits an impiety, a profanation of holy things ; who usurps sacred offices ; who approaches the sacraments unworthily ; who plunders or pillages things dedicated to God, &c.


SADDUCEES, one of the four principal sects of the Jews, and chiefly, distinguished by their opinion concerning angels and spirits. They did not deny that man had a reasonable soul ; but they maintained that this soul was mortal ; and, by a necessary conse- quence, they denied the rewards and punishments of another life. They affirmed, also, that the existence of angels, and a bodily resurrection, were illusions, Acts xxiii. 8 ; Matt. xxii. 23; Mark xii. 18; Luke xx. 27. Epiphanius, and after him Augustin, ad- vance, that they denied the Holy Spirit ; but neither Joseph us, nor the evangelists, accuse them of this error. It h&s been also imputed to them, that they thought God to be corporeal, and that they did not receive the prophets. It is difficult to conceive how they could deny the existence of angels, yet receive the books of Moses, where frequent mention is made of angels, and of their appearance. The ancients do not acquaint us how they solved this difficulty. It may be they con- sidered angels, not as individual beings, and subsist- ing of themselves, but as powers, emanations, or qualities inseparable from the Deity, much as the sun-beams are inseparable from the sun. Or they may have held angels to be mortal, as they thought human spirits to be. But it is more likely, as Mr. Taylor remarks, that when the Sadducees are charged with denying the existence of angels, we misapply the term ; intending by it celestial angels, whereas they meant it of dis- embodied human spirits. This accounts easily, he thinks, for their reception of the Pentateuch, in which appearances of celestial angels are recorded, and for our Lord's reference to the continued existence of the human spirits of Abraham, &c. His argument is — "the Deity declares himself God of Abraham — therefore, Abraham continues to exist — that is, in a state of spiritual, separate existence ; for, if he were entirely dead, the Deity would be God of a non-ex- istence, which is absurd." The Sadducees were constantly in opposition to the Pharisees, though they could agree when measures important to both were to be taken. As the Sadducees acknowledged neither punish- ment nor recompense in another life, they were in- exorable in chastising the wicked. They observed the law themselves, and caused it to be observed by others, with the utmost rigor. They admitted none of the traditions, explications, or modifications of the Pharisees : they kept only to the text of the law ; and maintained, that only what was written was to be observed. The Sadducees are accused of rejecting all the books of Scripture, except those of Moses ; and to support this, it is observed, that our Saviour uses no Scripture against them, but passages out of the Pen- tateuch. But Scaliger produces good proofs to vin- dicate them from this. He observes, that they did not appear in Israel till after the number of the holy books was fixed, and that if they had been to choose out of the canon, the Pentateuch was less favorable to them than any other book, since it often mentions angels and their appearance. Besides, the Saddu- cees were present in the temple, and at other reli- gious assemblies, where the books of the prophets were read, as well as those of Moses. They held the chief offices in the nation ; and many of the priests were Sadducees. Would the Jews have suf- fered these employments to be filled by persons who rejected the greater part of their Scriptures ? Besides, Manasseh-ben-Israel says expressly, that indeed they did not reject the prophets, but that they explained them in a sense very different from that of the othej Jews. Josephus assures us that they denied destiny, or fate ; alleging, that these were only sounds void of sense, and that all the good or evil we experience, is in consequence of the good or evil side we have taken, by our free choice ; that God was far from doing or from knowing evil ; and that man was ab- solute master of his own actions. This was really to deny a Providence, and, on this foundation, we know not what could be the religion of the Sadducees ; oi what influence over terrestrial things they could as- cribe to God. However, as it is certain they were not only tolerated, but admitted to the high-priest- hood itself, we have strong proof of the low state of religion among the Jews. John Hircanus, high-priest of the nation, separated himself in a signal manner from the sect of the Phar- isees, and went over to that of the Sadducees. It is said, also, he strictly commanded all Jews, on pain of de.ath, to receive the maxims of this sect. Aristobu- lus and Alexander Jannaeus, sou of Hircanus, con- tinued to favor the Sadducees; and Abraham-ben- dior, Cabbala and Maimonides assure us, that under these princes they possessed all the offices of the Sanhedrim, and that there remained, on the part of the Pharisees, only Simon, son of Secra. Caia- phas, who condemned our Saviour, was a Sadducee, (Acts iv. 1 ; v. 17.) as was Ananus the younger, who put to death James, brother of our Lord. At this day, the Jews hold as heretics that small number of Sadducees which are found among them.


SADOC, son of Azor, father of Achim, and one of the ancestors of Jesus Christ, Matt. i. 14.


SAFFRON, a well-known flower, of a bluish color, in the midst of which are small yellow threads, of a very agreeable smell. Solomon (Cant. iv. 14.) joins it with other aromatics ; and Jeremiah is made to speak of cloths of a saffron color, Lam. iv. 5. The passage, however, rather signifies purple or crimson. is a term sometimes put for the people of Israel, sometimes for Christian believers. The fac- tion of Korah, Dathan and Abiram said to Moses and Aaron, (Numb. xvi. 3.) " Ye take too much upon you, seeing all the congregation are holy (or saints) every one of them, and the Lord is among them." And in several places of Scripture, the Hebrews are called a holy nation : " Ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation," Exod. xix. 6 ; 1 Pet. ii. 9 ; Deut. vii. 6 ; xiv. 2, 21. Nothing is more frequent in Paul than the name of saints given to Christians, Rom. i. 7 ; viii. 27, 28 ; xii. 13 ; xv. 25, 32 ; xvi. 2, &c. But it is, probably, never given to any, after the promulgation of the gospel, who had not been baptized. In this acceptation it continued, during the early ages of Christianity ; nor was it applied to individuals declared to be saints by any other act of the church, till various corruptions had depraved the primitive principles. The church of Rome assumes the power of making saints, or of beatification ; that is, of announcing certain departed spirits as objects of worship, and from which the faithful may solicit favors. A notion worthy of the dark ages in which it originated. Saints signifies, in particular, good men, and the servants of God. Prov. ix. 10 "The [ 803 ] knowledge of the holy (or saints) is understanding." Prov. xxx. 3, " I neither learned wisdom, nor have the knowledge of the holy, or saints." Ps. xxxiv. 9, " O fear the Lord, ye his saints ; for there is 110 want to them that fear him." Ps. xvi. 2, 3, " My goodness extendeth not to thee, but to the saints that are in the earth, and to the excellent, in whom is all my de- light." Saints is often put for angels: (Job v. 1.) "To which of the saints wilt thou turn?" — "And, behold, he putteth no trust in his saints ; yea, the heavens are not clean in his sight," chap. xv. 15. Daniel says, (iv. 13, 23.) "An holy one (or saint) came down from heaven." And Moses, (Dent, xxxiii. 2, 3.) "The Lord sinned forth from mount Paran, and came with ten thousands of saints." See Holy.


SALAH, or Saleh, son of Arphaxad, born in the thirty-fifth year of his father, A. M. 1693. He begat Eber at thirty years old, and died, aged 433 years, A. M. 2126, Gen. xi. 12, &c.


SALAMIS, the chief city of the isle of Cyprus, visited by Paul and Barnabas, A. D. 44, when they converted Sergius Paulus, Acts xiii. 5. It was situ- ated on the south-east side of the island, and was afterwards called Constantia.


SALATHIEL, son of Jeconiah, and father of Ze- rubbabel, (1 Chron. iii. 17.) died at Babylon during the captivity. He was also son of Neri, according to Luke iii. 27, who makes him to have descended from Solomon by Nathan ; whereas Matthew (i. 12.) de- rives him from Solomon by Rehoboam. In Sala- thiel were united the two branches of this illustrious genealogy ; so that Salathiel was, according to Calmet, son to Jeconiah, according to the flesh, as appears from the Chronicles, which say, that Jeconiah had two sons, Assir and Salathiel, at Babylon ; and son of Neri by adoption, or by having married the heiress of Neri's family ; or as issue of the widow of Neri, he being dead without children. In either of these cases he would be son of Neri according to the law. Luke does not say in what sense he was son to Neri. See Genealogy, and Adoption.


SALCHAH, a city of the kingdom of Og, in the country of Bashan, beyond Jordan, toward the north- ern extremity of the portion of Manasseh, Deut. iii. 10 ; 1 Chron. v. 11 ; Josh. xii. 5 ; xiii. 11.


SALMANESER, see Shalmaneser.


SALMON, son of Nahshon, married Rahab, by whom he had Boaz, A. M. 2553, 1 Chron. ii. 11, 51, 54 ; Ruth iv. 20, 21 ; Matt. i. 4. He is named " the father of Bethlehem ;" that is, his descendants peopled Bethlehem ; or he greatly improved and adorned it : he was, as we say, " the making of that town :" or he was the chief man, by office ; the Abyssinian shum of a town.


SALMONE, or Salmona, the name of a promon- tory which forms the eastern extremity of the isle of Crete, Acts xxvii. 7.


SALT, Valley of. Interpreters generally place this valley south of the Dead sea, towards Idumea; because it is said (2 Sam. viii. 13.) that Abishai there killed 18,000 Idumeans, and Joab 12,000; (1 Chron. xviii. 12 ; Ps. Ix. title ;) and long after that, Amaziah, kingof Judah, killed 10,000, 2 Kings xiv. 7 ; 2 Chron. xxv. 11. David beat the Idumeans in the Valley of Salt, as he returned from Syria of Zobah. [This valley would seem to be either the northern part of the great valley El Ghor, leading south from the Dead sea; (see Exodus, p. 414;) or perhaps some smaller valley or ravine opening into it near the Dead sea. The whole of this region is strongly im- pregnated with salt, as appears from the reports of all travellers. According to captains Irby and Man- gles, " a gravelly ravine, studded with bushes of acacia and other shrubs, conducts [from the west] to the great sandy plain at the southern end of the Dead sea. On entering this plain, the traveller has on his right a continued hill, composed partly of salt and partly of hardened sand, running south-east and north-west, till, after proceeding a few miles, the plain opens to the south, bounded, at the distance of about eight miles, by a sandy cliff from sixty to eighty feet high, which traverses the valley El Ghor like a wall, forming a barrier to the waters of the lake when at their greatest height." On this plain, be- sides the saline appearance left by the retiring of the [ 805 ] waters of the lake, the travellers noticed, lying on the ground, several large fragments of rock-salt, which ied them to examine the hill, on the right of the ravine by which they had descended to the plain, de- scribed above, as composed partly of salt and partly of hardened sand. They found the salt, in many in- stances, hanging from the cliff's, in clear perpendicu- lar points, resembling icicles. They observed also strata of salt of considerable thickness, having very little sand mixed with it, generally in perpendicular lines. During the rainy season, the torrents appar- ently bring down immense masses of this mineral. Was, then, this " gravelly ravine," perhaps, the par- ticular "Valley of Saltf" or was this term applied more generally to this whole plain, which exhibits similar characteristics ? Strabo mentions, that to the southward of the Dead sea there are towns and cities built entirely of salt ; and " although," add the travellers, "such an account seems strange, yet when we contemplated the scene before us, it did not seem incredible." The sea had thrown up at high-water mark a quantity of wood, with which the travellers attempted to make a fire, in order to bake some bread ; but it was so impreg- nated with salt, that all their efforts were unavailing. The track, after leaving the salt-hill, led across the barren flats of the back-water of the lake, then left partially dry by the effects of evaporation. They passed six drains running into the sea; some were wet, and still draining the dreary level which they intersected ; others were dry. These had a strong- marshy smell, similar to what is perceivable on most of the muddy flats in salt-water harbors, but by no means more unpleasant. On the southern extremity of the eastern shore, salt is also deposited by the evaporation of the water of the lake. The travellers found several of the natives peeling off a solid layer of salt, several inches thick, with which they loaded their asses. At another point, also, where the water, being shallow, retires or evaporates rapidly, a con- siderable level is left, encrusted with a salt that is but half dried and consolidated, appearing like ice in the commencement of a thaw, and giving way nearly ankle deep. All these appearances are surely suffi- cient to justify the appellation of Plain or Valley of Salt. (See the Mod. Traveller, Palestine, p. 188, 199, seq. Amer. ed.) It. SALVATION. This word is taken in several senses in Scripture. (1.) For eternal happiness and salvation, the object of our hopes and desires. Thus it is said, " To give knowledge of salvation to his people," Luke i. 77. "The gospel of your salvation," Eph. i. 13. " Godly sorrow worketh repentance to salvation," (2 Cor. vii. 10.) that is, leans to eternal life. (2.) For deliverance, or victory : " Shall Jonathan die, who hath wrought this great salvation in Israel ? " 1 Sam. xiv. 45. (3.) For praise and benediction given to God : " Alleluiah, salvation, and glory, and honor, and power unto the Lord our God. . . . Salvation to our God which sitteth on the throne, and unto the Lamb," Rev. vii. 10; xix. 1. The Hebrews rarely use concrete terms, as they are called, but often abstract terms. Thus, instead of saying, God saves them, and protects them ; they say, God is their salvation. So, a voice of salvation, tidings of salvation, the rock of salvation, the shield of salvation, a horn of salvation, a word of salvation, &c. is equivalent to a voice declaring deliverance ; the joy that attends escape from a great danger; a rock where any one takes refuge, and is in safety ; a buckler that secures from the attack of an enemy ; a horn or ray of glory, of happiness and salvation, &c Thus, to work great salvation in Israel signifies to deliver Israel from some imminent danger, to obtain a great victory over enemies. There is some difficulty, as Mr. Taylor remarks, in restraining the terms save and salvation, to their primitive import, in certain passages of Scripture. When Peter exhorts the Jews, (Acts ii. 40.) " Save yourselves from this untoward generation," he means, from the calamities with which their nation would soon be visited ; and this expectation he authorizes by the declaration of the prophet Joel, of the won- ders in heaven, &c. who adds, " Whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord, shall be saved ;" as, in fact, all Christians were, by withdrawing from Jeru- salem, at the time of its siege. (Compare Matt. x. 22; xxiv. 13 ; Mark xiii. 13.) Yet Paul quotes this pas- sage in a different sense, (Rom. x. 13.) implying that luhoever, whether Jew or Greek, " shall call on the name of the Lord, shall be saved ;" certainly not from the miseries of Jerusalem, but from the conse- quences of sin. Nor is itjess difficult to say, he adds, in what sense all Israel shall be saved, Rom. xi. 26. It cannot mean all the nation that ever existed ; since thousands of them were marked by misery, within a few years from the date of this Epistle ; neither can it mean eternal salvation, since not all Israel was worthy of that felicity. It may refer, he thinks, to that happy time, when the Jews, as a nation, shall acknowledge the gracious Deliverer come out of Sion ; and shall be brought into a state of grace, leading to salvation, unless frustrated by personal transgression, &c. (Comp. chap. ix. 27, " a remnant shall be saved," &c.) When we read (1 Tim. ii. 15.) that "women shall be saved in child-bearing," we must take the term in a qualified sense, since all women are not so saved. And when we are told (1 Cor. iii. 15.) that "if any man's work be burned, he himself shall be saved ;" it is necessary to avoid the sense of certainty in the English term shall, and to consider the expression as importing may be saved rather than must be saved. It becomes, therefore, all students of the Bible, to examine carefully the intention of the writer, in pas- sages where this term (or its cognates) occurs ; and not to quote at random, as if to be saved always in- tended eternal salvation, since it may intend only temporal salvation, or a state of offered salvation, or a state of grace leading to salvation, or salvation begun but not yet completed. It m&j refer to personal safety, to spiritual deliverance, or to natural prosper- ity. Some may believe to the saving of the soul, (Heb. x. 39.) others, as Noah in his ark, may effect the saving, i. e. the preservation, of their families, chap. xi. 7. The Garments of Salvation (Isa. lxi. 10.) refer to the habits of joy and festivity, worn on festival days, and after receiving a signal favor from God, aa after deliverance from great danger.


SALUTATION, greeting, hailing. The antiquity of the salutation, " Peace he with yoi>," and the un- derstood conclusion, that if a person enjoy peace, all is well with him, appears from the earliest accounts we have of patriarchal behavior; as Gen. xxix. 6, " Is there peace (health) to him ? " (Lahan) — they an- swer, " Peace." So, Jacob directs Joseph, " Go, see the peace (welfare) of thy brethren," xxxvii. 14. So, the spies of Dan (Judg. xviii. 15.) " came and asked the Levite of peace ;" i. e. saluted him ; and even in the camp, David " asked his brethren of peace ;" i.e. saluted them, 1 Sam. xvii. 22. The reader may rec- A M [ 806 ] ollect many instances of this pnraseology, but none more memorable than our Lord's departing salutation, as recorded by the evangelists : — " Peace I leave with you ; not as the world giveth," in their ordinary salu- tations, " give I unto you," but in a more direct, per- manent, appropriate manner ; on principles, and with authority, infinitely superior, I bless you with this heavenly gift, John xiv. 27. "The Arabs of Yemen," says Niebuhr, "and es- pecially the highlanders, often stop strangers, to ask whence they come, and ivhither they are going. These questions are suggested merely by curiosity ; and it would be indiscreet, therefore, to refuse to answer." (Travels, vol. i. p. 302.) Does not this ex- tract suggest the true import of that expression of our Lord, which has seemed, to some, to favor a rude- ness of behavior ; which, surely, so far from being congenial to the precepts and manners of the gospel, is inconsistent with them? We mean the passage, Luke x. 4 : " Salute no man by the way." — Now the power of the word [aaniioiia-D-e] rendered "salute," im- plies, " to draw to one's self, to throw one's arms over afjother, and embrace him closely." — Less strictly taken, it signifies to salute, as rendered in our ver- sion ; but may not the prohibition, in our Lord's di- rections to the seventy, have some reference to such a custom as we find among the Arabs of Yemen ? q. d. " Do not stop any man, to ask him whence he comes, and whither he is going ; do not loiter and gossip with any whom you may accidentally meet on your journey ; do not stop strangers to receive information, of no value when you have received it; but rather make all proper speed to the towns whither I have sent you, and there deliver your good tidings?" Seen in this light, there is no breach of decorum, of friendship, or of good manners, implied in this command ; but, on the contrary, merely a very proper prohibition of what, at best, is imperti- nence, and what, under the then circumstances, would have been injurious to matters of real impor- tance. Is there any allusion to such intrusive inquisitive- ness in John xvi. 5, " None of you asketh me, Whither goest thou ?"


SAMARIA, the capital city of the kingdom of Is- rael, that is, of the ten tribes. It was built by Omri king of Israel, who began to reign, A. M. 3079, and died 3086, 1 Kings xvi. 24. He bought the hill Sa- maria of Shemer, or Shomeron, for two talents of silver, about $3,000. Before Omri, the kings of Is- rael dwelt at Shechem, or at Tirzah. Samaria was built on an agreeable and fruitful hill, in an advantageous situation, twelve miles from Do- thaim, twelve from Merrom, and four from Atharoth. Josephus says, it was a day's journey from Jerusalem. Though built on an eminence, it must have had water in abundance ; since we find medals struck there, on which is represented the goddess Astarte, at whose feet is a river. The kings of Israel omitted nothing to render this city the strongest, the finest, and the richest possible. Ahab here built a palace of ivory, (1 Kings xxii. 39.) and Amos (hi. 15; iv. 1, 2.) describes it under Jero- boam II. as a city sunk in excess of luxury and effem- inacy. Ben-hadad, king of Syria, built public places or streets, probably for traffic, where his people dwelt, to promote commerce, 1 Kings xx. 34. His son Ben- hadad besieged it, under the reign of Ahab, but was defeated by a handful of young men. What is very remarkable, and yet very common, is, that the king of Syria's flatterers would ascribe the shame of their defeat, not to the pride and drunkenness ,-f theii king, but to the interposition of the gods of ti:e Jews : "Their gods are gods of the hills, (say they,) there- fore they were stronger than we ; but let us fight against them in the plain, and surely we shall be stronger than they." The following year Ben-hadad brought an army into the field, probably with a de- sign to march against Samaria ; but his army was again destroyed, 1 Kings xx. 26, 27. Some vears after this, (2 Kings vi. 24 ; vii. 1—4. A. M. 3119,) he came again before Samaria, and reduced it to such extremities by famine, that a mother was forced to eat her own child ; but the city was relieved by a striking interposition of Divine Providence. It was besieged by Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, in the ninth year of Hoshea, king of Israel, which was the fourth of Hezekiah, king of Judah ; (A. M. 3280 ;) and it was taken three years after, 2 Kings xvii. 6, 7, &c. The prophet Hosea (x. 4, 8, 9 ; xiv. 1.) speaks of the cruelties exercised by Shalmaneser ; and Mi- cah says, (i. 6.) the city was reduced to a heap of stones. The Cuthites sent byEsarhaddon to inhabit the country of Samaria did not think it worth their while to repair the ruins of this city, but dwelt ai Shechem, which they made their capital. However, the Cuthites rebuilt some part of Sama- ria, since Ezra speaks of its inhabitants, Ezra iv. 17; Neh. iv. 2. The Samaritans, being jealous of the fa- vors Alexander the Great conferred on the Jews, re- volted from him, while he was in Egypt, and burn*, alive Andromachus, whom he had left governoi. Alexander took Samaria, and sent Macedonians to inhabit it ; giving the country around it to the Jews ; and, to encourage them to cultivate it, he granted them exemptions from tribute. But the kings of Egypt and Syria, who succeeded Alexander, deprived them of this country. Alexander Balas, king of Syria, restored to Jona- than Maccabaeus the cities of Lydda, Epbrem and Ramatha, which he separated from the country of Samaria. And the Jews resumed the full possession of it under John Hircanus, who took Samaria, and ruined it, according to Josephus, so that the river ran through its ruins, A. M. 3995. It so continued to A. M. 3947, when Aldus Gabinius, proconsul of Syria, rebuilt it, and named it Gabiniana. But it was very inconsiderable, till Herod the Great restored it to its ancient lustre, and gave it the Greek name of Sebaste, (in Latin Augusta,) in honor of the emperor Augustus, who had given him the proprietory of it. The New Testament speaks but little of Samaria ; and when it does mention it, it is rather in respect of the country than of the f'ty. When it is said (Luke xvii. 11 ; John iv. 4., ou*- Lord passed through the midst of Samaria ; the Cleaning is, through the midst of the country of Samaria. And again, "Then cometh he to a city of Samaria called Sychar." Here Jesus had a conversation with a woman of Samaria, that is, with a Samaritan woman of the city of Sy- char. After the death of Stephen, when the disci- ples were dispersed through the towns of Judea and Samaria, Philip the deacon withdrew into the city of Samaria, where he made converts, (Acts viii. 1—3.) and when the apostles heard that this city had re- ceived the word of God, they sent Peter and John thither, to communicate the Holy Ghost. Samaria is never called Sebaste in the New Testament, though strangers hardly knew it by any other name. Jerome says it was thought Obadiah was buried at Samaria. They also showed there the tombs of Elisha and of John the Baptist. [ 807 ] The country of Samaria lies between Juried and Galilee. It begins, according to Josephus, at a town called Ginea, in the great plain, and ends at the to- parchy of Acrabatene. Samaria, under the first temple, was the name of a city ; under the second, of a country. Rabbi Benjamin, of Tudela, says, " Se- baste is Samaria, where the palace of Ahab, king of Israel, is still known. Now that city was on a mountain, and well fortified, had springs, well wa- tered laud, gardens, paradises, vineyards and olive- yards. Distant eight miles is Neapolis, that is, Sy- chem, in mount Ephraim. It is seated in a valley between the mountains Gerizim and Ebal ; in it are about a hundred Cutheans, observing the law of Moses only; they are called Samaritans ; and have priests of the seed of Aaron. They sacrifice in the temple on mount Gerizim oil the day of the passo- ver, and on feast days on the altar built there of the stones set up by the children of Israel, when they passed over Jordan." : The following is the account of the modern city, as given by Richardson : " Its situation is extremely beautiful, and strong by nature ; more so, 1 think, than Jerusalem. It stands on a fine large, insulated hill, compassed all round by a broad, deep valley; and, when fortified, as it is stated to have been by Herod, one would have imagined, that in the ancient system of warfare, nothing but famine would have reduced such a place. The valley is surrounded by four hills, one on each side, which are cultivated in ter- races to the top, sown with grain and planted with fig and olive-trees, as is also the valley. The hill of Samaria, likewise, rises in terraces to a height equal to any of the adjoining mountains. "The present village is small and poor, and, after passing the valley, the ascent to it is very steep ; but, viewed from the station of our tents, is extremely in- teresting, both from its natural situation, and from the picturesque remains of a ruined convent of good Gothic architecture. " Having passed the village, towards the middle of the first terrace, there is a number of columns still standing. I counted twelve in one row, besides several that stood apart, the brotherless remains of other rows. The situation is extremely delightful, and my guide informed me that they belonged to the serai or palace. On the next terrace there are no re- mains of solid building, but heaps of stone and lime, and rubbish mixed with the soil in great profusion. Ascending to the third, or highest terrace, the traces of former buildings were not so numerous, but we enjoyed a delightful view of the surrounding country. The eye passed over the deep valley that compasses the hill of Sebaste, and rested on the mountains be- yond, that retreated as they rose with a gentle slope, and met the view in every direction, like a book laid out for perusal on a writing desk. "From this lofty eminence we descended to the south side the hill, where we saw the remains of a stately colonnade, that stretches along this beautiful exposure from east to west. Sixty columns are still standing in one row ; the shafts are plain, and frag- ments of Ionic volutes, that lie scattered about, testify the order to which they belong. These are probably the relics of some of the magnificent structures with which Herod the Great adorned Samaria. None of the walls remain." SAMARITANS. The account given of these people by Calmet is extremely prolix, and by no means satisfactory. We shall, therefore, omit it en- tirely, and supnlj- its place by a narrative deduced from sources, many of which were not known tit the time when Calmet wrote. The Samaritans were descended from the remnant of the Israelites not carried away into captivity, and afterwards intermixed with Gentiles from the neigh- boring parts of Assyria, especially the Cuthi, who had come to colonize and occupy the vacant situa- tions of the former inhabitants. In this new colony idolatry was introduced and permitted from the very first ; yet so as to worship Jehovah in conjunction with the false gods, 2 Kings xvii. 29. When, after- wards, Cyrus permitted the Jews to return from cap- tivity and rebuild their temple, the Samaritans, who wished to form a union in religious matters with the Jews, requested that the temple might be erected at the common labor and expense of both nations. But Zerubbabel, and the other Jewish rulers, rejected their request, urging that Cyrus had committed the work to them only, and had charged the governors of Samaria to keep away from the place, and only assist the Jews out of the public revenues of the province. The Samaritans, however, said they were at liberty to worship there, since the temple had been erected for the worship of the Supreme Being by all the human race. When the Samaritans had received this repulse from the Jews, they felt much mortified, and laid wait for revenge ; they endeavored to ob- struct the restoration of the temple, and the increase and prosperity of the Jewish state by various meth- ods. Hence originated a mutual hatred between the nations, which was afterwards kept up and increased by the revolt of Manasseh, and the erection of the temple on mount Gerizim. For Manasseh, a brother of Jaddus, the high-priest, had, contrary to the laws and customs of the nation, taken in marriage the daughter of Sanballat, the ruler of Samaria, (Neb. xiii. 23, seq.) and when the Jews, indignant at this, had ordered that he should divorce her as an alien, or no longer approach to the altar and the sacred institutions, he fled to his father-in-law, a high-priest, who alienated many from the religious worship of the Jews, and by gifts and promises drew over great numbers, and even some of the priests, to the Samar- itan party. But now that the temple was erected on mount Gerizim, still greater contentions arose be- tween the Jews and Samaritans concerning the place of divine ivorship. For the Samaritans denied that the sacred rites at Jerusalem were pure and of divine ordination : but of the temple on mount Gerizim they affirmed that it was holy, legitimate, and sanctioned by the presence of the Deity. The Samaritans, more- over, only received the books of Moses. The rest of the sacred books (since they vindicated the divine worship at Jerusalem) they rejected, as also the whole body of the traditions, keeping solely to the letter. From these causes the Jews were inflamed to the most rancorous hatred towards this rival nation; in- somuch that to many of them the Samaritans were objects of greater detestation than even the Gentiles. (See Luke x. 33.) It is no wonder, then, that there should have been such a constant reciprocation of injuries and calumnies as had served to keep up a perpetual exasperation between the two nations. The faidt, however, was not all on the side of the Jews ; for (as we learn from Bartenora ad Roscha- schana, ii. 2, cited by Schoettgen) the Samaritans in- flamed this enmity by taking every opportunity of injuring, or at least offering provocations to the Jews. The following anecdote may serve as an example: — "When the time of the new moon was just at hand, the Jews had a fire kindled on the highest mountains, [ 808 ] to warn those who were afar off of the exact time of the novilunium. What did die Samaritans do ? Why, in order that they might lead the Jews into an error, they themselves, during the night-time, kindled fires on the mountains. Therefore, the Jews were obliged to send out trusty and creditable persons, who should give out the time of the new moon, as observed by the Jerusalemitish Sanhedrim, or defined by other persons to whom that office was committed." The Samaritans, however, did not entertain so much hatred towards the Jews, as the latter did towards the former; nor did they deny towards them the offices of humanity. (See Luke ix. 53 ; x. 32.) Jesus, however, disregarded, nay discountenanced, this ha- tred, and as he did not hesitate to eat with tax-gath- erers, so neither did he avoid intercourse with Samar- itans. Dr. Wait has a paper, in his Repertorium Theo- logicum, on the notions entertained by the Samari- tans of a Messiah, which contributes some valuable information, derived from a correspondence which took place, some years since, between two Samaritan priests and two of our own countrymen, who, under h pious fraud, as it is termed, but which was wholly indefensible, elicited the religious opinions of the res- idents at Napolose, or Samaria, and also obtained copies of the Pentateuch and the Book of Joshua. From this correspondence, Dr. Wait remarks, it is evident that many of the opinions we have been ac- customed to cherish respecting the Samaritans are decidedly false, having proceeded directly from the enmity of the Jews, and the fictions of the rabbinical pages; being utterly unauthorized by Josephus and his contemporaries, and absolutely repugnant to those conclusions, which the Scriptures would induce us to draw from the little which they have recorded of them. That the Samaritans had a clear notion of the coming of a Messiah, is quite manifest from the con- versation which occurred between our Saviour and a woman of this nation, as recorded in John iv. But the source whence they derived that knowledge it is somewhat difficult to determine. They could not, as Dr. Wait observes, have been indebted to the Pentateuch alone for it ; they must have extracted this information from other sources, and forced iso- lated passages of the Pentateuch in subsequent times to have become its authorities. We vainly scrutinize the Pentateuch for a single prophecy of Christ's death and resurrection ; and yet it appears from some of their MSS., that the Samaritans believed, that then- Messiah should die and rise from the dead. If the Samaritans contemporary with our Saviour deduced these opinions at all from Scripture, they must have deduced them from prophecy ; and if no such prophecy exists in the Mosaic books, it will follow, that they could not have been ignorant of the prophecies which were uttered after the institution of the monarchy, although the present race rejects these writings from the canon. From all that Dr. Wait has been enabled to collect of their modern religious ceremonies, we find them strictly observant of the law; on the sabbath, they only go to the " house of Jehovah to pray, to give thanks, and to read the law." They still solemnize thepassover with the most scrupulous attention; they eat unleavened bread for the space of seven days, and on the seventh repair to Gerizim. From the day succeeding the sabbath of the ordinance of un- leavened bread, they count fifty days to that suc- ceeding the seventh sabbath ; they also celebrate the feast of first-fruits, on which they also go to the " Ev- erlasting Mount." They observe the feast of the seventh month, the tenth day of which is the day of expiation, on which all, from man to child, afflict themselves and read the law. On the fifteenth day of the seventh month, they carry fruits and boughs of palms and other trees and thus proceed to Geri- zim ; — they likewise keep the feast of the eighth day, and purify themselves from occasional uncleanness. Every morning and evening they pray towards their sacred mountain, throwing their faces to the ground ; and in whatever part of the globe they may be, thither they direct themselves at their prayers. In fact, they rigorously adhere to the letter of the law; but they are not Karaites, for their epistles mention this sect with contempt. JVltence, then, did they receive the notion of a Messiah ? We have seen, that they could scarcely have received it from the Penta- teuch ; for even the most determinate passages, which they cite as their authorities, would, if consid- ered exclusively of others, hardly have suggested to a people denying the other canonical books, those minute ideas of the promised Prophet which they undeniably entertained. But these ideas are so approximated to the language of the Jewish prophets, that one of three hypotheses, says the doctor, must be correct: either that, at some unrecorded period, they were borrowed from thence, or, which is nearly equivalent, that these prophecies, by means of indi- viduals travelling from the one kingdom to the other, were made known to the servants of the true God in Israel, or that the prophets of Israel themselves delivered oracles respecting the Messiah, which, though now lost, were nevertheless the sources of this Samaritan knowledge. These three causes, he remarks, may have, indeed, produced conjointly the effect: — the two latter may be supported by the following arguments. The worship of Jehovah was never totally extinct in Israel ; — in Elijah's clays, many still adhered to the worship of their forefathers; and in the most degen- erate times of Israelitish apostasy, the accredited prophets of Jehovah were even summoned, on emer- gencies, to give counsel to those monarchs who had proscribed the faith to which they were devoted. Some, therefore, among the severed tribes, remained true to the religion of Moses, even in the worst eras of defection ; yet, however observant they may have been of the law, we can scarcely presume, that the political dissension between the kingdoms of Judah and Israel, would allow them to frequent the temple in Jerusalem at the divinely instituted festivals. For the erection of the golden calves at Dan and Bethel was expressly designed to prevent this national inter- course ; nor is it any where recorded .nat Elijah, or Elisha, or one of the sons of the Israelitish prophets, became an attendant on the worship of Jehovah within the holy city. Independently, however, of these particulars, we may argue, that the law was always rigidly observed by some members of the ten tribes. Hence Friedrich forcibly argues, that this preservation of the true religion, in whatever degree it may have been, affords a strongly presumptive evi- dence, that the [Samaritan] Pentateuch must have been edited before the days of Jeroboam ; without this assumption, it would be difficult to imagine how the observance of the law could have survived the persecutions and turmoils of those ages, how other- wise it, was not overwhelmed by the superstitions of the neighboring nations, and did not sink beneath the weight of ever-galling oppressions. Moreover [ 809 ] the same reason, which induced them to reject the other Scriptural books, (from which we should, per- haps, except that of Joshua,) would also have induced them to reject the Pentateuch itself, had they not been antecedently in possession of it, and therefore been most fully assured, that it was not a production of late date: since, therefore, their defection from Judah and Benjamin occurred in the reign of Jero- boam, we must, on this account, conclude it to have been edited long before, and to have been in circula- tion before the separation of the tribes. If then they thus had the books of Moses, we may argue them to have been acquainted with those Psalms of David, which had been sung in the tabernacle and the tem- ple, and these Psalms were replete with the expecta- tions of the Messiah. Consequently, after their abscission from Judah, they could not have failed to have carried away with them these vivid hopes and ardent expectations, and to have transmitted them to their descendants. What, then, is more natural, than to suppose, that when they rejected the other canon- ical books, they ingrafted these ideas, elsewhere received," on their interpretations of them? — for, in fact, they must have seen the promises partially accomplished in the extent of dominion which David and Solomon acquired. That passover, which was celebrated in the days of Josiah, which Israel at- tended at Jerusalem, (2 Kings xxiii ; 2 Ghron. xxxv.) manifestly proves to us, how deeply the true religion was rooted in those who had not deflected from it, and likewise offers to us an epoch, to which we may refer the first of the three hypotheses. To this we may also add that period, when the second temple was erected, during which there was an intercourse between the Jews and the Samaritans, (Jos. Ant. xiii. 17.) who, doubtless, imparted to the Samaritans those opinions, in which they had been educated. These periods, therefore, either separately or con- jointly, are adequate to the solution of the difficulty ; nor can we err in maintaining, that at one, or another, or all of these, the doctrines and expectations of Judah respecting the Messiah were circulated in Samaria. We have no reason to believe, that those who selected Gerizim as their place of religious worship, in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, were infected with idolatry : the sacred page authorizes us not in such a conclusion, nor can we retrace the allegation to a legitimate and historical source. We are no where informed to what deity Sanballat dedicated his temple ; we nowhere read of its appropriation to idols. Josephus says nothing of Manasseh's apostasy ; therefore, we presume the Samaritan temple to have been dedicated to the true God. Had it been dedi- cated to an Assyrian idol, or to the Baal-Berith, who once had a temple at Sichem, and, like the Zevg oqxiog of the Greeks, and Deus Fidius of the Romans, was accounted the God of oaths and covenants, can we suppose, that so many Jews, just emigrated from Babylonian oppression, would have flocked to it, or nave followed the priesthood and fortunes of Manas- seh ? More than one hundred and sixty years after its erection, the Jewish historian called it avwvvfiov ; could he have so called it, if it had been dedicated to an idol ? Our more immediate inquiry, however, respects the Samaritans after the erection of Sauballat's tem- ple ; between whom and the Jews the chief points of dispute lay, in their rejection of all the canonical books, except the Pentateuch, and their affirmation, 102 that Gerizim was the only place where God could be acceptably worshipped. Cellarius, Hottinger, and even Reland, seem, in some degree, as Dr. Wait remarks, to have been led astray on this point ; the fable of the brazen bird, which the Romans erected on Gerizim, on the authority of the Samaritan chron- icle, if it were not the Roman eagle, was evidently a tradition compounded of the hp'cn of the men of Hamath, and the mm of those of Ava. Some of then- statements, indeed, refer their first copy of the law to the thirteenth year after the settlement of the Israel- ites in Canaan, which they aver to have been made by Abishua the son of Phinehas ; but this can only be regarded as an idle pretension, which is not even accredited by all the Samaritans. Of the antiquity of their copies there can be no doubt, any more than of the frauds, of which they were guilty in certain passages. Yet, although they have corrupted the Pentateuch by occasional interpolations, the value of their copy is evinced by some readings, which appear to supply lacunas in the Hebrew, and by the great accordance between its chronology and that of the Septuagint. The Jews admit, that Ezra aban- doned the old Samaritan characters, and introduced the Assyrian, or Chaldee, wherefore the Samaritans still call theirs the Hebrew, or the characters of the Sacred language, and say, that " the Jewish Books were written by Ezra." So violent has the ani- mosity respecting the Pentateuch ever been be- tween these two claimants of it, that when Saa- diah's Arabic version appeared, (whom they desig- nate as the doctor of Faium,) Abu Said was deputed to commence a Samaritano-Arabic version in oppo- sition to it, a copy of which is in the Bibliotheque du Roi, at Paris. Maimonides himself, who, perhaps, was the most unbiased writer among the Jews, admits their rigid practice of the law, and, even whilst he is relating the tale of the dove, evidently seems disinclined to be- lieve it. Josephus, also, (Ant. ix. 14.) bore the same testimony to them. So scrupulous are they still respecting the insti- tutes of the lawgiver, that on the sabbaths they kin- dle no fires, nor even on their festivals ; they affirm their priests to be Levites, but regret that they have no high-priest of the race of Phinehas, offering, in their epistles, should such an individual be found, to install him in his office. The separation, indeed, at the time of the erection of the second temple, was merely occasioned by the intermarriages with foreigners, which Ezra and Nehemiah forbade ; those who were willing to repu- diate then- foreign wives remaining at Jerusalem — those who were resolved to retain them emigrating to Samaria. But however requisite this allowance may have been to the formation of a new state, it is no where recorded, that the Samaritans persevered in the practice ; yet, from hence, they received in the Jewish writings the appellation of smu Cxdhites, and had the stigma indelibly fixed upon them by their rivals. Had such been their practice in our Saviour's time, he assuredly would have alleged it against their national pretensions in his discourses with the Samar itan woman. His words are simply, "Ye worship ye know not what : we know what we worship ; for salvation is of the Jews," John iv. 22. These, view- ed in their connection, must have had a reference to their notions of a Messiah, — probably also to their application of biblical passages to his advent, — an*} [ 810 ] accordingly, the woman (v. 25.) so understood them. They also partially related to the question, whether Gerizim or Jerusalem were the proper place of wor- ship, and appear to have alluded to the indistinct conceptions of the legal types and ceremonies, which the Samaritans, unaided by the other books of Scrip- ture, must have had. The Samaritans worshipped " they knew not what ;" for, believing the advent of the Messiah, they rejected the prophetic books, which illustrated and determined it ; they assented to the fact, without knowing either its nature or object, whereas the Jews, to whose line he was restricted, had opportunities of ascertaining from the prophets criteria, which would have designated him at his appearance to every unprejudiced reasoner. (Repert. Theol. p. 1—10.) [(For the Samaritan language, see Languages, oriental, p. 606; and Letters, p. 618.) There exists a copy of the Hebrew Pentateuch preserved by the Samaritans in their own character ; and also a Samaritan translation of the Pentateuch. The vn^ie of these has been critically discussed by Gese- n 's, in his work entitled de Pentateuchi Sarnar. orixine, indole, et auctoritate, Hal. 1815 ; the results of which have also been given to the public by professor Stuart, in an article in the N. A. Review, April, 1826. Bibl. Repos. vol. ii. No. 8. (See also Winer, de Ver- sionis Pent. Samar. indole, Leips. 1817 ; and the arti- cle Versions below.) It is well known that a small remnant of the Sa- maritans still exists at Naplous, the ancient Shechem. Great interest has been taken in them by the learned of Europe ; and a correspondence has several times been instituted with them, which, however, has never led to results of any great importance. It was commenced by Joseph Scaliger in 1559 ; and again, after a century, by several learned men in England, in 1675 ; and by the celebrated Ludolf in 1685. Of late years, the orientalist De Sacy, of Paris, has again held correspondence with them ; and has recently published all that is known respecting them, and all their letters, in a work entitled Correspondence des Samaritaines, &c. Paris, 1829. They have often been visited, of late years, by travellers ; and the best account we have of them and of their present cir- cumstances, is from the pen of the late American Missionary, the Rev. P. Fisk, under date of Nov. 19, 1823. (See Missionary Herald, 1824, p. 310.) " After taking some refreshment, we went to visit tne Samaritans, having first sent to the kohen, or priest, to know if a visit would be agreeable. His name is Shalmar ben Tabiah. His first name he sometimes pronounces Salomer. I believe it is the same as Solomon, which the Jews in Jerusalem now pronounce Shloma. He received us in a neat apart- ment, and we immediately entered into conversa- tion. Ten or twelve other members of the sect soon came in. Our conversation was in Arabic. They represent the number of their houses to be 20 or 30, — about 60 pay the capitation tax. They say there are no other Samaritans in this country, but they are quite disposed to think they are numerous in other parts of the world. In Paris they suppose they were very numerous, until, in a time of war between the French and some other nation, the Samaritans were dispersed. They say that there are, however, four still living in Paris. They inquired whether there are any Samaritans in England, and seemed not at all gratified when we told them no. On learning that I was from America, they inquired if there are Samaritans there. I told them no ; but they confidently asserted the contrary, and that there are also many in India. They maintain that they are the lineal descendants of Jacob : the kohen and his sons, only, of the tribe of Levi; one family from the tribe of Benjamin ; four or five from Manasseh, and the rest from Ephraim. We asked what they would do for a priest, if the kolien and his sons should die, and thus the tribe of Levi become extinct. They replied, (bazah ma beseer,) " This does not hap- pen." They all speak Arabic, but their books and public prayers are in Samaritan. They call their language Hebrew, and that which we call Hebrew, they call Jewish; fpr they say their language is the true Hebrew in which the law was given. The difference consists in the use of a different al- phabet and different pronunciation. They go three times a year to mount Gerizim to worship, but do not offer sacrifices there now, as they did for- merly, lest they should be molested by the Turks. But they offer their sacrifices in a more private way, in the city. We understood them to say, that they have no daily sacrifice. We visited their synagogue. It is a small, dark, but neat room, with an altar, but without seats. We were obliged, before entering, to pull off not only our over-shoes, but also our slip- pers, which are not prohibited even in mosques ; and Mr. Jowett was obliged to take off an outer gar- ment, which he wears, that is lined with fur. No person can approach the altar, except the kohen and his sons. They expect a Messiah, who is to be a Prophet and King, but a mere man, to live 120 years, as Moses did, and to reign at Naplous over all the world. Those who do not receive him, are to be destroyed with the sword. The promise con- cerning the woman's seed does not, they believe, refer to the Messiah ; but that, concerning a prophet like unto Moses, does refer to him, as does also that concerning Shiloh, Gen. xlix. 10. They admit the sense of this passage as given in our translation, and try to show that there is still a sceptre somewhere in the hands of Judah. The Messiah will come when Israel repent. They say the story of the separation between Israel and Judah, under Jeroboam and Re- hoboam, is a lie of the Jews. The city of Luz, or Bethel, they say, was on mount Gerizim, Gen. xxviii. 19. Jebus, they say, was also on this mount, and that Judges xix. 10, as it stands in our copies, is not true. " The next day we renewed our visit to the Samar- itans. We had yesterday requested to see their an- cient copy of the law. The kohen objected, but after much persuading, and indirectly presenting the mo- tive which generally prevails in this country, i. e. the offer of money, he at last consented to show it to us this morning. In order to do it, he said he must first bathe, and then put on a particular dress for the occasion. On our arrival at the synagogue, we waited a short time, and he appeared, entered the synagogue, approached the altar, kneeled and put his face to the floor, then opened the little closet which contained the holy book, kneeled and put his face to the floor again, then brought out the brass case, which contained the roll, and opened it so as to show us the manuscript, but we were not allowed to touch it. It is in the Samaritan character, and the kohen says it was written by Abishua, the grandson of Aaron, thirteen years after the death of Moses, and 3260 years ago. (See 1 Chron. vi. 4.) Another brass case stood near this, containing an exact eopy of the original manuscript, said to have been made 800 years ago. On a shelf, in the synagogue were a [ 811 ] considerable number of copies of the Samaritan Pen- tateuch. We saw also the relic of the Polyglott Bible mentioned by Maundrell. The Bible of the Samaritans contains only the five books of Moses. They have, however, Joshua and Judges, but in sep- arate books. They say that since Joshua there has been no prophet. He was the disciple of Moses, and inferior to him. David was king in Jerusalem, but not a prophet. We inquired whether the Samari- tans held it lawful to read the books of Christians. They said there was no law against it, and we left with them one Testament in Arabic, and another in Hebrew." *R.


SAMGAR-NEBO, a general officer in Nebuchad- nezzar's army, Jerem. xxxix. 3.


SAMLAH, king of Masrekah, in Idumea, Gen. xxxvi. 36.


SAMOS, an island of the Archipelago, on the coast of Asia Minor, opposite Lydia, from which it is separated by a narrow strait. The island was devoted to the worship of Juno, who had there a magnificent temple. It was also celebrated for its valuable potteries, and as the birth-place of Pythag- oras. The Romans wrote to the governor in favor of the Jews, in the time of Simon Maccabaeus, 1 Mac. xv. 23. Paul landed here when going to Jeru- salem, A . D. 58, Acts xx. 15.


SAMOTHRACIA, an island in the Egeau sea; so called because it was peopled by Samians and Thracians. It was an asylum for fugitives and criminals. Paid, departing from Troas, for Mace- donia, arrived first at Samothracia, Acts xvi. 11.


SAMSON, son of Manoah, of the tribe of Dan, Judg. xiii. 2, &c. A. M. 2848. His mother had been long barren, when an angel of the Lord appeared to her, telling her she should have a son ; but she must take care not to drink intoxicating liquor, or to eat any impure food ; that she must use the same care with regard to her son ; and must consecrate him to God from his infancy, as a Nazarite, and not let a razor come upon his head: adding, "For he shall begin to deliver Israel from the hands of the Philis- tines." Samson was born in the following year, and the Spirit of God gave him extraordinary strength of body. One day, as he went to Timnath, a Philistine citj r , he saw a young woman, whom he desired his father and mother to obtain for him as a wife. They remonstrated that she was not of their own nation ; but he persevered, and the young woman was contracted to him. Upon a subsequent journey to Timnath, he saw a young lion, which he seized and tore in pieces, as if he had been a young kid ; and some time after, returning thither, to cele- brate his marriage, he stepped aside to see the car- cass of the lion. He found it dried up, and a swarm of bees lodged in it, which had there formed a honey- comb, of which he took a part. At his wedding-feast he proposed a riddle to this effect: " The greedy eater yields to others meat, And savage strength now offers luscious sweet." His companions continued to the seventh day, lost in conjecturing its meaning ; when, partly by threats, and partly by entreaties, they urged the bride to get the secret from her husband. Before sunset on this day they came to Samson saying, "What sweeter flows than honey o'er the tongue ? Whose strength exceeds a lion's, wild and young ? " His reply was, that if they had not ploughed with his heifer they could never have expounded his rid- dle ; meaning that they had abused him by too inti- mate familiarity with his wife, and that she had been unfaithful to him. He paid the fine expected on account of the riddle, but left his wife, and returned to his father. Some time after, the woman married the principal bride- man at her former wedding, and Samson's anger be- ing subsided, he returned to see her, bringing a kid with him as a present. But her father refusing to admit him, he went and caught three hundred foxes or jackals, (see Fox,) which he tied tail to tail, putting between each pair a fire-brand, which lie fired, and turned them into the corn-fields of the Philistines ; where the flames made a great havoc, not sparing even the vines and the olive-trees. When the Phi- listines knew it was Samson who had done this, to revenge the affront received from his father-in-law at Timnath, they burned the man and his daughter. In a combat, Samson slew a great number of Phi- listines. The narrative of this exploit (Judg. xv. 8.) cannot but appear obscure to the English reader, as, indeed, it has been thought by translators in general. Samson smote the Philistines " hip and thigh, with a great slaughter." Hip under thigh, say some ; leg under thigh, say others ; or leg against thigh, or leg over, or upon, thigh ; as the words literally express. These are not all the varieties of interpretation which this passage has experienced. Mr. Taylor proposes to illustrate the expression by the following extracts : "It appears probable, from the following circum- stances, that the exercise of wrestling, as it is now performed by the Turks, is the very same that was anciently used in the Olympic games. For, besides the previous covering of tjie palaestrae with sand, that the combatants might fall with more safety, they have their pellowan bashee, or master wrestler, who like the ' A.yuvo6iTns of old, is to observe and superin- tend over the jura palaestra?, and to be the umpire in all disputes. The combatants, after they are anoint- ed all over with oil, to render their naked bodies the more slippery, and less easily to be taken hold of, first of all look one another steadfastly in the face, as Diomede or Ulysses does the palladium upon antique gems ; then they run up to, and retire from, each other several times, using all the while a variety of antic and other postures, such as are commonly used: in the course of the ensuing conflict. After this pre- lude, they draw nearer together, and challenge each other, by clapping the palms of their hands first upon their own knees or thighs, then upon each other, and afterwards upon the palms of their respective antag- onists. The challenge being, thus given, they imme- diately close in and struggle with each other, striving with all their strength, ->n and dexterity, (which are often very extraordinary,) who shall give his antago nist a fall, and become the conqueror. During these contests I have often seen their arms, and legs, and thighs, so twisted and linked together, [catenata pa- lazstraz.&s- Propertius calls it,) that they have both fallen together, and left the victory dubious ; too difficult sometimes for the pellowan bashee to decide. TXa- Ictiaxtfi 'unrotTog (a wrestler not to be thrown) occurs in ancient inscriptions, (Murat. torn. ii. page 627.) The rruXyj, therefore, being thus acted in all the parts of it with open hands, might very properly, in contra- distinction to the CfBstus, or boxing, receive its name ano rod naXaiarov, from struggling with open hands. We have a most lively picture of this ancient gym- nastic exercise upon an antique urn, in Patin's Imp. Roman. Numismata, page 122 ; and likewise upon a coin of Trebonianus Gallus, the figure of which ia [812 ] exhibited iu Vaillant, Numism. Iinper. Greec." (Shaw's Travels, page 217.) In like manner, Pitts informs us — " They have [at Algiers] a comical sort of wrestling. . . . There comes one boldly into the ring of people, and strips all to his drawers: he turns his back to the ring, and his face towards his clothes on the ground. He then stretch eth on his right knee, and then throws abroad his arms three times, clap- ping his hands together as often, just above the ground : . . . . then makes two or three good springs into the middle of the ring, and there he stands with his left hand to his left ear, and his right hand to his left elbow. This is his challenge ; his antagonists do the same. After which the pilewans face each other, and then both at once slap their hands on their thighs, and then clap together, and then lift them up as high as their shoulders, and cause the palms of their hands to meet, and with the same dash their heads one against another three times, so hard, that many times the blood runs down They'll come as often within five or six yards one of another, and clap their hands to eacli other, and then put forward the left leg, bowing their body, and leaning ivith the left elbow on the left knee, for a little while looking one at the other like two fighting cocks, then at it they go At their byrams, or festivals, those which are their most famous pilewans, come in to show their parts, before the Dey, eight or ten together. They are the choice of all the stout wrestlers." (Account of Algiers, page 168.) Do not these challengers well deserve the descrip- tion of leg-and-thigh-men, or shoulder-and-thigh- inen ? Their very attitudes seem to have furnished their name, which seems, indeed, correctly expressive of them. Now, as we learn, that occasionally the most famous of these are selected and engaged, is there any thing unlikely in the supposition, that the Philistines assembled their best wrestlers, and most notorious combatants, to engage the famous Samson ? that these, fighting in the manner described by Pitts and Dr. Shaw, are denoted by the expression, " hip- and-thigh-men ? " i. e. those who made a profession of wrestling, and who were esteemed eminent in that exercise. [After all, the expression he smote them hip and thigh, which occurs no where else in Scripture, seems here to be merely proverbial, implying that he smote them wholly, entirely. So Gesenius. R. After this, Samson retired into the rock Etam, in Judah ; but was taken by the people of Judah and led bound to the Philistines. The Spirit of the Lord, however, animating Samson, he snapped his cords, and happening to find the jaw-bone of an ass, he, with this weapon, slew a thousand Philistines; and, throw- ing away the jaw-bone, he gave that place the name of Ramath-lehi, that is, the lifting up of the jaw-bone. Being overcome with extreme thirst, and crying to the Lord, the Lord opened a rock called Maktesh, that is, the jaw-tooth, whence water gushed out to assuage his thirst. See Lehi. After this, Samson went to Gaza, a city of the Phi- listines, where he took up his lodgings with a harlot, or more probably a woman who kept a public house. The Philistines, knowing of his arrival, set a guard about the house, and another at the gates of the city, to kill him as he went out in the morning. But Sam- son, rising at midnight, went off, and took away the two gates of the city, and the gate-posts, bar and chain, and carried them up the hill which is towards Hebron. Some time afterwards, he became attached to a woman called Delilah, who dwelt in the valley of Sorek. Many have thought, that Samson took her as his wife, but this does not appear to have been the fact. The Philistines bribed this woman, to dis- cover in what his extraordinary strength consisted. He amused her for a considerable time, pretending that it lay sometimes in one thing, and sometimes in another ; and when the Philistines were ready to seize him, he burst his bonds asunder. At last she obtained the secret, that his strength lay in his hah, which had never been shorn. This she cut oft', as he lay sleeping in her lap, after the common oriental fashion ; and the Philistines instantly seizing him, bound him, and put out his eyes. They took him to Gaza, shut him up in prison, and made him grind at the mill, as a base and contemptible slave. In this usage we discover a degree of vindictive contempt, which perhaps was the ne plus ultra of contumely on the part of the Philistines. Samson being blind, yet of great strength, they made him grinder for the prison. Grinding was women's work, therefore severely degrading ; it was simple work, requiring no art ; it was laborious work, in which his strength was of service ; and thus, by drudging for them, in this menial employment, he earned a mortifying livelihood for himself. In this view, Sam- son was worse used than Job (xxxi. 10.) supposes his wife might be ; " Let my wife be so degraded that, instead of having her corn ground for her, she shall perform that servile office herself ; not for herself, or for me, the lawful object of her affectionate care, but let her grind for another." Samson, the hero, em- ployed on woman's work ! a vilely fit employment for Delilah's deluded lover ! he ground too for others, for those in prison with himself; Samson, the hero, labors, as Isaiah predicts the virgin daughter of Bab- ylon should labor : " Come down, sit in the dust ; sit on the ground ; there is no chair for thee : take the mill-stones, and grind meal : nay more, whereas wo- men who grind usually sing while grinding, sit thou silent, and get into darkness ; retire into some dark hole and corner, endeavoring to obtain a partial con-' cealment of thy vexation and disgrace," chap, xlvii. 1. Samson continued in prison at Gaza about a year, and, his hair growing again, (Judg. xvi. 22.) God restored to him his strength. Shortly afterwards the princes of the Philistines met in a general assembly, in the temple of their god Dagon, to return him thanks for having delivered to them this their formi- dable enemy ; and after they had ended their feast, they ordered Samson to be brought in that he might contribute to their sport. When they had insulted him as long as they thought fit, he desired his guide to let him rest himself against the pillars that sup- ported the temple, which was then full of people, both above and below the galleries. (See House.) Calling on the name of the Lord, and laying hold of the two pillars, by which the temple was supported, one in his right hand and the other in his left, he said, "Let me also die with the Philistines;" and violently shaking the pillars, the temple fell, and kill- ed about three thousand persons. Samson lived in the whole about thirty-eight years ; and was judge of Israel about twentv, Judg. xvi. 20. A. M. 2867 to 2887.

Next Page >>

Home | Resources