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Edward Robinson

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KABZEEL, a city in the southern part of Judah, (Josh. xv. 21.) called Jekabseel, Neh. xi. 25. KADESH,or Kadesh-Barnea,oi- Ex-Mishfhat, (Gen. xiv. 7.) a city and desert around it, in the south- eastern border of the promised land, Numb, xxxiv. 4 ; Josh. xv. 3. Here Miriam died ; (Numb. xx. 1.) and here Moses and Aaron, distrusting God's power, when they smote the rock at the waters of strife, were appointed to die without the satisfaction of entering the promised land, Numb, xxvii. 14. The king of Kadesh was killed by Joshua, (Josh, xii.22.) and the city given to Judah. The situation of Kadesh has been fullv treated of in the article Exodus, p. 419.


KADMONITES, (Gen. xv. 19.) a tribe of people who inhabited the promised land east of the Jordan, about mount Hermon. They were descended from Canaan the son of Ham. Cadmus, the founder of Thebes in Bceotia, has been conjectured to have been originally a Kadmonite, and his wife Hermione to have been so named from mount Hermon. The Kadmonites, says Calmet. were Hivites : the word Hivites is derived from a root which signifies a ser- pent; and fable says, that Cadmus sowed serpents' teeth, from which sprung up armed men ; because he settled at Thebes, his Hivites, or Kadmonites, who were valiant and martial.


KARKAA, a town on the southern confines of the tribe of Judah, Josh. xv. 3.


KATTATH, the limit of the tribe of Zebulun, (Josh. xix. 15.) in Judg. i. 30, called Kithron, which is the same in sense. The Vulgate, LXX, Syriac, arid Arabic, render these names, which are from the same root, by small, trifing, insignificant things : the Chaldee to the same effect ; whence the name of this city, perhaps, might be analogous to our name little- town, Littleton.


KEDEM, see East.


KEDEMAH, Ishmael's youngest son, who dwelt, as did his brethren, east of the mountains of Gilead, Gen. xxv. 15. The town of Kedemoth might at first, perhaps, belong to his descendants ; but we cannot consider him as father of the Kadmonites; (Gen.xv. 19.) for these were ancient inhabitants of Canaan, and already powerful in the time of Abraham.


KEDEMOTH, a town of Reuben, east of the brook Anion, (Josh. xiii. 18.) and one of the stations of the Hebrews in the wilderness ; (Dent. ii. 26.) given to the sous of Merari, the Levite, 1 Chron. vi. 79. The name also included the desert around it.


KEDRON, see Kidron.


KEILAH, a town of Judah, (Josh. xv. 44.) which Ensebius places seventeen miles from Eleutheropolis, on the side of Hebron ; and Jerome eight miles from the late city. It is said that the prophet Habakkuk's tomb was shown there.


KEMUEL, the third son of Nahor, and father of the Syrians ; or rather of Aram, Gen. xxii. 21. He had a son surnamed "the Syrian," or "the Aram- ite ;" for the Syrians were really derived from Aram, a son of Shem. Kemuel may have given name to the Kamilites, a people of Syria lying west of the Euphrates.


KENATH, a town of Manasseh, beyond Jordan, {Numb, xxxii. 42.) named Nobah, 'after Nobah, an Israelite, had conquered it. Eusebius places it in the Trachonitis, about Bozra ; and Pliny in the Decapolis, lib. v. cap. 18.


KENI, a region of the Philistine country, 1 Sam. xxvii. 10 ; Judg. i. 16. " The children of the Kenite," should be, according to the LXX, "of Jethro, the Kenite."


KENITES, a people who dwelt west of the Dead sea, and extended themselves far into Arabia Petroea. Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, was a Kenite, and out of regard to him all of this tribe who sub- mitted to the Hebrews were suffered to live in their own country. The rest fled, in all probability, to the Edomites and Amalekites. (See 1 Sam. xv. 6.) The lands of the Kenites were in Judah's lot. Balaam, when invited by Balak to curse Israel, stood on a mountain, whence, addressing himself to the Kenites, he said, " Strong is thy dwelling-place, and thou put- test thy nest in a rock ; nevertheless the Kenite shall be wasted until Ashur shall carry thee away captive," Numb. xxiv. 21. They were carried into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar.


KENIZZITES, an ancient people of Canaan, whose land God promised to the descendants of Abraham, (Gen. xv. 19.) and who dwelt, it is thought, in Idumsea. Kenaz, son of Eliphaz, probably took his name from, the Kenizzites, among whom he settled.


KETURAH, Abraham's second wife, (Gen. xxv. 1, 2.) is thought by the Jews to be the same as Ha- gar. We know nothing of her, except as the mother of Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah. Abraham gave presents to these, and sent them east into Arabia Deserta.


KEY, an instrument frequently mentioned in Scripture, as well in a natural as in a figurative sense. The keys of the ancients were very different from ours ; because their doors and trunks were general- ly closed with bands, and the key served only to loosen or fasten those bands. Chardin says, that a lock in the East is like a little harrow, winch enters half way into a wooden staple, and that the key is a wooden handle, with points at the end of it, which are pushed into the staple, and so raise this little har- row. A key was a symbol of power or authority. Isa. xxii. 22, "And the* key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder: he shall open and none shall shut; he shall shut and none shall open," i. e. he shall be grand master and principal officer of his prince's house. Christ gives Peter authority in his church, (Matt. xvi. 19.) the key of the kingdom of heaven, the power of binding and loosing ; that is, of opening and shutting ; for this frequently consisted only, as we have said, in tying and untying. Isaiah remarks, that Eliakim should wear his key upon his shoulder, as a mark of office, of his power to open and shut with authority. Callimachus says, that. Ceres carried a key upon her shoulder ; a custom which appears very strange to us ; but the ancients had large keys in the form of a sickle, and which, from their weight and shape, could not otherwise be carried conveniently. Christ reproaches the scribes and Pharisees with having taken away the key of knowledge ; (Luke xi. 52.) that is, with reading and studying the Scriptures, without advantage to themselves, and without dis- covering to others the truth ; which in some sort they held captive in unrighteousness, Rom. i. 18. He also says (Rev. i. 18.) that he has the key of death and hell ; that is, power to bring to the grave, or to deliver from it ; to appoint to life or to death. The rabbins say, that God has reserved to himself four keys ; the key of rain, the key of the grave, the key of fruitfulness, and the key of barrenness.


KEZIZ, a valley, and perhaps a city, in Benjamin Josh, xviii. 21.


KIBEROTH-AVAH, or Kiberoth-hattaavah the graves of lust, was one of the encampments of Is- rael in the wilderness, where they desired of God flesh for their sustenance, declaring they were tu - ed of manna, Numb. xi. 34, 35. Quails were sent in great quantities, but while the meat was in their mouths, (Ps. lxxviii. 30.) God smote so great a number of them, that the place was called the graves of those who lusted.


KIBZAIM, a city of Ephraim, (Josh. xxi. 22.) but as the name is in the dual form, it is probable there were two cities comprehended under it, adjoining each other.


KID, see Lamb.


KIDRON, a brook in the valley east of Jerusalem, between the city and the mount of Olives, and which discharges itself along the valley of .Teh.oshaphat, and winding between rugged and desolate hills through the wilderness of St. Saba, into the Dead sea. It has generally but little water, and often none ; but after storms, or heavy rains, it swells, and runs with much impetuosity. A branch of the valley of Kidron was the sink of Jerusalem, and here Asa, Hezekiah, and Josiah burnt the idols and abominations of the apos- tate Jews, 2 Kings xxiii. 4. (See Gehenna.) The blood poured out at the foot of the altar in the tem- ple, as well as other filth, ran by a drain into the brook Kidron ; a fact which confutes the notion, that virtue was imparted to the pool of Bethesda from the blood of the sacrifices, as some have sup- posed. (Babyl. Join. 58. 2.)


KINGS, Books of. The Vulgate has four books under this name, viz. the two Books of Samuel and those of Kings, as they stand in the English version, and also in the Hebrew Bibles. Under this name the Greeks cite them all four as the Books of Kingdoms the Latins as the Books of Kings. The First Book of Kings, i. e. the First Book of Samuel, in the English Bible, contains the history of 100 years ; from the birth of Samuel, A. M. 2849, to the death of Saul, in 2949. It comprises an account of the birth of Samuel, the war between the Philis- tines and Hebrews, in which the ark of the Lord was taken ; the death of Eli, the high-priest, and of his sons Hophni and Phinebas ; the restoration of the ark by the Philistines ; Samuel's being acknowledged judge of Israel ; Saul's election to be king, his suc- cessful beginning, his wars and victories ; his rejec- tion ; the anointing of David, his valor, his misfor- tunes, his flight ; the war between the Philistines and Saul, with the death of that prince. The Second Book of Kings, i. e. the Second Book [ 594 ] of Samuel in the English Bible, contains the history of 39 years ; from the second anointing of David at Hebron, A. M. 2949, to 2988, in which David ap- pointed Solomon to be his successor, two years be- fore his death, in 2990. It includes an account of David's being acknowledged king by the tribe of Judah, while the other tribes of Israel obeyed Ishbo- shetli, son of Saul. Ishbosheth being killed seven years afterwards, (2956,)' David was acknowledged king of all Israel. He received the royal unction a third time ; took Jerusalem from the Jebusites ; brought back the ark from Kirjath-jearim to the city of David, and defeated the Philistines, Moabites, Syri- ans, and Edomites, on several occasions. Hanun, king of the Ammonites, having insulted David's am- bassadors, he made war on Hanun's country, and subjected it. During this war David lived with Bath- sheba, and procured the murder of Uriah ; Nathan reproved him for his adultery and murder ; David repented ; but God punished him by the rebellion of Absalom. After this contest, in which his unnatural ?son perished miserably, David, being quiet in his do- minions, ordered the people to be numbered. The Lord punished his curiosity with a plague. Lastly, David prepared every thing necessary for the erection of the temple. The Third Book of Kings, or the First in the Eng- lish Bible, comprises the history of 126 years, from Solomon's anointing, A. M. 2989, to the death of Je- hoshaphat, king of Judah, in 3115. It gives an ac- count of Adonijah's aiming at the crown, of Solo- mon's association with David in the throne, of David's death, of the deaths of Adonijah, Joab, and Shimei ; of the building the temple by Solomon ; of his riches, wisdom, reputation, fall, and death ; of his son Reho- boam's alienating the minds of the Israelites ; of the separation of the ten tribes, and of their choice of Jero- boam for their king ; of Rehoboam's successors, Abijam, Asa, and Jehoshaphat, who died A.M. 3115 ; and of Jeroboam's successors, Nadab, Baasha, Elah, Zimri, Omri, Tibni, Ahab, and Ahaziah, who died in 3108. The Fourth Book of Kings, or the Second in the English Bible, includes the history of 227 years; from the death of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, and the beginning of Jehoram in 3115, to the beginning of the reign of Evilmerodach, king of Babylon, who delivered Jechoniah out of prison in 3443. In the kingdom of Judah we find a few pious princes among many who were corrupt. Jehosha- phat was succeeded by Jehoram, Ahaziah , Athaliah, Joash, Amaziah, Uzziah, or Azariah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Anion, Josiah, Jehoahaz, Elia- kim, or Jehoiakim, Jechoniah, or Jehoiachin, Mat- taniah, or Zedekiah, in whose reign Jerusalem was taken by the Chaldeans, the temple burnt, and the people carried to Babylon, A. M. 3416. After this we read of the sad death of Gedaliah, whom the Chaldeans had left in the country to govern the re- mains of the people ; of their retreat into Egypt, and the favor shown by Evilmerodach, king of Babylon, to Jehoiachin, or Jechoniah, king of Judah, whom he took out of prison, and placed in his palace. In the interval God raised up many prophets in Judah ; as Iddo, Ahijah, Shemaiah, Hanani, Azariah, Jehu, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Huldah, Micaiah, Joel, &c. The fourth book of Kings has preserved several particulars of the lives of these great men, as well as of the prophets who lived at the same time in the kingdom of Israel, or the ten tribes. This book pre- sents a long succession of wicked princes in the king- dom of Israel — Ahaziah, Jehoram son of Ahab Jehu, Jehoahaz, Joash, Jeroboam, Zachariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekaiah, Pekah, Hosea son of Elah, in whose reign Samaria was taken by Salmanezer, and the ten tribes carried captive into Assyria. Several eminent prophets are named during this interval in the kingdom of the ten tribes ; as Iddo, Oded, Ahijah, Elisha, Hosea, Amos, Jonah, &c. As to the author or authors of the four books of Kings, critics are not agreed. Many ascribe the first two to Samuel, whose name we find in their titles in the Hebrew. The Jews assign him only twenty- seven chapters in the first book, which include the history of his life, and a recital of the actions of Saul and David, while Samuel was living ; the rest they believe was continued by Gad and Nathan, according to 1 Chron. xxix. 29. This opinion is very probable - r notwithstanding that we find certain remarks, which do not properly belong to the time of Samuel, or the time of Nathan: e. g. it is said, 1 Sain. hi. 1. that while Samuel was living, "prophecy was rare in Is- rael ;" which intimates, that when the author wrote, it was more frequent. 1 Sam. xiv. 23, Bethel is call- ed Bethaven, or "the House of Iniquity ;" a name not given to it till Jeroboam had set up one of his golden calves there. The author observes also on David's invading the Geshurites and Gezrites, that "this country of old was well peopled, from Shur even unto the land of Egypt ;" (1 Sam. xxvii. 8.) that is, it was so in David's time, but not when the author was living. In 1 Sam. ix. 9, they who formerly were called seers, were in his time termed nabi, or proph- ets. Now in Samuel's time the name of seer was common ; the author, therefore, of these books is later than that prophet. He speaks of Samuel as of a person dead long before, and praises him, 1 Sam. xxviii. 3. He observes that the city of Ziklag be- longed to the kings of Judah, ever since the cession of it by Achish to David ; (1 Sam. xxvii. 6.) which remark must have been made after the separation of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel ; and shows the writer to have lived not only after Samuel, but after David and Solomon. From several other observations of this nature, some have concluded, that David, Hezekiah, Jere- miah, or Ezra, compiled these books from memoirs composed in the time of Samuel and the prophets, of David and Solomon ; and if we compare the differ- ent characters of the books, we shall on one side see that circumstances, facts, and remarks, are mostly the same ; while the uniformity of the style, and the course of the narration, prove that they both had one author, who was contemporary with the persons of whom he speaks. On the other side, however, there are circumstances which support the opinion, that a later writer revised them, and added some particu- lars, and certain terms, intended to explain what the distance of time had rendered obscure. Now, if we suppose that. Ezra, an inspired author, had in his hands original writings of Samuel, and the ancient writers of Saul and David's times, that he digested them into order, and connected them, all difficulties are easily solved, and the seeming contradictions are reconciled. That these works are authentic and canonical it is not disputed: both the Jewish and the Christian church unanimously receive them as in- spired Scripture ; and Christ quotes them in the Gospel, Matt. xii. 3 ; Mark ii. 25 ; Luke vi. 3. There are much the same remarks to be made with relation to the third and fourth books of Kings. Some have imagined that David. Solomon and Hezekiah wrote f 595 ] the history of then - own reigns. Others, that the prophets who lived under their government, in Is- rael and Judah, took this office upon them ; as Isaiah and Jeremiah, Gad and Nathan. We know that several of the prophets wrote the lives of those kings who reigned in their times ; and the names and writ- ings of these prophets are mentioned in several places of the books of Kings and Chronicles. Besides, the memoirs and annals of the kings of Judah and Israel are cited in almost every chapter, and these included the particulars of those princes' actions, of which the sacred books have handed down only summaries and abridgments. It must be admitted, therefore, that two descrip- tions of writers- were concerned in the books of Kings. (1.) Those original, primitive and contempo- rary authors, who wrote the annals, journals and memoirs of their own times ; from whic h the matter and substance of our sacred history has been formed ; and from which the authors who came afterwards have taken what they record. (See Seer.) These ancient memoirs have not descended down to us, but were certainly in the hands of those sacred penmen, whose writings are in our possession, since they cite them, and refer to them : but (2.) Who compiled and digested these ancient writings ? and when did they live ? It is generally believed that Ezra is the editor of the books of Kings and Chronicles, as we have them at present ; and the proofs are these : (1.) The author lived after the captivity of Babylon. At the end of the fourth book of Kings he speaks of the re- turn from that captivity, 2 Kings xxv. 22, 23, &c. (2.) He describes the ten tribes as still captive in As- syria, whither they were carried as a punishment for their sins. (3.) In the seventeenth chapter of the fourth book of Kings, he introduces reflections on the ca- lamities of Judah and Israel, which demonstrate that he wrote after the event. (4.) He refers almost every where to ancient memoirs, which he had be- fore him, and abridged. (5.) The author, as far as we are able to judge, was a priest, and much attach- ed to the house of David. All these marks agree well with Ezra, a learned and very inquisitive priest, who lived during the captivity, and after it; who might have collected a great number of documents, of which time and the persecutions suffered by the Jews, have deprived us. See Ezra. There are a few particulars in these books which do not seem to agree, with the time of Ezra : he says, that in his time the ark of the covenant was still in the temple, (1 Kings viii. 8.) that the kingdoms of Judah and Israel were still subsisting, (chap. xii. 19.) he speaks of the months Sif and Bui, (vi. 1, 37, 38.) names which in the time of Ezra were no longer in use. He also expresses himself throughout as a con- temporary and as a writer who had witnessed what he wrote. But these discrepancies may he easily removed. Ezra generally transcribes word for word the memoirs which he had in his possession ; and this is a proof of his fidelity and honesty. In other places, he inserts reflections or illustrations, which naturally arise from his subject ; and this shows that he was master of the subject on which he was en- gaged, and that, being inspired, he was not afraid of intermixing his own words with those of the proph- ets, whose writings lay before him. KING'S Mother. Nothing is more agreeable than to establish the conjectures of learning and in- genuity ; and a favorable opportunity for this pur- pose, combining illustrations of a passage of Scrip- ture, is afforded by the 1 'anted work of Mr. Raphael Baruh, who thus expresses his sentiments on the passage, 1 Kings xv. 1, 2, 7, 8, collated with the same facts in 2 Chron. xiii. 1, 2 : " There is a very re- markable variation in this collation, in the name of king Abijam's (or Abijah's) mother : in the book of Kings she is called Maaca, the daughter of Absalom ; and even in Chronicles, (chap. ix. 20.) she is also called by this same name ; but in this passage, Chron- icles calls her by the name of Micayau, the daughter of Uriel, of Gibea. To solve this difficulty, I beg leave to offer, that the title -^cn dk, (am ham-melek,) king's mother ; and that of m<3.in, (hag-gebirah,) trans- lated queen, (2 Kings x. 13 ; 2 Chron. xv. 16.) describe one and the same thing : I mean, that the phrase, "And his mother's name was," &c. when expressed on a king's accession to the throne, at the beginning of his history, does not always imply, that the lady whose name is then mentioned was the king's [natu- ral] mother; I apprehend, that (i-n) ' the king's mother,' when so introduced, is oidy a title of honor and dignity enjoyed by one lady, solely, of the royal family at a time, denoting her to be the first in ^-ank, chief sultana, or queen dowager, whether she hap- pened to be the king's [natural] mother or not. This remark seems to be corroborated by the history of king Asa, (1 Kings xv. 10, and 2 Chron. xv. 16.) who was Abijah's son. In the book of Kings, at his ac- cession, this same Maaca, Absalom's daughter, is said to be Ins mother, and Asa afterwards deprived her of the dignity of miaj, (gehirah,) or chiefest in rank, on account of her idolatrous proceedings. But it is cer- tain that Maaca was his grandmother, and not his mother, as here described ; therefore, if we look upon the expression of the King's Mother to be only a title of dignity, all the difficulty will cease : for this Maaca was really Abijah's mother, the dearly beloved wife of his father Rehoboam, who, for her sake, appointed her sou, Abijah, to be his successor to the throne ; but when Abijah came to be king, that dignity of the king's mother, or the first in rank of the royal family, was, for some reason, perhaps for seniority, given to Micayau, the daughter of Uriel of Gibea ; and after- wards, on the death of Micayau, that dignity devolv- ed to Maaca, and she enjoyed it at the accession of Asa, her grandson, who afterwards degraded her for her idolatry. This I submit as a rational way of reconciling all these passages, which seem so con- tradictory and repugnant to each other. The better to prove this assertion, let it be observed, that in 2 Kings xxiv. 12, it is said, 'And Jehoiachim, the king of Judah, went out to the king of Babylon, he and his mother, and his servants, and his princes, and his officers ; and the king of Babylon took him,' &c. ; and, verse 15, 'and he carried away Jehoiachim to Babylon, and the king's mother, and the king's wives, and his officers,' &c. Jeremiah, (xxix.2.) mentioning the same circumstances, says, ' After that, Jeconiah the king, and the queen, and the eunuchs, the princes of Judah, &c. departed from Jerusalem.' Now it is evident, that the queen, in this verse, cannot mean the king's wife, as it would seem, by the trans- lators' rendering always the word n-nrun, {hag-gebirah,) queen ; but means the lady that is invested with that dignity, of being called the king's mother; the phrase mojn, (hag-gebirah,) in Jeremiah, corresponding with l^nn on, (am ham-melek,) the king's mother ; and vsfi, ammo, his mother, in Kings. The Vulgate translates the word rwaj (gebirah) (1 Kings xi. 19, and 2 Kings x. 13.) Regina, (1 Kings xv. 13.) Princeps, (2 Chron. xv. 16.) Dcposuit Imperio, (Jer. xxix. 2.) Bomana, (ibid., xiii. 18.) Dominatrici ; — and the English trans- [59G] 1 R lators always render it queeg,. That ' king's mother ' was a title of dignity is obvious by 1 Kings ii. 19 : ' Bathsheba, therefore, went in to king Solomon, to speak unto him for Adonijah ; and the king rose to meet her, and bowed himself unto her, and sat down on his throne, and caused a seat to be set for the king's mother, and she sat on his right hand ;' for it was better to say, ' and caused a seat to be set for her : ' but he says, '?for the king's mother ;' and, perhaps, it was on this occasion that Bathsheba was first invest- ed with the honor of that dignity." These conjec- tures of Mr. Baruh are established beyond any rea- sonable doubt, by the following extracts : " The O'oo Kani is not governess of the Crimea. This title, the literal translation of which is 'great queen,' simply denotes a dignity in the harem, which the khan usu- ally confers on one of his sisters ; or, if he has none, on one of his daughters, or relations. To this dignity are attached the revenues arising from several vil- lages, and other rights." (Baron du Tott, vol. ii. p. 64.) "On this occasion, the king crowned his mother MalaCotawit ; conferring upon her the dignity and title of Iteghe, the consequence of which station I have often described : — i. e. as king's mother, regent, governess of the king when under age." (Bruce's Travels, vol. ii. p. 531.) " Gusho had confiscated, in the name of the king, all the queen's [i. e. the Iteghe] or king's mother's villages, which made her believe, that this oner of the king to bring her to Gondar was an insidious one. In order to make The breach the wider, he had also prevailed upon the king's [natural] mother to come to Gondar, and insist with her son to be crowned, and take the title and estate of Iteghe. The king was prevailed upon to gratify his [natural] mother, under pretence that the Iteghe had refused to come upon his invitation ; but this, as it was a pre- tence only, so it was expressly a violation of the law of the land, which permits of but one Iteghe, and never allows the nomination of a new one, while the former is in life, however distant a relation she may be to the then reigning king. In consequence of this neiv coronation, two large villages, Tshemmera and Tocussa, which belonged to the Iteghe, as ap- pendages of her royalty, of course devolved upon the king's own mother, newly crowned, who sending her people to take possession, the inhabitants not only refused to admit her officers, but forcibly drove them away, declaring they would acknowledge no other mistress but their old one, to whom they were bound by the laws of the land." (Ibid. vol. iv. p. 244.) Frofn these extracts, we perceive, (1.) that the title and place of " King's mother " is of great conse- quence ; and, in reading Bruce, we find the Iteghe interfering much in public affairs, keeping a separate palace and court, possessing great influence and au- thority; (2.) that while any Iteghe is living, it is con- trary to law to crown another; which accounts at once for Asa's Iteghe, or king's mother, being his grandmother, the same person as held that dignity before he came to the crown ; (3.) that this title oc- curs also in other parts of the East ; and is given without consideration of natural maternity. (4.) It should seem, that " Queen," in our sense of the word, is a title and station unknown in the royal harem throughout the East. If it be taken at all, it is by that wife who brings a son after the king's corona- tion ; such son being presumptive heir to the crown, his mother is sometimes entitled " Sultana Queen," or "prime Sultaness;" but not with our English ideas annexed to the title queen. (5.) That this per- son is called indifferently, "Queen," or "Iteghe," or " King's Mother," even by Bruce ; whence arises the very same ambiguity in our extracts from him, as has been remarked in Scripture. This illustration also sets in its proper light the interference of the "queen," in the story of Belshazzar ; (Dan. v. LO.) who, by her reference to former events, appears not to have been any of the wives of Belshazzar ; neither, indeed, could any of his wives have come to that banquet, (see Esther iv. 16.) or have appeared there under those circumstances, even had such a one been acquainted with the powers and talents of Daniel, as a prophet, or as a public man, or servant of the king ; or, if intelligence of what passed at the banquet had been carried into the harem, both of which ideas are very unlikely. Whereas, the queen evidently speaks with much influence, if not authority ; and was a proper person to be informed, and consulted also, on any emergency. Besides, as her palace was separate and distant from the king's, (though it might be within the circuit of Babylon, and certainly was, at this time, as Babylon was now under siege,) it allows for the interval of confusion, conjecture, introduction of the wise men, &c. before the queen's coming. Accounts must have beeii carried to her, and her coming from her own palace to the king's must have taken up time. In order, therefore, to determine who was this " queen," which has been a desideratum among learned men, it is not enough to know, who might be Belshazzar's wife, or wives, at the time : but also who was Iteghe, or king's mother, before he came to the crown ; and who, therefore, being well acquainted with former events, and continuing in the same dignity, might naturally allude to them on this occasion. Had inquiry into this matter been con- ducted on these principles, in all probability, it had been more conformable to the manners of the East, and had superseded many ineffectual conjectures.


KIRJATH-ARBA, or Hebron, a city of Judah, (Josh. xv. 13.) so called from its founder, Arba. See Hebron.


KIRJATH-BAAL, a city in Judah, called also Kir- jath-jearim, (Josh. xv. 60; xviii. M Jer. xxvi. 20.) and also Baalah


KIRJATH-HUZOTH, the city of squares, was the royal seat of Balak, king of Moab ; and therefore may well be supposed to have had handsome streets, &c. Numb. xxii. 39.

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