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Edward Robinson

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MAACHATH, see Maacah.


MAAGAH, Maachah, Maachath, or Beth-Maa- chah, a city and region of Syria, east and north of the sources of Jordan, not far from Geshur, at the foot of mount Hermon. It was called Abel-beth- maachah, because Abel was situated in it. The Is- raelites would not destroy the Maachathites, but per- mitted them to dwell in the land, (Josh.xiii. 13.) and their king assisted the Ammonites against David, 2 Sam. x. 8, 9. The lot of the half-tribe of Manasseh beyond Jordan extended to this country, Deut. iii. 14 ; Josh. xii. 5. See Abel II.


MAALEH-ACRABBIM, the ascent of scorpions, a mountain so called from the multitude of scorpions that infested it, at the southern end of the Salt sea, Numb, xxxiv. 4; Josh. xv. 3. See Acrabatene, II.


MACCABEES, a name assumed by a patriotic He- brew and his descendants, who successfully resisted the tyranny of Antiochus Epiphanes. (See Judas.) It is generally supposed that their name was derived from the inscription on their ensigns, or bucklers— ' 3 3 c» which begin these words, mrp n^-ibso rpos it, Mi Camoca Be-elohim Yehovah; (ooc, Maccabei;) Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods ? (Exod. xv. 11.) after the manner that the Romans put on their ensigns, S. P. Q. R. Senatus Populusque Ro- manus. The Books of Maccabees are four in number; the first two are esteemed to be canonical by the church of Rome. The first book contains the his- tory of forty years; i. e. from Antiochus Epiph- anes to the time of Simon the high-priest ; from A. M. 3829 to 3869. The second book contains a compilation of several pieces, but is far inferior in point of accuracy to the first. It comprises a his- tory of about fifteen years; from the execution of Heliodorus's commission, who was sent by Seleucus to fetch away the treasures of the temple, to the vic- tory obtained by Judas Maccabreus over Nicanor ; from A. M. 3828 to 3843. The third book contains the history of the persecution raised by Ptolemy Phi- lopater against the Jews of Egypt, A. M. 3787, and should therefore be placed before the first book. The fourth book is very little known. It is found in the collected works of Josephus, under the title of the Government of Reason, though it is rejected as spurio is by the best critics. It contains an embel- lished account of the persecution of the Maccabean family as related in 2 Mac. vi. vii. the scene of which it places at Jerusalem.


MACEDONIA, a country of Greece, having Thrace north, Thessaly south, Epirus west, and the ^Egean sea east. It is believed that Macedonia was peopled by Kittim, son of Javan, (Gen. x. 4.) and that by Kittim, in the Hebrew text, Macedonia is often to be understood. (See Chittim.) Alexander the Great, son of Philip, king of Macedonia, having conquered Asia, and subverted the Persian empire, the name of the Macedonians became famous throughout the East ; and is often given to the Greeks, the successors of Alexander in the monarchy, Esth. (Apoc.) xvi. 10, 14. and 2 Mac. viii. 20. So also the Greeks are often put for the Macedonians, (2 Mac. iv. 36.) Paul, being called in a vision, while at Troas, to preach the gospel at Macedonia, founded the churches of Thessalonica and Philippi, Acts xvi. 9, &c. A. D. 55. The prophet Daniel describes Macedonia under the emblem of a goat with one horn, and it is there- fore of great consequence that this symbol should be proved to be that proper to Macedonia ; for if this country had no such emblem belonging to it, we must look to another kingdom for a fulfilment of the prophecy, which would be contrary to the truth of history, and would produce inextricable confusion. The following observations on an ancient symbol of Macedon, by Taylor Combe, Esq. F. A. S. will be found useful : "I had lately an opportunity of procuring an ancient bronze figure of a goat with one horn, which was the old symbol of Mace- don. . . It was dug up in Asia Minor, and brought into this country by a poor Turk. Not only many of the individ- ual towns in Macedon and Thrace employed this type, but the kingdom itself of Macedon, which is the oldest in Europe of which we have any regular and connected history, was represented also by a goat, with this particularity, that it had but one horn. Carnus, the first king of the Macedonians, commenced his reign 814 years before the Christian era. The circum- stance of his being led by goats to the city of Edessa, the name of which, when be established there the seat of his kingdom, he converted into JEgea, is well worthy of remark : Urbem Edessam, ob memoriam muneris, Aegas, populem JEgeadas. (Justin, lib. vii. cap. 1.) Hesychius says, that the Cretans call the goat caranus. Xenophon informs us in his first book of the Grecian history, that the word caranus signifies lord. Now in the latter case the word caranus may seem regularly to be derived from y.una, caput ; but in the former example it must be deduced from keren, (p,i,) the Hebrew word for a horn, or, which is the same thing, from the Greek word y.inaQ. This last ety- mology will not appear improbable, when we consid- er the difference of pronunciation among the early Macedonians, who were esteemed by the rest of Greece as barbarians, and who, we are expressly told, used a language different from that which was spoken in the southern parts of Greece. (Strabo, lib. [ 649 ] vii. p. 327.) If, then the above root be admitted, — and for this the change of a single letter is only necessa- ry, — it will appear, I say, that Caranus was so called in conformity with an idea of power, which was an- nexed to the word horn, even in the earliest period of Macedonian history. In the reign of Amyntas the First, nearly 300 years after Caranus, and about 547 years before Christ, the Macedonians, on being threatened with an invasion, became tributary to the Persians. In one of the pilasters of Persepolis this very event seems to be recorded in a manner that throws considerable light upon the present subject. goat is represented with an immense horn grow- ing out of the middle of his forehead, and a man in a Persian dress is seen by his side, holding the horn with his left hand, by which is signified the subjec- tion of Macedon. A proverb in use at the present day is grounded upon this ancient practice of signifying conquest by the capture of the horns. " To take a bull by the horns " is an equivalent phrase for "to conquer." When Demetrius Phalereus was endeav- oring to persuade Philip, the father of Perseus king of Macedon, to make himself master of the cities of Ithome and Acrocorinthus, as a necessary step to the conquest of Peloponnesus, he is reported to have used the following expression ; " Having caught hold of both horns, you will possess the ox itself:" there- by meaning, that if those cities which were the chief defence of Peloponnesus were once taken, it could not but happen that the conquest of Peloponnesus would follow. (Strabo, lib. vii. p. 361.) .... " In the reign of Archelaus of Macedon, (A. A. C. 413.) there occurs on the reverse of a coin of that king, the head of a goat having only one horn. Of this coin, so remarkable for the single horn, there are two varieties ; one is engraved by Pellerin, and the other is preserved in the cabinet of the late Dr. W. Hunter. "But the custom of representing the type and power of a country under the form of a horned animal is not peculiar to Macedonia. Persia was represented by a ram. . Ammianus Marcellinus acquaints us, that the king of Persia, when at the head of his army, wore a ram's head made of gold, and set with pre- cious stones, instead of a diadem. (Lib. xix. cap. 1.) The type of Persia, the ram, is observable on a very ancient coin, undoubtedly Persian, in Dr. Hunter's collection. "The relation of these emblems to Macedon and Persia is strongly confirmed by the vision in the prophet Daniel, (chap. viii. 3 — 8.) which, while it ex- plains the specimens of antiquity before us, receives itself in return no inconsiderable share of illustration. The whole of this vision is afterwards explained by the angel Gabriel, verses 21 — 23. Nothing, cer- tainly, is more directly applicable to overthrow the joint empire of the Medes and Persians by Alexander the Great, than are these verses in the book of Daniel ; nor at the same time can better authority be re- quired for the true meaning of the single-horned goat, than may be derived from the same source. There is a gem engraved in the Florentine collec- tion, (plate 51.) which, as it confiri is wrat has been 82 already said, and has not hitherto been understood, think worthy of mention. It will be seen by the drawing I have made of this gem, that nothing more nor less is meant by the ram's head with two horns, and the goat's head with one, than the kingdoms of Persia and Macedon, represented under their appro- priate symbols. From the circumstance, however,, of these characteristic types being united, it is ex- tremely probable that the gem was engra\ed after the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great." This testimony is of great value, especially to those who know that "the writer had the best means of in- struction in numismatics, under his father, Dr. Combe, who edited the publication of Dr. Hunter's Medals, &c. Mr. Taylor, however, has endeavored to col- lect some additional circumstances. The Macedonians are supposed by Dr. Mede to have derived their origin from Sledia. Witl out de- termining on the conclusiveness of the doctor's ety- mologies, Mr. Taylor supposes that Media, a prov- ince adjoining Persia, is much more likely to be al- luded to, on the walls of Persepolis, a Persian pal- ace, than Macedonia, a province very remote from the seat of empire. The triumph of Persia over Media, or any advantage gained over that country, was of importance, and worth recording; but of what importance was a triumph over Macedonia? It is observable, also, that in the general procession which adorns the palace of Persepolis, and which is supposed to be a representation of the various prov- inces of the empire, in the act of paying their an- nual presents to the king, each of them being denot- ed by its proper symbol, there appears the emblem of two goats, each having only one horn. This would be extremely embarrassing, if we did not know that, there were two Medias, the Upper and the Lower ; which as they were in some respects but one province, though divided, so they are represent- ed by two goats walking together, but each directed by his proper superintendent. He therefore con- cludes that Media was symbolized by the single- horned goat ; and that the Macedonians, being de- rived from thence, retained the symbol of their origi- nal country. This will also explain the reason of Daniel's perplexity on seeing the vision, as he could not tell which of the two countries, that in the East, or that in the West, was intended as the conqueror of Persia. It was most likely that he should think of Media, unless informed to the contrary. This medal is given in proof that Macedonia was divided into several provinces, four at least, when under the Roman government. Many medals of the first province are extant, mostly in silver, and they enable us to assert, that the evangelist Luke (Acts xvi. 12.) means not to describe Philippi as the first or chief city of Macedonia, which was not true in any sense : but as a city of the first Macedonia, which is the correct import of his words. See- Philippi. Among thi medals of Macedonia is one with a lion devouring a bull ; and it is remarkable that the same subject is sculptured in very large figures on [ 650 ] the palace of Persepolis. What could induce Mace- donia, a country where there are no lions, to adopt this emblem? But if it were derived from the East, then it contributes to prove the derivation of mis people from the same quarter ; and we must look to the East for its explanation. is in the Apocryphal books sometimes used as an appellative, for an enemy to the Jews. Thus, in the additions to the book of Esther, it is said Hainan was a Macedonian by na- tion and inclination, or party ; that he was desirous to transfer the empire of the Persians to the Mace- donians ; that is, to the greatest enemies of the state. MACHiERUS, or Macheronte, a city and fort beyond Jordan, in the tribe of Reuben, north and east of the lake Asphaltites, two or three leagues from Jordan, and not far from where that river dis- charges itself into the Dead sea. This castle had been fortified by the Asmoneans ; but Gabinius de- molished it, and Aristobulus re-fortified it. Herod the Great made it much stronger than before. Here John the Baptist was imprisoned, and beheaded, by order of Herod Antipas. (Joseph. Ant. xiv. 10, 11 ; xviii. 7.)


MACHPELAH, or Machpela, the name of the plain in which the cave which Abraham bought of Ephron was situated, Gen. xxiii. 9, 17.


MAD, MADNESS, insanity, or deprivation of reason; medically defined to be delirium without fever. Our Lord cured, by his word, several who were deprived of the exercise of their rational pow- ers ; and the circumstances of their histories prove, that there could neither be mistake nor collusion respecting them. How far madness may be allied to, or connected with, demoniacal possession, is a very intricate inquiry ; and whether in the present day (as perhaps anciently) evil spirits may not take advantage from distemperature of the bodily frame, to augment evils endured by the patient, is more than may be affirmed, though the idea seems to be not absolutely repugnant to reason. Nevertheless, what may be, is probably different on most inquiries from what we can prove really is. The epithet mad is applied to several descriptions of persons in Scripture; as (1.) to one deprived of reason, Acts xxvi. 24; 1 Cor. xiv. 23. — (2.) To one whose reason is depraved, and overruled by the fury of his angry passions, Acts xxvi. 11. — (3.) To one whose mind is perplexed and bewildered, so dis- turbed that he acts in an uncertain, extravagant, ir- regular manner, Deut. xxviii. 34 ; Eccl. vii. 7. — (4.) To one who is infatuated by the vehemence of his desires after idols and vanities, Jer. 1. 38. — or (5.) After folly, deceit and falsehood, Hosea ix. 7. David's madness (1 Sam. xxi. 13.) is by many sup- posed not to have been feigned, but a real epilepsy or falling sickness ; and the LXX use words which strongly indicate this sense. It is urged in support of this opinion, that the troubles which David un- derwent might very naturally weaken his constitu- tional strength ; and that the force he suffered in being obliged to seek shelter in a foreign court, would disturb his imagination in the highest degree.


MADAI, the third son of Japheth, (Gen. x. 2.) and father of the Medes. Others suppose that Media is too distant from the other countries peopled by Ja- pheth, and cannot be comprehended under the name of " The Isles of the Gentiles," which were allotted to the sons of Japheth. For these reasons some learn- ed men have been led to suggest, that Madai was (ather of the Macedonians, whose country was called yEmathia, as if from the Hebrew or Greek Ei, an island, and Madai ; q. d. the isle of Madai, (no *n) insula Madai. Near this country is mentioned a people called Msedi, or Madi. This supposition, how- ever, is too artificial, and is unnecessary. See Media.


MADMANNAH, or Medemene, a city of Simeon, (Josh. xv. 31.) first given to Judah, very far south, towards Gaza, Isa. x. 31 ; 1 Chron. ii. 49


MAGDALA, a toiver, was not far from Tiberias ; it is sometimes called by the Jews "Magdala of Ga- dara." From hence, probably, Mary of Magdala, or Mary the Magdalene, was named, Matt, xxviii. 1 ; Luke viii. 2.


MAGIC, that is, all those arts, the superstitious ceremonies of magicians, sorcerers, enchanters, nec- romancers, exorcists, astrologers, soothsayers, inter- preters of dreams, fortune-tellers, casters of nativi- ties, &c. are all forbidden by the law of God, wheth- er practised to hurt or to benefitmankind. It was also forbidden to consult magicians on pain of death, Lev. xix. 31 ; xx. 6. Daniel speaks of magicians and diviners in Chaldea, under Nebuchadnezzar, (Dan. i. 20, &c.) of whom he names four sorts: Chartumim, Asaphim, Mecasphim nnd Casdim, (chap, ii. 2.) but their distinctions are not certainly known.


MAGOG, son of Japheth, (Gen. x. 2.) and father, as is believed, of the Scythians and Tartars ; a name which comprehends the Getae, the Goths, the Sar- matians, the Saeae, the Massageta?, and others The Tartars and Muscovites possess the country of the ancient Scythians, and retain several traces of the names Gog and Magog. They were formerly called Mogli, and in Tartary are the provinces Lug, Mon- gug, Cangigu and Gigui ; Engui, Corgangui, Caigui, &c. Gog and Magog have in a manner passed into a proverb, to express a multitude of powerful, cruel, barbarous and implacable enemies to God and his worship. (See Gog.) The Arabians and other orien- tal writers speak of the same people under the names of Jagug and Magug. Suidas says Magog is the Persians; whence we might suppose, that Ezekiel, who describes the army of Magog, intended the army of Xerxes. Josephus says, the people named Magoges were so called from their leader, Magog, who, by the Greeks, is called a Scythian. It should seem, therefore, that Josephus speaks of a name and a people well known in his own time. And Ebedjesu, in the thirteenth century, says, that Adeus planted Christianity "throughout Persia, the regions of Assyria, Armenia, Media, Bab- ylonia, the land of Huz, (in the south of Persia, not far from the Tigris, whose metropolis is marked Ahvaz in D'Anville, about lat. 40.) to the confines of India, and even to the land of Gog and Magog;" — the country, evidently, which we now call Tartary. Gog appears to describe the king, and Magog the people.


MAHALALEEL, or Malaleel, son of Canaan of the race of Seth, Gen. v. 15, &c. is the title of Psalms liii. and lxxxviii. "To the chief musician on Mahalath;" which signifies a musical instrument; probably a stringed instrument to be accompanied by song. In Ethiopic the corresponding word, Mahlet, signifies song, psalm, but also xiSu^a, a harp, guitar, etc. R.


MAHANAIM, the tivo camps or hosts, a city of the Levites of the family of Merari, in Gad, on the brook Jabbok, Josh. xxi. 38; xiii. 29, 30 ; 1 Chron. vi. 80. Jacob gave it this name, because here he had a vision of angels, Gen. xxxii. 2. It was the seat of the kingdom of Ish-bosheth, after the death of Saul, (2 Sam. ii. 9—12.) and thither David retired, during the usurpation of Absalom, 2 Sam. xvii. xviii, &c. In the Vulgate it is sometimes called simply Castra, or the camp, Gen. xxxii. 2; 2 Sam. ii. 8, 12, 29; xvii. 24; xix. 32. xtx'tuna, a harp, guitar, etc. R. MAHER-SHALAL-HASH-BAZ, he hasteneth to the prey, a name given to one of the sons of the. prophet Isaiah, by way of prediction ; (Isa. viii. 3.) The prophet observes that his children were for signs and w r onders, and this name is evidence of the fact Of the same nature we are to consider Emmanuel, and some other names. See Virgin.


MAHLAH, or Mahala, a daughter of Zelophe- had, who with her sisters received their allotment in the land of Canaan, because their father died without male issue, Numb. xxvi. 33 ; xxvii. 1 ; Josh xvii. 3 ; 1 Chron. vii. 15.


MAHLON, son of Elimelech and Naomi, (Ruth i. 2, &c.) who in the country of Moab married Rutn, a Moabite woman, but died without children : his widow followed her mother-in-law Naomi to Beth lehem, where she married Boaz. implies the loss of a limb or member; often the absolute loss of it, not a suspension of its use, by a contraction, or diminution. This total loss is clearly the import of the original word, "If thine hand or foot offend thee, cut them off, and cast them from thee — enter into life maimed — rather than hav- [ 652 ] JVl A L, ing two bauds," &c. Matt, xviii. 8. And this should the rather be observed, to distinguish it from wither- ed, contracted,


MAKAZ, a city probably of Dan, (1 Kings iv. 9.) supposed by Calmet to be the Maktesh, the jaw-tooth, or En-hakkore, of Judg. xv. 19 ; Zeph. i. 11.


MAKELOTH, an encampment of Israel in the desert, Numb, xxxiii. 25, 26.


MAKKEDAH, a city of Judah, (Josh. xv. 41.) which Eusebius places 8 miles from Eleutheropolis, east, Josh. x. 29. Called Maked, 1 Mac. v. 26, 38.


MAKTESH, morter, probably the name af a quar- ter or district in or near Jerusalem, perhaps one of the adjacent valleys, Zeph. i. 11. *R.


MALACHI, the last of the twelve minor prophets, aud so little known that it is doubted whether his name be a proper name, or only a generical one, sig- nifying the angel of the Lord, a messenger, a proph- et. It appears by Hag. i. 13. and Mai. iii. 1. that in these times the name of Malach-Jehovah, messenger of the Lord, was given to prophets. The LXX have rendered Malachi, his angel, instead of my angel, as the original expresses ; and several of the fathers have quoted Malachi under the name of " the angel of the Lord." The second book of Esdras and Ter- tullian unite the name Malachi sad angel of the Lord. Origeu thought that Malachi was an angel incarnate, rather than a prophet; but this opinion is insupportable. It is much more probable that Mal- achi was Ezra ; and this is the opinion of the ancient Hebrews, of the Chaklee paraphrast, of Jerome, and of abbot Rupert. The author of the Lives of the Prophets, under the name of Epiphanius Dorotheus, and the Chronicon Alexandrinum, say, that Malachi was of the tribe of Zebulun, aud native of Sapha ; that the name Malachi was given to him because of his angelical mildness, and because an angel used to appear visibly to the people, after the prophet had spoken to them, to confirm what he had said. He died very young, as they say, and was buried near the place of his ancestors. It appears certain that Malachi prophesied under Nehemiah, and after Haggai and Zechariah, at a time of great disorder among the priests and people of Judah, whom he reproves. He inveighs against the priests ; reproves the people for having taken strange wives, for inhumanity to their brethren, for too fre- quently divorcing tneir wives, and for neglect of pay- ing tithes and first-fruits. He seems to allude to the covenant that Nehemiah renewed with the Lord, to- gether with the priests and the chief of the nation. Malachi is the last of the prophets of the synagogue, and lived about 400 years before Christ. He proph- esied of the coming of John the Baptist, and of the two-fold coming of our Saviour, very clearly, ch. iii. He speaks of the abolition of sacrifices under the old law, and of the sacrifice of the new law, chap, i. 10, 13; iv. 5,6.


MALCHUS, a servant of the high-priest Caiaphas, who, in the garden of olives, among those sent to ap- prehend Jesus, was struck by Peter, and had his right ear cut off, John xviii. 10. is a word which expresses not only that evil disposition of the mind and heart, which we so call, but also punishment and correction, 1 Sam. xx. 7 : xxv. 17 (See also Isa. xl. 2.) Paul requires that Christians should be children in malice, but men in prudence and wisdom, 1 Cor. xiv. 20.


MALTA, or Melita, [Eng. tr.] a famous island in the Mediterranean sea. It is thought to have been named Melita, from the great quantity of honey found there formerly. Its length is from east to west, and its breadth from north to south. Its circumference is about sixty miles, and is ascribed to Africa by ge- ographers, because, if a line be drawn from east to west, it will be included in the African sea. Paul suffered shipwreck on this island, and, with his com- panions, was well used by the inhabitants, Acts xxviii. Paul taking up a fagot of twigs to throw into the fire, a viper that lurked in it, feeling the heat, seized him by the hand ; but he, without any emotion, shook it into the fire. The people expected every moment to see him fall down dead ; and as this did not hap- pen, they changed their sentiments, and began to look upon him as some deity. Publius, the govern- or of the island, received the apostle courteously ; and his father being sick of a fever and bloody flux, Paul healed him, and also restored many of the islanders to health. When he and his company sailed thence, the people abundantly supplied them with necessaries for their voyage. Several of them were converted by the preaching of Paul ; and the house of Publius was changed into a church. native of this island informed Calmet that Mal- ta was an ancient colony of the Carthaginians, and had always spoken the language of Africa, as it continues to do. Hence those of Paul's company, who were Greeks or Latins, called the Maltese bar- barians. We ought not to close this article, without hinting at an opinion lately started, and supported by men of very competent learning, that the Melita of the Acts was an island in the Adriatic sea, on the coast of Illyricum, now called Meleda. To prove this, the course of the winds, the Euroc.lydon, with the other circumstances of the voyage, have been closely ex- amined. But it appears from the history, that the same winds, the S. E. the E. S. E. and the E. were equally likely to drive the ship to Malta, in a direct course from Crete ; that the fears of the seamen, of falling on the Syrtes (quicksands) the greater or the lesser, were more than nugatory in that case, as they were going farther and farther from them, towards Meleda ; that it does not appear that ever the Ro- mans had such an establishment at Meleda as war- ranted the residence of a protos or pro-pretor there ; and that it was to the last degree unlikely that " a ship of Alexandria" should have chosen Meleda for the purpose of " wintering in the island," which im- plies her arrival before the stormy season : — all these objections form a strong argument against the newly- proposed opinion. [The name Melita was anciently applied to two islands ; one in the Adriatic sea on the coast of Il- lyricum, now called Meleda ; the other in the Med- iterranean, between Sicily and Africa, now called Malta. That the latter is the one on which Paul suffered shipwreck is probable, because he left the island in a ship of Alexandria which had wintered there on her voyage to Italy, and after touching at Syracuse and Rhegium, landed at Puteoli ; thus sail- ing on a direct course. The other Melita would be far out of the usual track from Alexandria to Italy ; and in sailing from it to Rhegium, Syracuse also would be out of the direct course. The fact that the vessel was tossed all night before the shipwreck, in the Adriatic sea, does not militate against the prob- [ 653 ] ability of its afterwards being driven upon Malta ; because the name Adria was applied to the whole Ionian sea, which lay between Sicily and Greece. So Strabo ii. p. 185. C. vii. p. 488. A. (See Wetstein on Acts xxvii. 27. and Adria.) R.


MAMMON, a Chaldee word signifying riches. Our Saviour says, we cannot at the same time serve God and mammon ; (Matt. vi. 24.) that we ought not to make ourselves adherents of mammon, or of the riches of unrighteousness, that is, of worldly riches, which are commonly the instruments of sin, and are acquired too often by unrighteousness and iniquity.


MAMRE, the name of an Amorite in alliance with Abraham, Gen. xiv. 13, 24. Hence the oaks of Mam- re, (Engl. tr. plain of Mamre, Gen. xiii. 18 ; xviii. 1.) or simply Mamre, (xxiii. 17, 19. xxxv. 27.) a grove near Hebron. R.

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