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COMPREHENSIVE CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA
Edward Robinson

[1] [2] [3] [4]

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JABAL

JABAL, son of Lamech and Adah, father of those who lodge under tents, and of shepherds ; (Gen. iv. 20.) that is, instituter of those who, like the Arab Bedouins, live under tents, and are shepherds. See Father.

JABBOK

JABBOK, a brook east of the Jordan, which takes its rise in the mountains of Gilead, and falls into the Jordan at some distance north of the Dead sea. It separated the land of the Ammonites from the Gaula- nitis, and that of Og, king of Bashan, Gen. xxxii.22, 23. It is now called El Zerka.

JABNEH

JABNEH, or Jabnia, a city of the Philistines, (2 Chron. xxvi. 6.) called Jamnia, (1 Mac. iv. 15.) and Jamneia, chap. 5. 58 ; 2 Mac. xii. 8. Its situation may be gathered from the passage last cited, as being not far from Jaffa, or Joppa. The following is Dr. Wittman's account of it : "Yebna is a village about twelve, miles distant from Jaffa ; in a fine open plain, surrounded by hills and covered with herbage. A AC rivulet formed by the rains supplies water. It is conjectured that the rock Etarn, where Samson was surprised by the Philistines, was not far from Yebna. North-east of Yebna is a lofty hill, from which is an extensive and pleasing view of Ramla, distant about five miles. On sloping hills of easy ascent, by which the plains are bordered, Yebna, Ekron, Ashclod, and Ashkalon, were in sight." (Comp. 2 Chron. xxvi. 6.) Josephus says Jamnia was given to the tribe of Dan. It was taken from the Philistines by Uzziah, 2 Chron. xxvi. 6. In 2 Mac. xii. 9, it is stated to be 240 furlongs from Jerusalem.

JACHIN

JACHIN, stability, the name of a brass pillar placed at the porch of Solomon's temple. See Boaz.

JACINTH

JACINTH, see Hyacinth.

JACOB

JACOB, son of Isaac and Rebekah, was born ante A. D. 1836. He was twin-brother to Esau, and as at his birth he held his. brother's heel, he was called Jacob, the heel-holder, one who comes behind and catches the heel of his adversary, a deceiver, Gen. xxv. 26. This was a kind of predictive intimation of his future conduct in life. While Rebekah was pregnant, Isaac consulted the Lord concerning the struggling of the twins in her womb, and God de- clared that she should have two sons, who should become two great people ; but that the elder should be subject to the younger. Jacob was meek and peaceable, living at home; Esau was more turbulent and fierce, and passionately fond of hunting. Isaac was partial to Esau, Rebekah to Jacob. Jacob hav- ing taken advantage of his brother's necessity, to ob- tain his birthright, (see Birthright,) and of his father's infirmity, to obtain the'blessingof primogen iture, was compelled to fly into Mesopotamia, to avoid the consequences of his brother's wrath, Gen. xxvii. xxviii. On his journey the Lord appeared to him in a dream, promised him his protection, and declared his purpose relative to his descendants pos- sessing the land of Canaan, and the descent of the Messiah through him, chap, xxviii. 10, &c. Arriving at Mesopotamia, he was received by his uncle Laban, whom he served fourteen years for his two daugh- ters, Rachel and Leah. Jacob had four sons by Leah ; but Rachel, having no children, gave her servant Bilhah to Jacob, who by her had Dan and Naphtali. Leah also gave her servant Zilpah to her husband, who brought Gad and Asher. After this Leah had Issachar and Zeb- ulun, and Dinah, a daughter. At last the Lord re- membered Rachel, and gave her a son, whom she called Joseph, chap. xxix. Jacob's family having become numerous, and his term of service to Laban being expired, he desired to return into his own [ 541 ] country with his wives and children. Laban, however, having prospered by his services, and wishing to retain him, proposed that Jacob should take as his wages in future, the marked sheep and kids of the flock. To this, Jacob assented, and, by a singular stratagem suggested to him in a dream, acquired so much property, that Laban and his sons became jealous of his prosperity ; and the Lord de- sired him to return into his own country, chap. xxx. 25, &c. He took his wives, therefore, his children and his cattle, and had performed three days' jour- ney before Laban was aware of his departure. He immediately pursued him, however, and overtook Jacob on the seventh day of his pursuit, on the mountains of Gilead. He reproached him for his flight, and with having stolen his gods, or teraphim, which Rachel had taken without her husband's knowledge, chap. xxxi. (See Teraphim.) Having come to a mutual explanation, Jacob and Laban en- tered into a covenant, and then separated. Arriving at the brook Jabbok, east of Jordan, Jacob, fearing that Esau might retain his former resentment, sent him notice of his arrival, with handsome presents, and Esau advanced with four hundred men to meet him. After all his people had passed the brook Jabbok, Jacob remained alone, on the other side, and wres- tled with an angel in the form of a man, who, not being able to prevail against Jacob, touched the hollow of his thigh which immediately withered. His name was also changed from Jacob to Israel, -i. e. a prince with God. Jacob called the place Peniel, saying, I have seen God face to face, yet my life is preserved, chap, xxxii. When Esau advanced toward him, Jacob went forward, and threw him- self seven times on the earth before him ; as did also Leah and Rachel, with their children. The two brothers tenderly embraced each other, and Jacob prevailed upon Esau to accept his presents. Esau returned home, and Jacob arrived at Succoth beyond Jordan, where he dwelt some time. He afterwards passed the Jordan, and came to Salem, a city of the Shechemites, where he set up his tents, having pur- chased part of a field for the sum of a hundred kesitas or pieces of money, of the children of Hamor, Shechem's father, chap, xxxiii. While Jacob dwelt at Salem, his daughter Dinah was ravished by She- chem ; and her brothers, Levi and Simeon, took a crafty and severe revenge, by killing the Shechem- ites, and pillaging their city, chap, xxxiv. Jacob, dreading the resentment of the neighboring people, retired to Bethel, where God commanded him to stay, and to erect an altar. In preparation for the sacrifice which he was to offer there, he desired his people to purify themselves, to change their clothes, and to reject all the strange gods, which they might have brought out of Mesopotamia. These he took, and buried under an oak near Shechem. At his sacrifice the Lord appeared to him, and renewed his promises of protecting him, and of multiplying his family. After he had performed his devotions, he took the way to Hebron, to visit his father Isaac, who dwelt in the valley of Mamre. In the journey Rachel died in labor of Benjamin, and was buried near Bethlehem, where Jacob erected a monument for her, (Gen. xxxv. 16, 17.) and, proceeding to Heb- ron, pitched his tents at the tower of Edar. He had the satisfaction to find his father Isaac, and that good patriarch lived twenty-two years with his son, chap, xxxv About ten years before the death of Isaac, Joseph was sold by his brethren, and Jacob, believing he had been devoured by wild beasts, was afflicted in proportion to his tenderness for him. He passed about twenty-two years mourning for him, but at length Joseph discovered himself to his breth- ren in Egypt, chap, xliii. xliv. xlv. Being informed that Joseph was living, Jacob awaked, as it were, from slumber, and exclaimed, " It is enough ; Joseph my son is yet alive, I will go and see him before 1 die." On his arrival in Egypt, Joseph hasted to the land of Goshen, and they embraced with tears. Joseph presented him to the king, and Jacob having wished him all happiness, Pharaoh asked him his age. He answered, "The time of my pilgrimage is a hun- dred and thirty years ; few and evil have my years been, in comparison of the age of my fathers," chap, xlvi. 29, &c. Jacob lived seventeen years in Egypt, and some time before his death adopted Ephraim and Manas- seh, and directed that they should share the land of Canaan, which God had promised him at Bethel. Joseph placed his sons on each side of his father, Ephraim on Jacob's left, and Manasseh on his right hand. But Jacob, directed by the spirit of prophecy, laid his right hand on Ephraim's head, and his left on Manasseh's. Joseph would have changed the disposition of his hands ; but Jacob answered, "I know what I do, my tod." Thus he gave Ephraim the pre-eminence over Manasseh ; which the tribe always maintained, being, after Judah, the most considerable in Israel. Jacob also fore- told that God would bring his posterity back into the land of Canaan, which was promised to their fathers, and bequeathed to Joseph one portion above his brethren, which he took from the Amorite with his sword and his bow, chap, xlviii. Some time after this, Jacob assembled his sons to give them his prophet c blessing. He desired to be buried in the cave ov ->r against Mamre, where Abra- ham, Sarah, Isaac, and Rebekah were buried ; and then laid himself down and died. Joseph embalmed him after the manner of the Egyptians, and there was a general lamentation for him in Egypt seventy days ; after which, Joseph and his brethren, with the principal men of Egypt, carried him to the burying-place of his fathers, near Hebron, chap. xlix. There are two or three incidents in the life of this patriarch which require more particular notice than they have received in this narrative. The bargain concluded between him and Laban (Gen. xxx. 32.) appears sufficiently singular to us ; and not a little sarcasm has been wittily wasted on the patriarch, for the cunning and depth of plan which lie manifested in this agreement; most, however, if not all, the lev- ity has either been misapplied, or recoils on the igno- rance of those who have thought proper to indulge it. Jacob, it is possible, (not certain,) might make some alterations in the usual terms of such agree- ments ; but they were, no doubt, understood to be equally advantageous to one party, as to the other ; and we find Jacob complaining of Laban, "He has changed my wages ten times," verse 7. It would appear, that there were general rules established by custom, at least, if not by positive law, on this sub- ject ; but that private individuals might vary from them by specific agreement, as they thought most advantageous. The following extracts may enable the reader to judge for himself: "If a person, with- out receiving wages, or subsistence, or clothes, at- tends ten milch cows, he shall select, for his own use the milk of that cow which ever produces most • if he attend more cows, he shall take milk, after the same rate in lieu of wages. If a person attend t [ 542 ] JACOB o>ze hundred cows for the space of one year, without any appointment of wages, he shall take to himself one heifer of three years old ; and, also, of all those cows that produce milk, whatever the quantity may be, after every eight days, he shall take to himself the milk, the entire product of one day." [That this custom continued long, appears from the apostle's appeal to it, (1 Cor. ix. 7.) "Who feedeth a flock, and eateth not of the milk of the flock?"] "If he attend two hundred cows, the milk of one day, &c. — also a cow and her calf. Cattle shall be delivered over to the cowherd in the morning ; the cowherd shall tend them the whole day with grass and water, and in the evening shall re-deliver them to the mas- ter, in the same manner as they were intrusted to him : if by the fault of the cowherd, any of the cat- tle be lost, or stolen, that cowherd shall make it good. If cattle suffer by thieves, tigers, pits, rocks, &c. if the cowherd cry out no fault lies on him, the loss shall fall on the owner. When employed night and day, if any by his fault he h urt, he shall make it good. When a cowherd hath led cattle to a distant place to feed, if any die of some distemper, notwithstanding the cowherd applied the proper remedy, the cow- herd shall carry the head, the tail, the fore foot, or some such convincing proof taken from that animal's body, to the owner of the cattle ; having done this, he shall be no further answerable : if he neglect to act thus, he shall make good the loss." (Gentoo Laws, p. 150, 151.) By this time we are prepared to notice a much more dignified conduct in Jacob, than perhaps we have been aware of. " The rams of thy flock have I not eaten ; that which was torn of beasts, though the laws and usages in such cases would have authorized me, yet I brought not unto thee the maimed limb, for a convincing proof of such an accident: I bore the loss of the creature, in silence ; of my hand didst thou also require the equiv- alent for that which was stolen by day, or even that stolen by night, when I could not possibly prevent the theft! In short, to avoid words, I have borne much more loss, than in strictness, and according to cus- tom, I need to have done," Gen. xxxi. 38, 39. It may not be out of place to remark, that this rep- resentation gives additional spirit to the valor of David: "Thy servant kept his father's sheep, and there came a lion and a bear, and took a lamb out of the flock ; and as I could not endure to be liable to any imputation of negligence or of cowardice, though the loss was not by my fault, and the laws would have cleared me, yet I ran after the wild beasts, and risked my life, to recover my father's property," 1 Sam. xvii. 34. See also Amos iii. 12 : " Thus saith the Lord, As the shepherd recovereth out of the mouth of the lion, two legs, or a piece of an ear," — in order that he may carry to his owner " convincing proof from the animal's body," of the accident that has happened to it, that he himself had neither sold nor slain the creature, to his owner's injury. Is not this the allusion ? — Is not the behavior of Jacob's sons also founded on the same principle ? Gen. xxxvii. 31. " They took Joseph's coat, and dipped it in the blood of a kid, and sent (not brought) it to their father — saying, This have we found ; discern, now, whether it be thy son's coat, or no. And Jacob knew it, and said, It is my son's coat ; Joseph is, doubtless, rent in pieces " by a wild beast. — Did not his brethren thus endeavor to send "convincing proof" of Joseph's hopeless fate ; as they would have brought ." the head, the tail, or the fore foot of an animal " in the true characteristic style of shepherds ? Most readers, no doubt, have been used to consider the case of Jacob, in his marriage with the two sis- ters, Leah and Rachel, as not merely hard, but as uncustomary and illegal ; perhaps, as scarcely bind- ing, Gen. xxi. 21, seq. Had he not been imposed upon by Laban, he would have married Rachel, but would have declined Leah ; though, after having married her, he would not divorce her. Admitting, as extremely probable, that Laban's conduct was more cunning than upright, yet the excuse he makes for himself, we must acknowledge was founded iti fact ; though it leaves him guilty of not having ex- plained the laws or usages of the country to Jacob. On the contrary, he encouraged him to believe he had bargained for one daughter to be his wife, and afterwards deluded him by substituting another. Mr. Halhed observes, in his preface to the Gentoo Laws, (p. 69.) that " We find Laban excusing himself, for having substituted Leah in the place of Rachel, to Jacob in these words : ' It must not be so done in our country, to give the youngest daughter before the first-born.' This was long before Moses. So in this compilation, it is made criminal for a man to give his younger daughter in marriage before the elder ; or for a younger son to marry while his elder brother remains unmarried. With regard to Jacob, it does not appear that in his marriage of two sisters, there was at that time, and in that country, what would be deemed a noto- rious and flagrant breach of propriety, if, indeed, there was any thing remarkable in it. We live in days of happier refinement, than to tolerate such connections; but that such continued to be formed in that country, long after the time of Jacob, is ascer- tained by a history recorded of Omar, the second caliph of the Mahometans after Mahomet. "While he was on his journey, there came, at one of his stages, a complaint before him, of a man who had married two wives that were sisters both by father and mother ; a thing which the old Arabians, so long as they continued in their idolatry, made no scruple of, as appears from that passage in the Koran, where it is forbidden for the time to come, and expressed in such a manner as makes it evident to have been no uncommon practice among them. Omar was very angry, and cited him and his two wives to make their appearance before him forthwith. After the fellow had confessed that they were both his wives, and so nearly related, Omar asked him ' What reli- gion he might be, or whether he was a Mussulman.' — 'Yes,' said the fellow. 'And did you not know, then,' said Omar, ' that it was unlawful for you to have them, when God said, " Neither marry two sisters any more?"' (Koran, chap. iv. 277.) The fellow swore, that he did not know that it was unlawful ; neither was it unlawful. Omar swore, 'he lied, and he would make him part with one of them, or else strike his head off".' The fellow began to grumble, and said ' he wished he had never been of that reli- gion, for he could have done very well without it ; and never had been a whit better for it since he had first professed it.' Upon which Omar called him a little nearer, and gave him two blows on the crown with his stick, to teach him better manners, and learn him to speak more reverently of Mahometanism t saying, 'O thou enemy of God, and of thyself, dost thou revile Islam ; which is the religion that God, and his angels, and apostles, and the best of the creation have chosen ?' and threatened him severely if be did not make a quick despatch, and take which of them; he loved best. The fellow was so fond of them both, A E [ 543 J that he could not tell which he had rather part with : upon which, some of Omar's attendants cast lots for the two women : the lot falling upon one of them three times, the man took her, and was forced to dis- miss the other." (Ockley's Hist. Sarac. vol. i. p. 219.) Had Jacob been questioned, which of the two sisters he would have relinquished, we may readily con- ceive his ansvi er ; and yet, perhaps, in parting with Leah and her children, he would have felt such a pang as genuine affection only could feel. (See Gen. xxx. 1, 2.) Will this sljpry throw any light on the precept of Moses? (Lev. xviii. 18.) "And a wife, to her sister, thou shalt not take to vex her, during her life." Does not this restriction look somewhat like Mahomet's in the Koran, as if such practice had been common ? Why else forbid it ? Does Moses forbid it, only when it would vex the other sister ; but does he leave it as before, if the first sister did not remonstrate against it ? or does lie take for granted, that the .first wife must be vexed by the admission of a sister ? In the story of Omar's determination, it should seem that both sisters were satisfied ; for, had one been veced, doubtless that had been the one to be put away. A custom, though not identically the same, yet allied to what we have mentioned, is plainly supposed in Judg. xv. 2. Samson's father-in-law says, "I gave thy wife to thy companion ; is not her younger sister fairer than she? take her, I pray thee, instead of her." He certainly does not propose an unheard- of connection, in this offer; or a connection noto- riously unlawful. For Jacob's Well see the article Shechem.

JADDUA

JADDUA, or Jaddus, high-priest of the Jews in the time of Alexander the Great. See Alexander.

JAEL

JAEL, or Jahel, wife ol'Heber the Kenite, killed Sisera, general of the Canaanitish army. Having fled to her tent, Jael took her opportunity, and, while he was sleeping, drove a large nail, or tent-pin, through his temples, Judg. iv. 17, 21. Why this woman violated the sacred rites of hospitality, by murdering her guest, does not appear. Scripture hints at the relation of her family to Moses by Ho- bab, and no doubt he and his family had received many advantages by means of Israel ; for so Moses promised, " We will surely do thee good." Still, we must consider the secluded and sacred nature of the women's tent in the East, (see Tent,) and that the victor would not have intruded there ; the implied pledge of security in the food Jael had given to Sise- ra, which in the East is of considerable solemnity. (See Eating.) — By way of apology, the rabbins say that the words, " At her feet he bowed, he fell," &c. (chap. v. 27.) imply, that he attempted rudeness to her ; and that to resist such violation, she had re- course to " the workman's hammer." But it should be remembered, that a fugitive, as Sisera was, would have had little inclination at such a time ; and it ap- pears clearly that fatigue and sleep overpowered him. We suggest as probable, (1.) that Jael had herself felt the severity of the late oppression of Israel by Sisera ; (2.) that she was actuated by motives of patriotism, and of gratitude toward Israel ; (3.) that the general character of Sisera might be so atrocious, that at any rate his death was desirable. We find a similar proceeding in the case of Judith, whose anxiety for the deliverance of her people led her to the employ- ment of artifice to accomplish her purposes. [As to the morality of the proceeding of Jael, in put- ting Sisera to death, we have no right to bring it to the test o-f modern principles and occidental feelings. We must judge of it by the feelings of those among whom the right of avenging the blood of a relative was so strongly rooted, that even Moses could not take it away. Jael was an ally by blood of the Is- raelitish nation ; their chief oppressor, who had mightily oppressed them for the space of twenty years, now lay defenceless before her ; and he was moreover one of those whom Israel was bound by the command of Jehovah to extirpate. Perhaps, too, she felt herself called to be the instrument of God in working out for that nation a great deliverance, by thus exterminating their heathen oppressor. At least, Israel viewed it in this light ; and in this view, we cannot reproach the heroine with that as a crime, which both she and Israel felt to be a deed performed in accordance with the mandate of Heaven. R.

JAGUR

JAGUR, a city in the south of Judah, Josh. xv. 21. Its situation is not known. .TAH, one of the names of God ; contracted from Jehovah. It is compounded with many Hebrew words ; as Adonijah, Halleluiah, Malachia ; — God is my Lord, Praise the Lord, The Lord is my king, &c.

JAHAZ

JAHAZ, also Jahazah, and Jahzah, a city east of Jordan, near to which Moses defeated Sihon. It was given to Reuben, (Dent. ii. 32.) and was situated to the north, near Ar, the capital of Moab. It was given to- the Levites, Josh. xxi. 36 ; 1 Chron. vi. 78. I. JA1R, of Manasseh, possessed the whole coun- try of Argob beyond Jordan, to the borders of Geshur and Maachathi, Judg. x. 3. He succeeded Tola in the government of Israel, and was succeeded by Jephthah. His government continued twenty-two years, from A. M. 2795 to 2817. (Comp. Numb, xxxii. 41 ; Deut. iii. 14 ; Josh. xiii. 30 ; 1 Kings iv. 13 ; 1 Chron. ii. 22.)

JAIRUS

JAIRUS, chief of the synagogue at Capernaum, whose daughter was restored to life by Jesus, Mark v. 22 ; Luke viii. 41, seq.

JAMBRES

JAMBRES, a magician, who opposed Moses iit Egypt. See Jannes.

JANONAH

JANONAH, a city of Ephraim, on the frontiers of Manasseh, Josh. xvi. 6.

JAPHETH

JAPHETH, the enlarger, the eldest son of Noah, though generally named last of the three brothers — Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Japheth is known in profane authors under the name of Iapetus. The poets (Hesiod, Theogonia) make him father of heaven and earth, or of Titan and the earth. His habitation was in Thessaly, where he became celebrated for his power and violence. He married a nymph named Asia ; by whom he had four sons, Hesperus, Atlas, Epimetheus, and Prometheus, who are all very fa- mous among the ancients. The Greeks believed that Japheth was the father of their race, whence the proverb, " As old as Japheth." It is very possible that Neptune is a memorial or transcript of Japheth. There is some resemblance in the character ; Nep- tune is god of the sea, as Japheth is lord of the isles. Saturn divided the world among his three sons, Jupi- ter, Pluto, and Neptune; thus Noah dietributed the earth among Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Jupiter is Ham, Pluto is Shem, and Japheth is Neptune. The sons of Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras, Gen. x. 4. Gomer was probably father of the Cimbri, or Cimmerians ; Ma- gog of the Scythians ; Madai of the Macedonians, or of the Medes ; Javan of the Ionians and Greeks ; Tubal of the Tibarenians ; Meshech, of the Musco- vites, or Russians ; and Tiras, of the Thracians. By the isles of the Gentiles, the Hebrews understood the islands of the Mediterranean, and all other countries to which they could go by sea only, as Spain, Gaul, Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, &c. The descendants of Japheth possessed all Europe, AS [ 546 ] the islands in the Mediterranean, Asia Minor, and the northern parts of Asia. Noah, when blessing Japheth, said, " God shall enlarge Japheth ; and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem ; and Canaan shall be his servant," Gen. ix. 27. This was accomplished when the Greeks, and after them, the Romans, sub- dued Asia and Africa, where were the dwellings and dominions of Shem, and of Canaan. It is worthy of remark, that the allusion to countries the most dis- tant which occurs in the Bible, is in this prophetic benediction of Noah, "God shall enlarge the enlarger" (Japheth.) Now, as from the earliest ages, the eldest son was, by his birthright, entitled to a double por- tion of his father's property, it leads us to conceive of such a distribution in this instance.

JAPHO

JAPHO, see Joppa.

JAREB

JAREB, (Hos. v. 13; x. 0.) the name of a king ; or more probably it signifies hostile, i. e. here, the hostile king. Others make it the great king, viz. the king of Assyria. (Compare 2 Kings xviii. 19.)

JASHER

JASHER, Book or, see Bible, p. 171.

JASHOBEAM

JASHOBEAM, a son of Zabdiel, who commanded twenty-four thousand men, who did duty in David's court in the month Nisan, 1 Chron. xxvii. 2. Some believe him to be Jashobeam son of Hachnioni, which signifies the wise, and was perhaps a surname, 1 Chron. xi. 11. In the corresponding passage in 2 Sam. xxiii. 8, we read: "The Tachmonite, that sat in the seat, the head of the three, Adino of Ezni, who lifted up his spear against eight hundred men, whom he slew." But the text of Chronicles imports that "Jashobeam, a Hachmonite, chief of the thirty, lifted up his spear against three hundred, whom he slew at one time." How are these statements to be reconciled ? Jashobeam is the son of Hachmoni, he kills three hundred men, and he is chief of the thirty. Adino, on the contrary, is head of the three, and kills eight hundred men. When we examine the subject closely, however, it appears, that the dif- ference proceeds only from some letters which are read differently in the texts. Calmet would there- fore correct the text in the second book of Samuel thus: "Jashobeam, son of Hachmoni, head of the thirty, he lifted up the wood of his spear against three hundred men, whom he slew." The Sep- tuagint reads, "Jeshbaal, son of Techemani, was head of the three. This is Adino the Eznite, who drew his sword against eight hundred." In the Roman edition, Jebosthe the Canaanite, head of the three, &c. We cannot see from whence they took Adino the Eznite, which is entirely superfluous in this place. Another mode of removing the dis- crepancy, is by supposing that Jashobeam, the Hachmonite, died during David's life, and that Adino, the Eznite, was appointed in his place. And it is remarked that 2 Sam. xxiii. 8, literally rendered, im- ports, "these are the names of the mighty men whom David had — he who sits in the seat of the Tachmo- nite, that is, of Jashobeam the Hachmonite, who was chief among the captains, he is Adino, the Eznite ;" — who perhaps is the Adino, son of Shiza, (1 Chr. xi. 42.) chief of the Reubenites, who had thirty under him. Shiza might be the name of his family ; Eznite that of his country.

JASHUB

JASHUB, or Shear-Jashub, son of Isaiah, Isa. vii. 3. Shear-Jashub signifies the remainder shall re- turn ; and the prophet, by giving his son this name, intended to show, that the Jews, who should be car- ried to Babylon, would return.

JASPER

JASPER, in Latin, in Greek jaspis, in Hebrew nDZ",jaspeh, a precious stone of various colors, as purple, cerulean, green, &c. Ex. xxviii. 20 ; Rev. iv. 3.

JATTIR

JATTIR, a city of Judah, (Josh. xv. 48.) after- wards given to the Levites of Kohath's family, chap, xxi. 14. Eusebius places it in the district of Daroma toward the city of Malatha, twenty miles from Eleutheropolis.

JAVAN

JAVAN, fourth son of Japheth, (Gen. x. 2, 4.) and father of the Ionians, or Greeks. See Greece.

JAVELIN

JAVELIN, a kind of long dart, or light spear, thrown as a missile weapon at the enemy.

JAZER

JAZER, a city east of Jordan, and at the foot of the mountains of Gilead, given to Gad, and after- wards to the Levites, Josh. xxi. 39.

JEALOUS

JEALOUS, JEALOUSY, suspicions of infidelity, especially as applied to the marriage state. God's tender love toward his church is sometimes called jealousy. Paul says to the Corinthians, that he is jealous over them with a godly jealousy, that he might present them as a chaste virgin to Christ. The word, however, is frequently used to express the vindictive acts of dishonored love. Thus the psalmist, (Ixxix. 5.) representing the church as smarting under divine judgments, occasioned by her infidelity to God, says, " How long, Lord, shall thy jealousy burn like fire ?" (See also 1 Cor. x. 22.) Waters of Jealousy. — There is something ex- tremely curious, if not inexplicable, in the solemn process prescribed in Numb. v. 11—31. for the detec- tion and punishment of a woman who had excited her husband's jealousy, without affording him the or- dinary means of proving her infidelity. See Adul- tery.

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