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Edward Robinson

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PALESTINE, taken in a limited sense, denotes the country of the Philistines, or Palestines ; which was that part of the Land of Promise extending along the Mediterranean sea, from Gaza south to Lydda north. The LXX were of opinion that the word Philistiim which they generally translate Mlophyli, signified strangers, or men of another tribe. Pales- tine, taken in a more general sense, signifies the whole country of Canaan, as well beyond, as on this side, Jordan ; though frequently it is restrained to the country on this side that river : so that in later times the words Judea and Palestine were synonymous. We find also the name of Syria-Palestina given to the Land of Promise, and even sometimes this province is comprehended in Coele-Syria, or the Lower Syria. Herodotus is the most ancient writer known who speaks of Syria-Palestina. He places it between Phoenicia and Egypt. See Canaan.


PALM, a measure of a hand's, or four fingers' breadth, or 3.648 inches, Hebr. nota, Tephach; LXX, HaXai n?1 Exod. xxv. 25. The Heb. Zereth, rnt, (LXX, Sni&uij, Exod. xxviii. 16.) is often translated palm, though it signifies a span or half-cubit, and contains three ordinary palms ; which ought to be observed, that two measures so unequal may not be confound- ed. Jerome sometimes translates Tephach by four fingers, and sometimes by a palm; but he always renders Zereth by palmus ; and the Septuagint by Spithame. Goliath was in height six cubits and a Zereth ; that is, six cubits and a half, making eleven feet ten inches and something more. We find in Isa. xl. 12, an expression that proves the Zereth, or palm, to signify the extent of the hand from the end of the thumb to the end of the little finger. "Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, and meted out heaven with a span?" a Zereth. PALMER- WORM. Bochart is of opinion that the Hebrew nu, gazdm, is a kind of locust, furnished with very sharp teeth, with which it gnaws ofF grass, corn, leaves of trees, and even their bark. The Jews support this idea, by deriving the word from gdzaz, to cut, to sheai; to mince ; and Pisidias compares a swarm of locusts to a sword with ten thousand edges. Such is also the opinion of most commentators. But notwithstanding this, the LXX read ztiiTr?;, and the Vulgate eruca, or caterpillar, which rendering is sup- ported by Fuller. Michaelis also agrees with this notion, and thinks the sharp and cutting teeth of the caterpillar, which, like a sickle, clea-r away all before them, might give name to this insect. Caterpillars also begin their ravages before locusts, which seems to coincide with the nature of the creature here in- tended : " That which the palmer-worm hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the cankerworm eaten ; and that which the cankerworm hath left hath the caterpillar eaten," Joel i. 4. PALM-TREE. This tree is called icn, tdmdr, from its straight, upright growth, for which it seems more remarkable than any other tree : it sometimes nses to the height of a hundred feet. The palm is one of the most beautiful trees of the 91 vegetable kingdom. The stalks are generally full of rugged knots, which are the vestiges of the decayed leaves : for the trunk is not solid like other trees, but its centre is filled with pith, round which is a tough bark, full of strong fibres when young, which, as the tree grows old, hardens and becomes ligneous. To this bark the leaves are closely joined, which in the centre rise erect, but after they are advanced above the vagina that surrounds them, they expand very wide on every side the stem, and, as the older leaves decay, the stalk advances in height. The leaves, when the tree has grown to a size for bearing fruit, are six or eight feet long ; are very broad when spread out, and are used for covering the tops of houses, and similar purposes. The fruit, which is called "date," grows below the leaves in clusters ; and is of a sweet and agreeable taste. The learned Ksempfer, as a botanist, an anti- quary and a traveller, has exhausted the whole sub- ject of palm-trees. The diligent natives, says Mr. Gibbon, celebrated, either in verse or prose, the 360 uses to which the trunk, the branches, the leaves and the fruit were skilfully applied. The extensive im- portance of the date-tree, says Dr. Clarke, is one of the most curious subjects to which a traveller can direct his attention. A considerable part of the in- habitants of Egypt, of Arabia and Persia, subsist almost entirely on its fruit. They boast also of its medicinal virtues. Their camels feed upon the date stone. From the leaves they make couches, baskets, bags, mats and brushes ; from the branches, cages for their poultry, and fences for their gardens ; from the fibres of the boughs, thread, ropes and rigging ; from the sap is prepared a spirituous liquor ; and the body of the tree furnishes fuel : it is even said, that from one variety of the palm-tree, the "phoenix far- inifera," meal has been extracted, which is found among the fibres of the trunk, and has been used for food. Several parts of the Holy Land, no less than of Idumsea, that lay contiguous to it, are described by the ancients to have abounded with date-trees. Ju- dea, particularly, is typified in several coins of Ves- pasian, by a disconsolate woman sitting under a palm-tree. Upon the Greek coin, likewise, of his son Titus, struck upon a like occasion, we see a shield suspended upon a palm-tree, with a victory writing upon it. The same tree, upon a medal of Domitian, is made an emblem of Neapolis, formerly Sichem, or Naplosa, as it is now called ; as it is like- wise of Sephoris, or Sepphoury, according to the present name, the metropolis of Galilee, upon one of Trajan's. It may be presumed, therefore, that the palm-tree was formerly much cultivated in the Holy Land. In Deut. xxxiv. 3. Jericho is called "the city of palm-trees, because, as Josephus, Strabo and Pliny have remarked, it anciently abounded with them : and so Dr. Shaw states that there are several of them yet at Jericho, where there is the convenience they require of being often watered ; where likewise the climate is warm, and the soil sandy, or such as they thrive and delight in. At Jerusalem, Sichem, and other places to the northward, however, Dr. Shaw PALM-TREE [ 722 ] PALM-TREE states that he rarely saw above two or three of them together ; and even these, as their fruit rarely or ever comes to maturity, are of no further service, than (like the palm-tree of Deborah) to shade the retreats or sanctuaries of their sheikhs, as they might for- merly have been sufficient to supply the solemn pro- cessions with branches. (See John xii. 13.) From the present condition and quality of the palm-trees in this part of the Holy Land, Dr. Shaw concludes that they never were either numerous or fruitful here, and that, therefore, the opinion of Reland and others, that Phoenicia is the same with "a country of date-trees " does not appear probable ; for if such a useful and beneficial plant had ever been cultivated there to ad- vantage, it would have still continued to be culti- vated, as in Egypt and Barbary. In the latter country, in the maritime, as well as in the inland parts, there are several large plantations of the palm-tree ; though such only as grow in the Sahara bring their fruit to perfection. Dr. Shaw, to whom we are so greatly indebted for our acquaint- ance with the natural history of the East, informs us that they are propagated chiefly from the roots of full grown trees,which, if well transplanted, and taken care of, will yield their fruit in the sixth or seventh year ; whereas those which are raised immediately from the kernels, will not bear till about the sixteenth year. This method of raising the


PALSY, a disorder which deprives the limbs of motion, and makes them useless to the patient. Our Saviour cured several paralytics by his word alone. (See Matt. iv. 24 ; viii. 6 ; ix. 2 ; Mark ii. 3, 4 ; Luke v. 18.) The sick man who was lying near the pool at the sheep-market, for thirty-eight years, was a par- alytic, John v. 5.


PAMPHYLIA, a province of Asia Minor, having Cilicia east, Lycia west, Pisidia north, and the Med- iterranean south. It is opposite to Cyprus, and the sea between the coast and the island is called the sea of Pamphylia. The chief city of Pamphylia was Perga, where Paul and Barnabas preached, Acts xiii. 13 ; xiv. 24.


PAPER, PAPYRUS, see Book, p. 200, 201.


PAPHOS, a famous city of the isle of Cyprus, where Paul converted the proconsul Sergius Paulus, and struck with blindness a Jewish sorcerer, called Bar-jesus, who would have hindered his conversion. Paphos was at the western extremity of the island, Acts xiii. 6, A. D. 44.


PARABLE, HoQapoXij, (Heb. a^vrs, Meshdlim,) from the verb naQUfiukXttv, which signifies to compare things together, to form a parallel or similitude of them with other things. What we call the Proverbs of Solomon, which are moral maxims and sentences, the Greeks call the Parables of Solomon. And when Jerome would express the poetic and sententious style of Balaam, (Numb, xxiii. 7, 18, &c.) he says, be began to speak in a parable. In like manner, when Job answers his friends, it is said, he began to take up his parable, Job xxvii. 1; xxix. 1. The parabol- ical, enigmatical, figurative and sententious way of speaking, was the language of the eastern sages and learned men ; and nothing was more insupportable than to hear a fool utter parables, Prov. xxvi. 7. The prophets employed parables, the more strong- ly to impress prince and people with their threaten- ings or their promises. Nathan reproved David under the parable of a rich man who had taken away and killed the lamb of a poor man, 2 Sam. xii. 2, 3, &c. The woman of Tekoah, who was hired by Joab to reconcile the mind of David to Absalom, proposed to him the parable of her two sons who fought together, and one having killed the other, they were going to put the murderer to death, and so to deprive her of both her sons, 2 Sam. xv. 2, 3, &c. Jotham, son of Gideon, addressed to the Shechemites the parable of the bramble of Libanus, whom the trees chose for king, Judg. ix. 7, 8, &c. Our Saviour most frequently addressed the people in parables; thereby verifying the prophecy of Isaiah, (vi. 9.) that the people should see without knowing, and hear without understanding, in the midst of instruc- tions. Jerome observes, that this manner of instruct- ing a -d speaking by similitudes and parables, was common in Syria, and especially in Palestine. It is certain that the ancient sages employed this style almost to affectation. Some parables in the New Testament may perhaps be supposed to be true histories ; as that of Lazarus and the wicked rich man ; that of the good Samari- tan ; and that of the Prodigal Son. In others, our Saviour seems to allude to some points of history in those times ; as that describing a king who went into a far country, to receive a kingdom ; which may hint at the history of Archelaus, who, after the death of his father Herod the Great, went to Rome, to receive from Augustus the confirmation of his father's will, by which he had bequeathed the kingdom of Judea to him. The word parable is sometimes used in Scripture in a sense of reproach and contempt. God threatens his people to scatter them among the nations, and to make them a parable (English translation, a proverb) to the people, 2 Chron. vii. 20. So that when any one would express a nation hated of God, and which has suffered his fierce anger, he shall say, May you become like Israel !


PARACLETUS, a title given to the Holy Spirit by our Saviour, John xiv. 16. See Comforter. PARADISE. This word signifies a garden or forest of trees, a park, in which sense it is used, Neh. ii. 8 ; Eccles. ii. 5 ; Cant. iv. 13. The Septuagint use the word Paradisus, (Gen. ii. 8.) when they speak of the garden of Eden, in which the Lord placed Adam and Eve. This famous gar- den is indeed commonly known by the name of "the terrestrial paradise," and there is hardly any part of the world in which it has not been sought. See Eden. In the New Testament, paradise is put for a place of delight, where the souls of the blessed enjoy hap- piness. Thus our Saviour tells the penitent thief on the cross, (Luke xxiii. 43.) " To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise;" i.e. in the state of the blessed Paul, speaking of himself in the third person, says (2 Cor. xii. 4.) "I knew a man that was caught up into paradise, and heard unspeakable words, which it is not lawful for a man to utter." And again out Lord says, (Rev. ii. 7.) "To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God." The Jews commonly call paradise " the garden of Eden ;" and they ima- gine that at the coming of the Messiah they shall here enjoy an earthly felicity, in the midst of delights ; and that, till the resurrection, and the coming of the Messiah, their souls shall continue here in a state of rest.


PARALLELISM, see Poetry.


PARAN, El-paran, or Pharan, a desert of Ara- bia Petrsea, south of the Land of Promise, and north- west of the gulf Elanitis. (See the situation of this desert fully discussed under Exodus, p. 418.) Che- dorlaomer and his allies ravaged the country, to the plains of Paran, (Gen. xiv. 6.) and Hagar, being sent from Abraham, retired into the wilderness of Paran, where she lived with her son Ishmael, Gen xxi. 21. The Israelites, having decamped from Sinai, came into this desert, (Numb. x. 12.) and thence Moses sent out spies to inspect the Land of Promise, ch. xiii. 3. When David was persecuted by Saul, he withdrew into the wilderness of Paran, near Maon, and south of Carmel, 1 Sam. xxv. 1, 2. The greater part of the habitations of this country, it is said, vere dug in the rocks; and here Simon of Gerasa gathered together all that he took from his enemies. Paran was also the name of a city cf Arabia Pe- [ 724 } PAR trsca, three days' journey from Elah, or Ailal, east, Deut. i. 1 ; 1 Kings xi. 18. But see Exodus, p. 418.


PARCHMENT, see Book, p. 201.


PARDON, entire remission of punishment due to guilt. God extends mercy as his darling attribute, and mercy delighteth in pardoning. God is said to multiply pardons, to be ready to pardon, to pardon for his name's sake, &c. Various similes are used to denote the nature of pardon ; as, to take away in- iquity, to cover sin, to blot out sin, to cast sins behind the back, not to remember them, &C. Man is liable to recollect transgressions, after having pardoned them, but God pardons effectively and completely. The gospel furnishes the noblest motive to us to pardon others ; " even as God for Christ's sake hath pardoned us."


PARENT, a name properly given to a father or a mother, but extended also to relations by blood, espe- cially in a direct line, upward. Scripture commands children to honor their parents, (Exod. xx. 12.) i. e. to obey them, to succor them, to respect them, to give them all assistance that nature, and their and our cir- cumstances, require. Christ (Matt. xv. 5, 6.) con- demns that corrupt explication which the doctors of the law gave of this precept ; by teaching that a child was disengaged from the obligation of supporting and assisting his parents, when he said, " It is a gift by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me ; q. d. I am no longer master of my own estate ; it is consecrat- ed to the Lord." See Corban. Marriages among parents and relations were for- bidden within certain degrees, Lev. xviii. \RLOR, that room in a house where the master or his family customarily speak with visitors ; but whether the word rendered parlor has always this import in the Hebrew, may be doubtful. (Compare Judg. iii. 20; 1 Sam. ix. 22.)


PARMASHTA, the seventh son of Haman ; slain by the Jews, with his father, Esth. ix. 9.


PARMENAS, one of the first seven deacons, Acts vi. 5, 6.


PARSHANDATHA, the eldest son of Haman, put to death with his father, Esth. ix. 7.


PART, PORTION. " The Lord is the portion of mine inheritance," Ps. xvi. 5. " Thou art my refuge, and my portion in the land of the living," Ps. cxlii. 5. And Israel is the part, or portion of the Lord, his pe- culiar people: "The Lord's portion is his people, Jacob is the lot of his inheritance," Deut. xxxii. 9. But with this difference ; God makes and constitutes the happiness of his people, but his people cannot augment God's happiness or glory. Part or portion also signifies recompense or correction. " This is the portion of a wicked man from God, and the heritage appointed unto him by God," Job xx. 29. " They shall be a portion for foxes," Ps. Ixiii. 10. "Upon the wicked he shall ram snares, fire, and brimstone, and an horrible tempest ; this shall be the portion of their cup," Ps. xi. 6. This is their part or portion, and the just punishment of their iniquity. The Lord shall "appoint him his portion with the hypocrites," Matt. xxiv. 51. is thought to have been originally a province of Media, on its eastern side, which was raised into a distinct kingdom by Arsaces, ante A. D. 250. It soon extended itself over a great part of the ancient Persian empire, and is frequently put for that empire in Scripture, and other ancient writings. Par- thia maintained itself against all aggressors for nearly 500 years, but in A. D. 226, one of the descendants of the ancient Persian kings united it to the ancient empire, and Persia resumed its ancient name and dynasty. The Parthians were celebrated, especially by the poets, for their mode of fighting, which consisted in discharging their arrows while they fled. They would seem to have borne no very distant resem- blance to the modern Cossacks. It is said the Par- thians were either refugees or exiles from the Scythian nations. Jews from among them were present at Jerusalem at the Pentecost, Acts ii. 9. PARTRIDGE. The Hebrew name of this bird is Nip, kore, the caller. Forskal mentions a partridge whose name, in Arabic, is kurr ; and Latham says, that in the province of Andalusia, in Spain, its name is churr, both taken, no doubt, from the Hebrew. The German hunters also say of the partridge, "It calls." As this bird is so well known in every part of the world, a particular description is unnecessary. There are only two passages of Scripture in which the partridge is mentioned ; but these will repay our attentive examination. The first occurs in the his- tory of David, where he expostulates with Saul con- cerning his unjust and foolish pursuit: "The king of Israel is come out to seek a flea, as when one doth hunt a partridge on the mountains," 1 Sam. xxvi. 20. The learned Bochart objects to the partridge in this place, and contends that the kore is more likely to be the woodcock, since the partridge is not a mountain bird. This, however, is a mistake; there is a species of the partridge which exactly an- swers to the description of David ; and those of Ba- rakonda, in particular, are said to choose the highest rocks and precipices for their residence. " The Arabs have another though a more laborious method of catching these birds; for, observing that tRey become languid and fatigued after they have hastily been put up once or twice, they immediately run in upon them, and knock them down with their zerwattys, or bludgeons." It was precisely in this manner Saul hunted David, coming hastily upon him, and putting him up from time to time, in hopes he should at length, by frequent repetitions, destroy him. In addition to this method of taking the partridge, Dr. Shaw states, that the Arabs are well acquainted with that mode of catching them which is called tun- nelling ; and to make the capture of them the greater, they will sometimes place behind the net a cage, wiih some tame ones within it, which, by their perpetual chirping and calling, quickly bring down the coveys that are within hearing, and thereby decoy great numbers of them. This, he remarks, may lead us into the right interpretation of Ecclus. xi. 30, which we render " like as a partridge taken [and kept] in a cage, so is the heart of the proud;" but should be. " like a decoy partridge in a cage, so is," &c. The other passage in which this bird is mentioned, is Jer. xvii. 11 : " As the partridge sitteth on eggs, and hatcheth them not; so he that getteth riches, and not by right, shall leave them in the midst of his days, and at his end shall be a fool." It seems to be clear here that this bird sitteth on eggs not its own, to correspond to the getting of riches not by right ; from these eggs it is driven away, leaving them in the midst of his days, before the time of hatching is expired. But why should it be said of the partridge, rather than any other bird, that it sitteth and hatcheth not? Therea son is plain, when it is known that this bird's nest, being made on the ground, the eggs are frequently broken, by the foot of man or other animals, and she is often obliged to quit them, by the presence of in- truders, which chills the eggs and renders them uti S [ 725 ] fruitful. Rain and moisture also may spoil them. Observing that BufFon makes a separate species of the bartavella, or Greek partridge, Mr. Taylor pro- poses that as the proper bird meant in these passages. To the red partridge, and principally to the bartavella, must be referred all that the ancients have related of the partridge. Aristotle must needs know flie Greek partridge better than any other, since this is the only kind in Greece, in the isles of the Mediterranean ; and, according to all appearance, in that part of Asia conquered by Alexander. Belon informs us, that the bartavella keeps ordinarily among the rocks; but has the instinct to descend into the plain to make its nest, in order that the young may find at the birth a ready subsistence. It has another analogy with the common hen ; this is, to sit upon (or hatch) the eggs of strangers for want of its oivn. This remark is of a long standing, since it occurs in the sacred book. Now if, in the absence of the proper owner, this bar- tavella partridge sits on the eggs of a stranger, when that stranger returns to her nest, and drives away the intruder before she can hatch them, the partridge so expelled resembles a man in low circumstances, who had possessed himself, for a time, of the prop- erty of another, but is forced to relinquish his acqui- sition, before he can render it profitable ; which is the simile of the prophet, and agrees, too, with this place.


PARVAIM, the name of a region, (2 Chron. iii. 6.) thought to be the same as Ophir.


PASDAMMIM, a place in the tribe of Judah, (1 Chron. xi. 13.) called Ephes-dammim, 1 Sam. xvii. 1. PASSION. This word has several very different significations. JFirst, it signifies the passion or suf- fering of Christ : " To whom also he showed himself alive after his passion," Acts i. 3. . Secondly, it signi- fies shameful passions, (Rom. i. 26.) to which those are given up, whom God abandons to their own de- sires, Rom. vii. 5 ; 1 Thess. iv. 5.


PASSOVER, (Pascha, odd, a passing over,) a name given to the festival established in.conuriemoration of the coming forth out of Egypt, (Exod. xii.) because, the night before then - departure, the destroying angel, who slew the first born of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Hebrews without entering them, they being marked with the blood of the lamb, which, for this reason, was called the Paschal lamb. The month of the exodus from Egypt (called Abib in Moses, afterwards called Nisan) was ordained to be thereafter the first month of the sacred or ecclesi- astical year ; and the fourteenth day of this month, be- tween the two evenings, that is, between the sun's decline and its setting — according to our reckoning, between three o'clock in the afternoon and six in the evening, at the equinox — they were to kill the paschal lamb, and to abstain from leavened bread. The day following, being the fifteenth, reckoned from six o'clock of the preceding evening, was the grand feast of the passover, which continued seven days ; but only the first and the seventh day were peculiarly solemn. The slain lamb ought to be without defect, a male, and of that year. If no lamb could be found, they might take a kid. They killed a lamb or a kid in each family; and if the number of the family were not sufficient to eat the lamb, they might associate two families together. With the blood of the lamb they sprinkled the door- posts and lintel of every house, that the destroying angel, beholding the blood, might pass over them. Tin \ were to eat the lamb, the same night, roasted, with unleavened bread, anil a salad of wild lettuces, or bitter herbs. It was forbidden to eat any part of it raw or boiled ; nor were they to break a bone ; but it was to be eaten entire, even with the head, the feet, and the bowels. If any thing remained to the day following, it was thrown into the fire, Exod. xii. 46; Num. ix. 12; John xix. 36. They who ate it were to be hi the posture of travellers, having their loins girt, shoes on their feet, staves in their hands, and eating in a hurry. This last part of the ceremony was but little observed ; at least it was of no obligation after the night in which they came out of Egypt. During the whole eight days of the passover, no leavened bread was to be used. They kept the first and last days of the feast ; but it was allowed to dress victuals, which was forbidden on the sabbath day. The obligation of keeping the passover was very strict; so much so, indeed, that Calmet thinks, who- ever should neglect it was condemned to death, Num. ix. 13. Those who had any lawful impediment, as a journey, sickness, or uncleanness, voluntary or in- voluntary, were to defer the celebration of the pass- over till the second month of the ecclesiastical year, the fourteenth day of the month Jiar (which answers to April and May.) We see an example of this postponed passover under Hezekiah, 2 Chron. xxx. 2, &c. We may add, that the oriental Christians, and es- pecially the Syrians, insist that on the year that Christ died, the feast was celebrated on the thirteenth of Adar, being Saturday, that it began at the conclusion of the Friday before, and that our Saviour anticipated it by a day, celebrating it on the Friday, (beginning from the evening of the Thursday before,; because he was to suffer on the Friday. The ceremonies with which the modern Jews cel- ebrate their passover are described by Leo of Modena. (Part hi. cap. 3.) The feast continues a week, but the Jews out of Palestine extend it to eight days, accord- ing to an ancient custom, by which the Sanhedrim sent two men to observe the first appearance of the new moon, who immediately gave notice of it to the chief of the council. For fear of error, they kept two days of the festival. One was called dies latentis tu- na ; the other, dies apparentis lunce. So that the first two days of the passover, and the last two also, are sacred, both from labor and business. But it is al- lowed to prepare victuals, and to remove from place to place whatever they have occasion for. For the four intervening days it is only forbidden to work ; and they are distinguished from working-days only by some particulars. Will not these two days reconcile the day on which our Saviour kept the passover, with that of other Jews ? — It cannot be thought that the priests at the temple would kill the lamb for any body before the proper time. During the eight days of the feast, the Jews eat only unleavened bread, and it is not allowed them to have in their custody any leaven, or bread leavened. They examine all the house with a very scrupulous care, to reject whatever may have any ferment in it. See Leaven. While the temple was in being, the Jews sacrificed a lamb in the temple, between the two evenings ; (that is, after the noon-of the 30th of Nisan, from about two o'clock to six in the evening;) private persons brought them to the temple, and there slew them ; they then offered the blood to the priests, who poured it out at the foot of the altar. The person himself, or a Lcvite, on this occasion, might cut the throat of a victim, but the effusion of the blood at the foot of the altar was appropriate to the priest. [ 726 ] A T As to the Christian passover, the Lord's supper, it was instituted by Christ, when, at the last passover supper he ate with his apostles, he gave them a sign of his body to eat, and a sign of his blood to drink, under the species of bread and wine ; prefiguring that he should give up his body to the Jews and to death. The paschal lamb which the Jews killed, tore to pieces, and ate, and whose blood preserved them from the destroying angel, was a type and figure of our Saviour's death and passion, and of his blood shed for the salvation of the world. There has been a diversity of sentiment, and of practice, about the celebration of the Christian passover. From the time of Poly carp the churches of Asia kept Easter-day on the fourteenth day of the moon of March, whatever day that might happen upon, in imitation of the Jews ; whereas the Latin church kept it on the Sun- day following the fourteenth day of the moon of March. Polycarp came to Rome and conferred with Anicetus on this subject; but neither of them being able to convince the other, they thought they ought not to disturb the peace of the church about a matter of mere custom. The dispute, however, grew warm under the pontificate of Victor, about A. D. 188, and the Asiatics continuing their practice, and Polyerates, bishop of Ephesus, with the other bishops of Asia, having written to the pope a long letter in support of their opinion, Victor sent letters through all the churches, by which he declared them excommuni- cated ! The other churches did not approve of this rigor, and notwithstanding his sentence, they contin- ued in communion with those who still kept Easter on the fourteenth day of the moon of March. At the council of Nice, A. D. 325, the greater part of the churches of Asia were found to have insensibly fallen into the practice of the Romans. The council, there- fore, ordained, that all the churches should celebrate Easter-day on the Sunday following the fourteenth day of the moon of March ; and the emperor Con- stantine caused this decree to be published through the Roman empire. Those who continued the old practice were treated as schismatics, and had the name of Quaiio-decimans, or partisans of the 14th day, given them. It has been thought a famous question, whether our Saviour kept the legal and Jewish passover the last year of his life. Some have thought that the supper he ate with his disciples on the evening when he instituted the sacrament of his body and blood, was an ordinary meal, without a paschal lamb. Others, that he anticipated the passover, keeping it on the Thursday evening, while the other Jews kept it on the Friday. Others have advanced that the Galileans kept the passover on Thursday, as Christ did ; but that the other Jews kept it on Friday. It is, however, the most general opinion of the Chris- tian church, as well Greek as Latin, that our Saviour kept the legal passover on the Thursday evening, as well as the rest of the Jews. The principal diffi- culty in the way of this opinion is found in the Gos- pel of John, who says that Jesus being at the table with his disciples, "before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come," &c. John xiii. 1, &c. And afterwards, when the Jews had led Jesus to Pilate, he observes, that " they themselves went not into the judgment-hall, lest they should be defiled, but that they might eat the pass- over," John xviii 28. And again, that Friday was "the preparation of the passover," and that the Sat- urday following was the great day of the feast, the eabhath day ; for that sabbath day was a high day," John xix. 14, 31.— Why so, if not because it was the passover ? Hence Calmet, in a very elaborate disser- tation on our Saviour's last passover, has endeav ored to show, that our Saviour did not celebrate the passover the last year of his life ; or, at least, that the Jews celebrated it on Friday, the day of Christ's death, and that he died on Calvary at the same hour that the Jews offered the paschal sacri- fice in tlte tempie ; so that the substance and the shadow coincided. In this opinion he is supported by several of the ancients. The word pascha, or passover, is taken, (1.) For the passing over of the destroying angel. (2.) For the paschal lamb. (3.) For the meal at which it was eaten. (4.) For the festival instituted in memory of the corning out of Egypt, and the passage of the de- stroying angel. (5.) For all the victims offered during the paschal solemnity. (6.) For the unleav- ened bread eaten during the eight days of the pass- over. (7.) For all the ceremonies of this solemnity.


PASTOR, a shepherd who watches, defends, feeds, heals, &c. a flock, whether his own property, or committed to his charge. The office of shepherd is applied figuratively to God and to Christ, Gen. xlix. 21 ; Ps. xxiii. 1 ; lxxx. 1 ; Isa. xl. 11 ; Zech. xiii. 7; John x. 14. Christ is the shepherd, inspector, or overseer and guardian of souls, 1 Pet. ii. 25. Min- isters of God's word are shepherds, Jer. xxiii. 4 ; Eph. iv. 11 ; 1 Pet. v. 1 — 4; Ezek. xxxiv. 1, &c. Kings are in Homer called "shepherds of men," &c. and governors are alluded to under this character, Jer. x. 21 ; xii. 10. See an instance, 2 Sam. vii. 8 ; "I took thee (David) from following sheep, to be ruler — royal shepherd — over my people Israel," &c.


PATARA, a maritime city of Lycia, where Paul, going from Philippi to Jerusalem, found a ship bound for Phoenicia, in which he sailed, Acts xxi. 1, A. D. 58.


PATH, the general course of any moving body. So we say, the path of the sun in the heavens; and to this the wise man compares the path of the just, which is, he says, like day -break ; it increases in light and splendor till perfect day. It may be obscure, feeble, dim, at first, but afterwards it shines in full brilliancy, Prov. iv. 18. The course of a man's conduct and general behavior is called the path in which he w 7 alks, by a very easy metaphor : and as when a man walks from place to place in the dark, he may be glad of a light to assist in directing his steps, so the word of God is a light to guide those in their course of piety and duty, who otherwise might wander, or be at a loss for direction. Wicked men and wicked women are said to have paths full of snares. The dispensations of God are his paths, Ps. xxv. 10. The precepts of God are paths, Ps. xvii. 5 ; lxv. 4. The phenomena of nature are paths of God ; (Ps. Ixxvii. 19 ; Isa. xliii. 16.) and to those depths which are beyond human inspection, the course of God in his providence is likened. If his paths are obscure in nature, so they may be in provi dence, and in grace too. May he show us, with increas- ing clearness, " the path of life !" See Causeway.


PATHROS, ( Jer. xliv. 1, 15 ; Ezek. xxix. 14 ; xxx 14.) one of the three ancient divisions of Egypt, viz Upper Egypt, which Ezekiel speaks of as distinct from Egypt and the original abode of the Egyptians ; as indeed Ethiopia and Upper Egypt really were Ezekiel threatens the Pathrusim with entire ruin. The Jews retired thither, notwithstanding the re- monstrances of Jeremiah ; and the Lord says, bv Isaiah, that he will brin


PATIENCE, endurance, calmness of mind, under lisappointment or suffering. The patriarch Job is commended, because, amid the misfortunes which God permitted to afflict him, he did not behave im- patiently, James v. 11. The patience of God, (1 Pet. iii. 20.) which invites our conversion, and delays to punish us, is the effect of his mercy, and of his infi- nite power. The patience of the poor, which" shall not be lost (Ps. ix. 18.) — also, thou art my patience and my God (Ps. lxxi. 5.) — is another thing; for patience in this place rather signifies hope and ex- pectation. The hope which the poor has placed in God, shall not be in vain, Matt, xviii. 26 ; Luke xviii. 7. They bring forth fruit with patience ; (Luke viii. 15.) i. e. amid sufferings, which exercise their pa- tience, and perfect it ; with perseverance. Not unlike this is the expression, "In your patience pos- sess ye your souls," — keep your minds quiet; and your self-possession shall enable you to save your lives out of pressing dangers.

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