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Edward Robinson

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HABAKKUK, one of the minor prophets. Of his life we have no account, except in the apocry- phal part of Daniel; (Dan. xiv. 32, seq. in the Vul- gate ;) according to which he must have lived in the last years of the exile, in the palace of the king of Babylon. This legend, however, carries with it its own condemnation ; for this date accords in no de- gree whatever with the contents of the book of Ha- bakkuk. The latter necessarily presupposes the commencement of the Chaldean period ; when this people began to wax powerful, and to become dan- gerous to the Jewish nation. (See ch. i. 5, seq.) The actual destruction of the Jewish state by the Chalde- ans he seems not to have experienced ; at least there is no allusion to it in his prophecy. We may, there- fore, best regard him as cotemporary with Jeremiah ; but rather with the earlier period of the latter's life. The book of Habakkuk consists of three chapters, which all constitute one oracle ; or at least may prop- erly be regarded as one. They contain complaints 60 over the calamities brought upon the Jews by theChal- deans ; together with the expression of strong desires and hopes that these savage enemies will be requited. The costume is highly poetical ; the train of thought something like the following : He begins with lamentations over the cruelties exercised upon the Jews, and then describes the rude and warlike Chal- deans, (see that article,) and awaits an answer from God, ch. i. The answer is, that deliverance is in- deed still remote, but will certainly arrive at last, ch. ii. Upon another prayer of the prophet, there fol- lows in ch. iii. a solemn theophania, where God ap- pears in his majesty in order to destroy the enemy and set free the Jewish people. This third chapter is one of the most splendid por- tions of the prophetical writings ; the language of it rises to the loftiest flight of lyric poetry. On the ground of this portion of his prophecy, Habakkuk may be placed in the first rank of the Hebrew poets. He is not entirely original ; for this chapter contains [ 474 ] an imitation of earlier writings ; ( Judg. v. 4 ; Ps. lxviii. 7, seq.) but he is distinguished for the purity and ele- gance of his diction, and the fire and vivacity of his imagery. *R. . HABERGEON, [a coat of mail ; an ancient piece of defensive armor, in the form of a coat, descending from the neck to the middle, and formed of small iron rings or mashes, linked into each other. It is also written haubert, and hauberk. Our translators have used this word (Ex. xxviii. 32 ; xxxix. 23.) for the Heb. N-inr, tachara, which denotes a thick quilted linen, 5


HABOR, Chabor, Chaboras, a river in Mesopo- tamia, which falls into the Euphrates, whither part of Israel was transplanted. Ezekiel addresses his prophecies from the river Chebar, or Habor. Our translation takes Habor for a city situated " by the river of Gozan ;" and major Rennell says there is found in the country anciently named Media, in the remote northern quarter, towards the Caspian sea, and Ghilan, a considerable river named Ozan, or Kizal-ozan. There is also found a city named Ab- har, or Habor, situated on a branch of the Ozan ; and it has the reputation of being exceedingly ancient." (Herod, p. 395, 396.) This is probably the place mentioned in Scripture. See Gozan.


HACHILAH, a mountain about ten miles south of Jericho, where David concealed himself from Saul, 1 Sam. xxiii. 19. Jonathan Maccabseus built here the castle of Massada.


HADAD-RIMMON, a place in the valley of Me- giddo, Zech. xii. 11.


HADADEZER, king of Zobah, a country which extended from Libanus to the Orontes. David de- feated Hadadezer, and took 700 horse and 20,000 foot, 2 Sam. viii. 3. ante A. D. 1044. Seven years afterwards, the king of the Ammonites dying, David sent ambassadors to Hanun his son, with compli- ments of condolence. The young prince affronted his ambassadors, and called the neighboring princes to his assistance, particularly Hadadezer; who, not daring to declare openly against David, sent private- ly into Mesopotamia, and there hired troops for the king of the Ammonites. These auxiliary forces, in all probability, came after the battle had been won by Joab, 2 Sam. x. 6, seq.


HADAR, son and successor of Achbor, king of Edom, reigned in the city Pai, Gen. xxxvi. 39.


HADASHAH, or Chadassa, a town in Judah, (Josh. xv. 37.) which Eusebius says lay near Taphnae.


HADASSAH, see Esther.


HADES, see Hell.


HADID, or Chadid, a city of Benjamin, (Ezra ii. 33 ; Nehem. vii. 37.) probably the Adita or Adiada of Josephus, and of 1 Mac. xii. 38, xiii. 3, in Sephela, or in the plain of Judah. Eusebius and Jerome speak of two chips called Aditha, or Adi ; one near Gaza; the other near Diospolis, or Lydda. But this carries us too far from Benjamin.


HAGAR, an Egyptian servant belonging to Sarah, who, being barren, gave her to Abraham for a wife, that by her, as a substitute, she might have children. Sarah having used her harshly, Hagar fled from the dwelling of Abraham ; but an angel of the Lord, find- ing her in the wilderness, commanded her to return. She obeyed his voice, submitted to Sarah, and was delivered of a son, whom she named Ishmael. Four- teen years after this, Sarah gave birth to Isaac. When the child was weaned, Ishmael, who was then seventeen years of age, was observed by Sarah to be teasing him ; in consequence of which she urged Abraham to expel Hagar and her son. Abraham was greatly afflicted at this proposal ; but the Lord com- manded him to comply with Sarah's request. Ris- ing early in the morning, therefore, Abraham took bread and a bottle of water, and sent away Hagar, with her son. The afflicted woman intended to re- turn into Egypt, but lost her way, and wandered in the wilderness of Beer-sheba. The water in her bottle failing, she left Ishmael under one of the trees in the wilderness, and, going a small distance from him, sat down, saying, "I will not see him die ;" and lifted up her voice and wept. The angel of the Lord, however, comforted her, and showed her a well of water. She retired to the wilderness of Paran, where she settled. Ishmael became very expert at the bow ; and his mother married him to an Egyp- tian woman. We know not when Hagar died. The Mussulmans and Arabians, who are descended from Ishmael, speak highly in her commendation. They call her " Mother Hagar," and maintain that she was Abraham's lawful wife ; the mother of Ish- mael, his eldest son, who as such possessed Arabia, which very much exceeds, in their estimation, both in extent and riches, the land of Canaan, which was given to his younger son Isaac. Hagar, according to Paul, may symbolize the syn- agogue, which produces only slaves — the offspring always following the condition of the mother, Gal. iv. 24.


HAGARENES, the descendants of Ishmael : called also Ishmaelites and Saracens, or Arabians, from their country. The name Saracens is not de- rived, as some have thought, from Sarah, Abraham's wife, but from Sahara, the desert ; Saracens, " in- habitants of the desert."


HAGGAI, the tenth of the minor prophets, was probably born at Babylon, whence he accompanied Zcrubbabel. The captives immediately after their return to Judea began with ardor to rebuild the temple ; but the work was suspended fourteen years, till after the death of Cambyses. Darius Hystaspes succeeding to the empire, Haggai was excited by God to exhort Zerubbabel, prince of Judah, and the high-priest Joshua, son of Josedeck, to resume the work of the temple, which had been so long inter- rupted, {ante A. D. 521.) The remonstrances of the prophet had their effect, and in the second year of Darius, and the sixteenth year after the return from Babylon, they resumed this work, Hag. i. 14 ; ii. 1. The Lord commanded Haggai to tell the people, that if any one recollected the temple of Solomon, and did not think this to be so beautiful and magnif- icent as that structure was, he ought not to be dis- couraged ; because God would render the new tem- ple much more august and venerable than the for- mer had ever been ; not in embellishments of gold or silver, but by the presence of the Messiah, the de- sire of all nations, and by the glory which his coming would add to it. We know nothing of Haggai's death. Epiphani- us asserts, that he was buried at Jerusalem among the priests ; which might induce us to believe that he was of Aaron's family : but Haggai says nothing of himself to favor this opinion.


HAGGITH, David's fifth wife, mother of Adoni- jah, 2 Sam. iii. 4. HAGIOGRAPHA. The Hebrews distinguish the canonical books of the Old Testament into three classes; (1.) the Law ; (2.) the Prophets; (3.) the Hagiographa, or Chethubim. See Bible, p. 170.


HAHIROTH, whence Pi-hahiroth, as it is called in Exod. xiv. 2, 9, but simply Hahiroth, in Numbers xxxiii. 8. See Exodus, p. 401.


HAI, or Ai, or Aijah, a city near Bethel, west. The LXX call it Agai ; Josephus, Aina ; others, Aiath. See Ai. ! a salutation, importing a wish for the welfare of the person addressed. It is now seldom used among us ; but was customary among our Sax- on ancestors, and imported as much as "joy to you ;" or " health to you ;" including in the term health all kinds of prosperity. Hx\IL-Stones are congealed drops of ram, form- ed into ice by the power of cold in the upper re- gions of the atmosphere. Hail was among the plagues of Egypt ; (Exod. ix. 24.) and that hail, though uncommon, is not absolutely unknown in Egypt, we have the testimony of Volney, who men- tions a hail-storm, which he saw crossing over mount Sinai into that country, some of whose frozen stones he gathered ; " and so," he says, " I drank iced water in Egypt." Hail was also the means made use of by God, for defeating an army of the kings of Canaan, Josh. x. 11. God's judgments are likened to a hail- storm, in Isaiah xxviii. 2. But the most tremendous hail mentioned in Scripture, or in any writer, is that alluded to in Rev. xvi. 21 ; " Every stone about the weight of a talent." (The Jewish talent was about 125 lbs.) How strong is this description ! In comparison with it all accounts of hail-stones and hail-storms are diminutive. We have, in the Philosophical Transactions, mention of hail as large as pullets' eggs, and in America, hail-stones sometimes fall of several pounds weight : but what is this to the weight of a talent ! HAIR. The law enjoined nothing respecting the mode of wearing the hair. The priests had theirs cut, it is said, every fortnight, while in waiting at the temple. They were forbidden, to cut their hair in honor of the dead ; that is, of Adonis ; though, on other occasions of mourning, they cut it without scruple. " Ye shall not round the corners of your heads ;" in imitation of the Arabians, Ammonites, Moabites, and the Edomites ; of the people of De- dan, Tenia, and Buz ; who did this, it is said, in imitation of Bacchus. The LXX translate, "Ye shall not make sisoc of the hair of your head ;" the Hebrew word sisoc imports a lock of hair of- fered to Saturn. Lucian is an evidence, that the Syrians offered their hair to their gods; and it is well known to have been common among other people. It was usual with the heathen to make vows, that they would suffer their hair (or their beards) to grow, till they had accomplished certain things. Civilis, having taken arms against the Romans, vowed never to cut his hair, which was of a red color, and which, [ 47C ] out of mere artifice, he wore long, after the manner of the Germans, till he had defeated the legions. (Tacitus, Hist. lib. iv.) This has some relation to the law of the Nazarites, who were never to have their hair cut, Numb. vi. 5, 9. When a man was suspected of having a leprosy, inspection was carefully made, whether the color of his hair were changed, or if it fell ; this being one in- dication of the disease. When he was healed, he washed his body and his clothes, cut oft" the hair of his head, and of his whole body, and presented his offering at the door of the tabernacle, Lev. xiii. 4, 10, 31, 32, &c. But he did not enter into the camp till eight days after, again cutting away all the hair off his body, in demonstration of his desire not to leave any place where the .least pollution might remain undiscovered, and uncleansed, Lev. xiv. 8, 9 The Levites, on the day of their consecration to God's service, shaved their whole bodies. Black hair was thought to be the most beautiful, Cant. v. 11. This was also the taste of the Romans ; at least, in the days of Horace. Plucking off the hair was a species of punishment. See Punishment.


HALAH, a city or country of Media, to which the kings of Assyria transplanted the ten tribes. It is mentioned with Habor ; (2 Kings xvii. 6.) which shows it to have been on the river Gozan. Hyde supposes it to be Holwau ; Bochart thinks it to be Calachene in Media. [Gesenius and Rosenmuller incline to the opinion of Hyde, and suppose it to be the same as Calah, which see. R.


HALHUL, a city of Judah, (Josh. xv. 58.) thought to be near Hebron.


HALI, Cali, or Chali, a city of Phoenicia, in Asher, Josh. xix. 25.


HALLELUJAH, see Alleluia. To HALLOW. (See Sanctification, Holy.) To halloiv, is to render sacred, set apart, consecrate. The English word is from the Saxon, and is properly to make holy ; hence hallowed persons, things, places, rites, &c. ; hence, also, the name, power, dignity of God, is hallowed ; that is, reverenced as holy.


HALT, to go lame on the feet or legs. Many persons who were halt were cured by our Lord. To halt between two opinions, (1 Kings xviii. 21.) should, perhaps, be to stagger from one to the other, repeatedly ; but some say, it is an allusion to birds, who hop from spray to spray, forwards and back- wards : — as the contrary influence of supposed con- victions, vibrated the mind in alternate affirmation and doubtfulness.


HAM, or Cham, burnt, swarthy, black ; the young- est son of Noah. One day when Noah had drank wine, Ham perceived his parent lying in his tent, with his person exposed, which he ridiculed. No- ah, when he awoke and was informed of his sin, said, " Cursed be Canaan ; a servant of servants shall he be to his brethren." Ham was father of Cush, Misraim, Phut, and Canaan. It is believed that he had Africa for his inheritance ; and that he peopled it ; but he dwelt in Egypt. (See Egypt.) Africa is called " the land of Ham" in several places of the Psalms. Many writers have been of opinion, that the pos- terity of Ham suggested the design, and formed the presumptuous project, of building the tower of Ba- bel. But this is without proofs. " In the Rozit ul Suffa it is written, that God be- stowed on Ham nine sons — Hind, Sind, Zenj, Nuba, Kanaan, Kush, Kopt, Berber, and Hebesh ; and their children having increased to an immense mul titude, God caused each tribe to speak a different language; wherefore they separated, and each of them applied to the cultivation of their own lands." (Asiatic Miscel. p. 148. 4to.) Most of these nations may be traced with tolerable certainty. Hind must be the origin of the Hindoos. Si7id, the origin of the nations bordering on the Indus. Zenj, may we place in Zanguebar in Africa, East ? Nuba, father of the Nubians, more central in Africa. Kanaan, and Kush, the same as are well known from Scripture. Kopt, the Egyptians ; who, it appears, did not re- ceive name from any town called Coptos, as the learned have usually said, but from a father of this name, after whom such a town might be called. Berber, whence the Barabari, beyond Nubia, and, remotely, Barbary. Hebesh, Abyssinia : its present name among the Turks and Arabs is Habesh. We find, then, that Hind, Sind, and Kanaan, with more or less of Kush, remained in Asia, notwith- standing Africa was the allotted portion of Ham. With this agrees, in part, the tradition of the Brah- mins, who acknowledge that they are not originally of India, but came into India through the pass of Her- idwar, or Hardwar. This also contributes to account for the existence of Hamite kingdoms, and powerful kingdoms, too, in western Asia. But the reader will recollect, in perfect coincidence with this observation, that " God caused each tribe to speak a different lan-. guage ; wherefore they separated." This restricts the interference of Deity in the confusion of tongues to the sons of Ham ; which certainly accords with the true import of the Mosaic history of that event : not — all mankind on the face of the earth, but — all the tribes connected with Shinar, and its population.


HAMAN, son of Hainrnedatha the Amalekite, of the race of Agag ; or, according to other copies, of Hamadath the Bugsean or Gogsean ; that is, of the race of Gog, or it may be read, Hainan the son of Hamadath, which Hanian was Bagua or Bagoas, eunuch or officer to the king of Persia. We have no proof of Hainan's being an Amalekite ; but Es- ther iii. 1. reads, of the race of Agag. In the apoc- ryphal Greek, (chap. ix. 24.) and the Latin, (chap, xvi. 6.) he is called a Macedonian. Ahasuerus, hav- ing taken him into favor, promoted him above all the princes of his court, who bent the knee to him when he entered the palace. This Mordecai the Jew declined, for which slight, Haman plotted the extirpation of the whole Jewish nation ; which was providentially prevented. He was hanged on a gib- bet fifty cubits high, which he had prepared for Mordecai ; his house was given to queen Esther, and his employments to Mordecai. His ten sons were also executed. See Esther. There is something so entirely different from the customs of European civilization, in Hainan's pro- posed destruction of the Jewish people, (Esther, chap, iii.) that the mind of the reader, when perus- ing it, is alarmed into hesitation, if not into incredu- lity. And, indeed, it seems barely credible that a king i should endure a massacre of so great a proportion of his subjects — a whole nation cut oft" at a stroke! However, that such a proposal might be made, is attested by a similar proposal made in later times, which narrowly escaped witnessing a catastrophe of the same nature. M. De Peysonnel, in delineating [ 477 ] N die character of the celebrated Hassan Pacha, (who, in the war of 1770, between Russia and Turkey, 'be- came eminent as a seaman,) says of him, " He pre- served the Greeks, when it was deliberated in the council [of the grand signior] to exterminate them entirely, as a punishment for their defection, and to prevent then- future rebellion : he obtained for them a general amnesty, which he took care should be faithfully observed, and this ....... brought back a great number of emigrants, and prevented the total desertion of that numerous class of subjects, which an unseasonable rigor would have occasioned, and which must have depopulated the provinces, render- ed a great part of the country uncultivated, and de- prived the fleet of a nursery of sailors." (Remarks of Baron du Tott, page 90.) Political evils these, which, nevertheless, would not have preserved the Greeks, without the personal influence of the admiral ; — as the consideration of similar evils could not restrain the anger of Hainan, and the misled confidential ca- price of Ahasuerus. This account has subsequently been confirmed by Mr. Elton, of Smyrna.


HAMATH, a celebrated city of Syria. [Hamath, together with Jerusalem and Damascus, belongs to the few places in Syria and Palestine, which have retained a certain degree of importance from the very earliest ages to the present tune. The name oc- curs in Gen. x. 18, as the seat of a Canaanitish tribe ; and it is often mentioned as the northern limit of Canaan in its widest extent, Num. xiii. 21 ; Josh, xiii. 5; Judg. iii. 3. In David's time, Toi, king of Hamath, was his ally, 2 Sam. viii. 9, 10. The As- syrians became masters of this city and the neigh- borhood about 753 B. C. 2 Kings xvii. 24 ; Is. x. 8, seq. Under the Syro-Macedonian dynasty, the city was called Epiphauia. (Theodoret on Zech. ix. 1. Jerome, Quaest. in Gen. x. 15. Comm. on Ezek. xlvii. 15. Rosenm. Bib. Geogr. I. ii. 313.) The na- tives, however, continued to use the ancient name ; which became current again in the middle ages. At this period it was the residence of the celebrated Arabian prince and writer Abulfeda. Burckhardt describes Hamath as " situated on both sides of the Orontes ; a part of it is built on the de- clivity of a hill, and a part in the plain. The town is of considerable extent, and must contain at least 30,000 inhabitants. There are four bridges over the Orontes in the town. The river supplies the upper town with water, by means of buckets fixed to high wheels, which empty themselves into stone canals, supported by lofty arches on a level with the upper part of the town. There are about a dozen of the wheels ; the largest of them is at least seventy feet in diameter. The town, for the most part, is well built, although the walls of the dwellings, a few pal- aces excepted, are of mud ; but their interior makes amends for the roughness of their external appear- ance. The principal trade of Hamath is with the Arabs, who buy here their tent furniture and clothes. The government of Hamath comprises about one aundred and twenty inhabited villages, and seventy or eighty which have been abandoned. The west- ern part of its territory is the granary of northern Syria ; though the harvest never yields more than ten for one, chiefly in consequence of the immense numbers of mice, which sometimes wholly destroy the crops." (Travels in Syria, &c. p. 147.) Abulfeda also describes this city ; and does not forget the men- tion of it in Scripture, nor its many water wheels. Others have supposed that Hamath was the city Emessa, also situated on the Orontes farther south. R.


HAMMON, a city of Asher, Josh. xix. 98. Also another in Naphtali, 1 Chron. vi. 76.

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