KJV Study Bible

Home | Resources | Polyglot Old Testament | Polyglot New Testament | Bible Encyclopedia | Dictionary
Go to book
  Chapter    
Commmentaries
Search
  

Preface
[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X] [Y] [Z]
Search Article
 

COMPREHENSIVE CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA
Edward Robinson

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Next Page >>

CAB

CAB, a Hebrew measure, according to the rabbins, the sixth part of a seah, or satum ; and the eighteenth part of an ephah. A cab contained three pints l-3d of our wine measure ; or two pints 5-6ths of our corn-measure, 2 Kings vi. 25.

CABALA

CABALA, (nSap, tradition.) The Cabala is a mys- tical mode of expounding the law, which the Jews say was discovered to Moses on mount Sinai, and has been from him handed down by tradition. It teaches certain abstruse and mysterious significations of a word, or words, in Scripture ; from whence are borrowed, or rather forced, explanations, by combin- ing the letters which compose it. This Cabala is of three kinds : the Gematry, the Notaricon, and the Themurah, or change. The first consists in taking the letters of a Hebrew word for arithmetical numbers, and explaining every word by the arithmetical value of the letters which compose it — e. g. the Hebrew letters of nW N3i, Ja- bo-Shiloh, (Gen. xlix. 10.) Shiloh shall come, when reckoned arithmetically, make up the same number as those of the word rpifn, Messiah; whence they infer, that Shiloh signifies the Messiah. The second consists in taking each letter of a word for an entire diction or word ; e. g. Bereshith, the first word of Gen- esis, composed of B.R. A.Sh.I.Th. of which they make T5a7-a-Rakia-Aretz-Shamaim-lani- r rhehomoth. " He created the firmament, the earth, the heavens, the sea, and the deep." This is varied by taking, on the contrary, the first letters of a sentence to form one word: as Attah-Gibbor-he-olam-Adonai. "Thou art strong for ever, O Lord." They unite the first let- ters of this sentence, A.G.L.A. and make A GL A, which may signify " I will reveal," or " a drop of dew." The third kind of Cabala consists in transpo- sitions of letters, placing one for another, or one be- fore another, much after the manner of anagrams.

CABBON

CABBON, a city of Judah, Josh. xv. 40.

CAD

CAD, or Cadus, in Hebrew, signifies a water- pitcjier or bucket ; but in Luke, a particular measure : " How much owest thou to my lord ? — A hundred 'Vulg. cados) measures of oil." The Greek reads 28 " a hundred baths." The bath, or ephah, contained full ten gallons, Luke xvi. 6.

CADUMIM

CADUMIM, a brook, (Vulg. Judg. v. 21.) which many think ran east, from the foot of mount Tabor, into the sea of Tiberias : but we have no evidence of any such brook in that place. The English trans- lators call it " the river of Kishon." We know there was a city in these parts called Cadmon, mentioned Judith vii. 3, whence the brook Cadumim, or Kishon, might be named. [The Vulgate alone has retained the epithet cadumim as a proper name. It is properly descriptive of the Kishon, and should be translated either as in our English version, " that ancient river," or, "that stream of battles." (See the Bibl. Repos. vol. i. p. 605.) R.

CAESAR

CAESAR, the name assumed by, or conferred upon, all the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar. In the New Testament, the reigning emperor is gen- erally called Caesar, omitting any other name which might belong to him. Christ calls the emperor Ti- berius simply Caesar, (Matt. xxii. 21.) and Paul thus mentions Nero, " I appeal to Caesar." [The Caesars mentioned in the New Testament are, Augustus; (Luke ii. 1.) Tiberius ; (Luke iii. 1 ; xx. 22.) Claudius ; (Acts xi. 28.) Nero ; (Acts xxv. 8.) Caligula, who suc- ceeded Tiberius, is not mentioned. R. I. C^ESAREA, in Palestine, formerly called Stra- to's Tower, was situated on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean, and had a fine harbor. It is reckoned to be 36 miles south of Acre, 30 north of Jaffa, and 62 north-west of Jerusalem. Caesarea is often men- tioned in the -New Testament. Here king Agrippa was smitten, for neglecting to give God the glory, when •flattered by the people. Cornelius the centu- rion, who was baptized by Peter, resided here, Acts x. At Caesarea, the prophet Agabus foretold to the apostle Paul, that he would be bound at Jerusalem, Acts xxi. 10, 11. Paul continued two years prisoner at Caesarea, till he could be conveniently conducted to Rome, because he had appealed to Nero. When- ever Caesarea is named, as a city of Palestine, without the addition of Philippi, we suppose this Caesarea to be meant. Dr. Clarke did not visit Caesarea ; but viewing it from off the coast he says, " By day-break the next morning we were off the coast of Caesarea; and so near with the land that we could very distinctly perceive the appearance of its numerous and extensive ruins. The remains of this city, although still considerable, have long been resorted to as a quarry, whenever building materials are required at Acre. Djezzar Pasha brought from thence the columns of rare and beautiful marble, as well as the other ornaments of his palace, bath, fountain, and mosque at Acre. The place at present is only inhabited by jackalls and beasts of prey. As w

CAESAR

CAESAR, second emperor of Rome I M [ 893 ] l. e. Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero. He was the son of Livia, and step-son of Augustus ; and, being adopted by that emperor, he succeeded to his throne A. D. 14. He died A. D. 37, after a cruel reign of 22 years. It was in the 14th year of his reign that John the Baptist first appeared ; and the crucifixion of Jesus took place in the 3d or 4th year after, Luke iii. 1. R.

CAIAPHAS

CAIAPHAS, a high-priest of the Jews, succeeded Simon, son of Camith, and after possessing this dignity nine years (from A. M. 4029 to 4038) he was suc- ceeded by Jonathan, son of Ananas, or Annas. He married a daughter of Annas, who also is called high-priest in the Gospel, because he had long en- joyed that dignity. When the priests deliberated on the seizure and death of our Saviour, Caiaphas told them, there was no room for debate on that matter ; "that it was expedient for one man to die, instead of all the people, — that the whole nation might not AI [ 219 ] perish," Johll xi. 49, 50. This sentiment was a kind of prophecy, which God suffered to proceed from the mouth of the high-priest on this occasion, importing, ' though not by his intention, that the death of Jesus would be the salvation of the world. When Judas had betrayed Christ, he was first taken before Annas, who sent him to his son-in-law, Caiaphas, who pos- sibly lived in the same house, (John xviii. 24.) and here the priests and doctors of the law assembled to judge Jesus and to condemn him. (See Jerusalem.) The depositions of certain false witnesses being found, insufficient to justify a sentence of death against him, and Jesus continuing silent, Caiaphas, as high-priest, adjured him by the living God to say whether he was the Christ, the Son of God. Jesus having an- swered to this adjuration in the affirmative, Caiaphas rent his clothes, and declared him to be worthy of death. Two years afterwards (A. D. 38.) he was deposed by Vitellius ; but we know nothing of him afterwards. His house is still professedly shown in Jerusalem. See Annas.

CAIN

CAIN, possession, or possessed, the eldest son of Adam and Eve, and brother of Abel. Cain applied to agriculture, and Abel to feeding of flocks, Gen. iv. 2, &c. Cain offered the first-fruits of his grounds to the Lord, but Abel the fat of his flock ; the latter was accepted, but the former rejected, which so enraged Cain that his countenance was entirely changed. The Lord, however, said unto him, " Why is thy counte- nance so dejected ? If thou doest well, shalt thou not be accepted ?" But Cain, unrestrained by this ad- monition, killed his brother Abel ; and for it became an exile and a vagabond. Nevertheless, he received an assurance, that he himself should not be murder- ed ; of which God gave to him a token ; for so may the words be understood, though commonly they are considered as expressing a token of guilt, strongly marked on his person. Cain quitted the presence of the Lord, and retired to the land of Nod, east of Eden, where he had a son, whom he named Enoch, and in memory of whom he built a city of the same name. Josephus says, that having settled at Nod, he, instead of being reformed by his punishment and exile, became more wicked and violent, and headed a band of thieves, whom he taught to enrich them- selves at the expense of others ; that he quite changed the simplicity and honesty of the world into fraud and deceit ; invented weights and measures, and was the first who set bounds to fields, and built and forti- fied a city. The learned Shuckford was not only dissatisfied with the usual notion, that God set a mark upon Cain, in consequence of his having killed his brother Abel, but he makes himself merry with the ludicrous na- ture of some of those marks which fancy had ap- pointed to be borne about by him. Without attempt- ing to defend those conjectures, and without adding to their number, Mr. Taylor endeavors to show, that the customary rendering of the passage (Gen. iv. 15.) may perhaps be supported. Among the laws attributed to Menu is the follow- ing appointment, which is more worthy notice, be- cause it is directly attributed to Menu himself, as if it were a genuine tradition received from him. It de- scribes so powerfully and pathetically the distressed situation of an outcast, that one is led to think it is drawn from the recollection of some real instance, rather than from foresight, of the sufferings of such a supposed criminal. Crimes, in general, have been thought by mankind susceptible of expiation, more or less, according to the degrees of their guilt ; but some are of so flagrant a nature as to be supposed atrocious beyond expiation. Though murder be usually considered as one of those atrocious crimes, and consequently inexpiable, yet there have been instances wherein the criminal was punished by other means than by loss of life. A judicial inflic- tion, of a commutatory kind, seems to have been passed on Cain. Adam was punished by a dying life ; Cain by a living death. " For violating the paternal bed, Let the mark of a female part be impressed on FOREHEAD WITH A HOT IRON; For drinking spirits, a vintner's flag ; For stealing sacred gold, a dog's foot ; For murdering a priest, the figure of a headless corpse. With none to eat with them, With none to sacrifice with them, With none to be allied by marriage to them; Abject, and excluded from all social duties, Let them wander over the earth; Branded with indelible marks, They shall be deserted by their paternal and ma- ternal relations. Treated by none with affection ; Received by none with respect. Such is the ordinance of Menu." "Criminals of all classes, having performed an expiation, as ordained by law, shall not be marked on the forehead, but be condemned to pay the highest fine." This also is from Menu. These principles are thus applied by Mr. Taylor, in illustration of the history of Cain. Cain had slain Abel his brother ; this being a very extraordinary and embarrassing instance of guilt, and perhaps the first enormous crime among mankind which required exemplary punishment, the Lord thought proper to interpose, . and to act as judge on this singularly affecting occasion. Adam might be ignorant of this guilt, ignorant by what process to detect it, and ignorant by what penalty to punish it ; but the Lord (metaphorically) hears of it, by the blood which cried from the ground; and he detects it, by citing the murderer to his tribunal ; where, after examination and conviction, he passes sentence on him: — " Thou art cursed from the earth, ivhich hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood; a fugitive and a vaga- bond shalt thou be in the earth," (yya, be-aretz.) And Cain said to the Lord, " Is my iniquity too great for expiation? Is there no fine, no suffering, short of such a vagabond state, that may be accepted ? Be- hold, thou hast banished me this day from the face of the land (noiNn, adamah) where I was born, where my parents dwell, my native country! and from thy presence also, in thy public worship and institutions ; must now hide myself from all my heart holds dear, being prohibited from approaching my former inti- mates, and thy venerated altar. shall be a fugitive, a vagabond on the earth ; and any one ivho findeth me may slay me without compunction, as if I were rather a wild beast than a man." The Lord said, " I men- tioned an expiation formerly, on account of your crime of ungovernable malice and anger, bidding you lay a sin-offering before the sacred entrance but then you disregarded that admonition and com- mand. Nevertheless, as I did not take the life of. your father Adam, though forfeited, when I sat in judgment on him, but abated of that rigorous penalty ; so I do not design that you should be taken off by CA1 ^20 ] sudden ieath ; neither immediately from myself, nor mediately by another. I pronounce, therefore, a much heavier sentence on whoever shall destroy Cain. Moreover, to show that Cain is a person suf- fering under punishment, since no one else has power to do it ; since he resists the justice of his fellow-men ; since his crime has called me to be his judge, I shall brand his forehead with a mark of his crime ; and then, whoever observes this mark will avoid his company ; they will not smite him, but they will hold no intercourse with him, fearing his irasci- ble passions may take offence at some unguarded word, and should again transport him into a fury, which may issue in bloodshed. Beside this, all mankind, wherever he may endeavor to associate, shall fear to pollute themselves by conference with him." — The uneasiness continually arising from this state of sequestration led the unhappy Cain to seek repose in a distant settlement. If this conception of the history be just, and if the quotation from Menu be genuine, we have here one of the oldest traditions in the world, in confirmation, not only of the history, as related in Genesis, but of our public version of the passage. I. CAIN AN, son of Enos, born A. M. 325, when Enos was ninety years of age, Gen. v. 9. At the age of seventy, Cainan begat Mahalaleel ; and died, aged 910, A. M. 1235.

CAIPHA

CAIPHA, a town at the foot of mount Carmel, north, on the gulf of Ptolemai's ; the ancient name of which was Sycaminos, or Porphyreon. Sycaminos was derived probably from the sycamore-trees which grew here, as Porphyreon might be from catching here the fish used in dyeing pm-ple. Perhaps Cepha, or Cctipha, was derived from its rocks ; in Syriac, Kepha : hut the Hebrews write Hepha, not Kepha. This city was separated from Acco, or Ptolemai's, by a large and beautiful harbor, the distance to which, by sea direct, is not more than fifteen miles ; though by land the distance is double.

CALAH

CALAH, a city of Assyria, built by Ashur, or Nimrod ; (see Assyria ;) for the phrase in Gen x.

CALAMUS

CALAMUS, see Cane.

CALIGULA

CALIGULA, emperor of Rome, succeeded Tiberius, A. D. 37 ; and reigned three years, nine months, and twenty-eight days. It does not appear that he molested the Christians. Caius having com- manded Petronius, governor of Syria, to place his statue in the temple at Jerusalem, for the purpo&e of adoration, the Jews so vigorously opposed it, that, fearing a sedition, he suspended the order. He was killed by Chsereas, one of his guards, while coming out of the theatre, A. D. 41, in the fourth year of his reign : and was succeeded by Clau- dius. He is not mentioned in u.e New Tes- tament. CAKES. The Hebrews had several sorts of cakes, which they offered in the temple, made of meal, of wheat, or of barley; kneaded sometimes with oil, sometimes with honey ; sometimes only rub- bed over with oil when baked, or fried with oil in a fryingpan. At Aaron's consecration, "they offered unleavened bread, and cakes unleavened, tempered with oil ; and wafers unleavened, anointed with oil ; the whole made of fine wheaten flour," Exod. xxix. 1, 2. The Hebrew calls all offerings made of grain, flour, paste, bread, or cakes, nroc, mincha. These offerings were made either alone, or with other things. Sometimes fine flour was offered, (Lev. ii. I. ) or cakes, or other things baked, (verse 4.) or cakes baked in a fryingpan, (verse 5,) or in a fryingpan with holes, or on a gridiron, verse 7. Ears of corn were sometimes offered, in order to be roasted, and the corn to be got out from them. These offerings were instituted principally in favor of the poor. This, however, is understood of voluntary offerings, not ap- pointed by the law ; for, as to certain sacrifices, the law, instead of two lambs and a ewe, permits the poor to offer only one lamb, and two young pigeons. For offering, these cakes were salted, but unleav- ened. If the cakes which were offered were baked in an oven, and sprinkled or kneaded with oil, the whole was presented to the priest, who waved the offering before the Lord, then took so much of it as was to be burned on the altar, threw that into the fire, and kept the rest himself, Lev. ii. 4. If the offering were a cake kneaded with oil, and dressed in a fryingpan, it was broken, and oil was poured on it ; then it was presented to the priest, who took a hand- ful of it, which he threw on the altar-fire, and the rest was his own. It should be observed, that oil in the East answers the purpose of butter among us in Europe. Cakes or loaves, offered with sacrifices of beasts, as was customary, (for the great sacrifices were al- ways accompanied by offerings of cakes, and liba- tions of wine and-oil,) were kneaded with oil. The wine and oil were not poured on the head of the an- imal about to be sacrificed, (as among the Greeks and Romans,) but on the fire in which the victim was consumed, Numb, xxviii. 1, &c. The law reg- ulated the quantity of meal, wine, and oil, for each kind of victim. See Bread.

CALIGULA

CALIGULA, see Caius. To CALL frequently signifies to be ; but, perhaps, includes the idea of admitted to be, acknowledged to be, well known to be, the thing called; since men do not usually call a thing otherwise than what they conclude it to be. "He shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, the Mighty God, Father," &c. He shall possess all these qualities; he shall be truly the Wonderful, the Mighty God, &c. Isaiah ix. 6. "He shall be called the Son of the Most High," Luke i. 35. He shall be truly so. So of John the Baptist, " Thou shalt be called the prophet of the Highest ;" — Thou shalt be acknowledged under that character. To Call any thing by its name '; to affix a name to it, is an act of authority : the father names his son ; the master names his servant ; " God calleth the stars by their names," Psalm cxlvii. 4. To call on God sometimes signifies all the acts of religion, the whole public worship of God. " Whosoever shall call on the 'name of the Lord,"— whosoever shall believe, trust, love, pray, and praise as he ought to do, — " shall be saved," Rom. x. 13. " Men began to call on the name of the Lord," Gen. iv. 26. Others trans- late, " The name of God was profaned," that is, by giving it to idols. (See Eifos.) God is in some sort jealous of our adoration ; he requires that we should call on no other god beside himself.

CALLISTHENES

CALLISTHENES, an officer of the king of Syria, who set fire to the temple gates, aud was afterwards burned by the people, 2 Mace. viii. 33.

CALNEH

CALNEH, a city in the land of Shinar, built by Nimrod, and formerly the seat of his empire, Gen. x. 10. Probably the Calno of Isaiah, (x. 9.) and the Canneh of Ezek. xxvii. 23. It must have been situ- ated in Mesopotamia, since these prophets join it with iran, Eden, Assyria, and Chilmad, which traded with Tyre. [According to the Targums, Eusebius, Jerome, and others, Calneh, or Calno, was Ctesiphon, a large city on the east bank of the Tigris, opposite to Seleucia. R.

CALVARY

CALVARY, or Golgotha, that is, the place of a skull, a little hill north-west of Jerusalem, and so called, it is thought, from its skull-like form. It formerly stood outsit'.e of the walls of Jerusalem, and was the spot upon which our Saviour was crucified. When Barchochebas revolted against the Romans, Adrian, having taken Jerusalem, entirely destroyed the city, and settled a Roman colony there, calling it iElia Capitolina. The new city was not built exactly on the ruins of the old, but further north ; so that Calvary became almost the centre of the city of ^Elia. Adrian profaned the mount, and particularly the place where Jesus had been crucified, aud his body buried ; but the empress Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great, erected over the spot a stately church, which is still in being. The objections to the location of Calvary, which were urged at an early period of the Christian his- tory, have been lately renewed by some intelligent travellers and writers, whose high character gives to their decisions a degree of authority, and renders an examination of them necessary in a work like the present. Among these writers Dr. E. D. Clarke stands foremost, whose objections to the identity of the present Calvary with the place of our Saviour's crucifixion and sepulture may be thus summed up : — (1.) All the evangelists agree in representing the place of crucifixion as "the place of a skull that is to say, "a public cemetery," whereas the spot now assumed as Calvary does not exhibit any evidence which might entitle it to this appellation. (2.) The place called " Golgotha," or " Calvary," was a mount or hill r of which the place now exhibited under this name has not the slightest appearance. (3.) The sepulchre of Joseph of Arimathea, in which our Saviour was laid, was a tomb cut out of a rock, instead of which, the modern sepulchre is a building of comparatively modern date, aud above ground. To these objections captain Light has given his as- sent, and adds, " When I saw mount Calvary within a few feet of the alleged place of sepulture, and the apparent inclination to crowd a variety of events under one roof, I could not help imagining that the zeal of the early Christians might have been the cause of their not seeking among the tombs further from the city the real sepulchre." Dr. Richardson, who also questions the identity of these sacred places, considers,with captain Light, that the contiguity of the present tomb of Christ to mount Calvary is another objection to its identity with the original one. To these objections, which are urged at great length, and with much ingenuity, Mr. Taylor has devoted considerable attention. The following re- marks comprise the substance of his arguments, in reply to them. 1. The name Golgotha — Calvary — the place of a skull — given to the scene of our Saviour's crucifixion by the evangelists, does not necessarily signify, as Dr. Clarke interprets it, after Stockius, "a place of sepulture" — " a public cemetery." It is always used in the singular — "the place of a skull," which would have been a very improper designation for a place of many skulls. The language of Luke, however, is peculiar, and places it beyond doubt that skull was the proper name of the place. This evangelist, without mentioning Golgotha, writes, xal ore an:ij).»ov inl t6)' t67toi' y.u'i.B u tvov xoavior — "and when they were come to a place called skull," chap, xxiii. 33. — Luke therefore appears to have strictly translated the word [ 223 ] Golgotha, which signifies, not xnavln runoc, "place of a skull." but simply xQctrUv, skull. Now, this name was probably given from the peculiar form of the place, and not in consequence of any purpose to which it was devoted. [It appears, however, to have been the place where malefactors were commonly executed, and where their bodies were left un- buried. R. 2. It is not a little curious that Dr. Clarke should not have perceived that his objection to the present site of Calvary — that it has no appearance of a mount — imposes an insuperable difficulty in the way of his own hypothesis, which places Calvary in "a deep' trench" — the valley Tyropseon — between Acna and Sion. Not to dwell, however, upon this glaring in- consistency, we proceed to consider whether the spot now shown as Calvary does not exhibit the ap- pearance of a mount, and also that peculiar form, from which it has been as probable that Calvary de- rived its name. In this inquiry father Bernardino may be a guide. He says, " The space occupied by mount Calvary is now divided into two parts, form- ing chapels ; the first of these is twenty-one palms in width, and forty-seven in length. . . . The second di- vision of mount Calvary is eighteen palms in width, and forttjrseven in length." Speaking of the chapels, he says, they are not on the same level; but, "the mount is in height towards the north two palms and a half; and towards the S. W. two palms and ten inches: and the smaller rising (il poggiolo) is in height seven inches two minutes and a half. This was the place of the bad thief. Towards the north, the place of the good thief, — it is in height one palm and six inches. . . ." " The steps under the arch towards the north leading to the little hill, are in height — the first, two palms, — the second, one palm ten inches. . ." " The letter H. is the proper mount Calva- ry ;" — This letter H.' is placed on the rising described as il poggiolo, the little hill ; marked by a circle, as the place of the cross of Jesus. This is evidence that this ignorant and superstitious monk, as Dr. Clarke [and others] would probably call him, distin- guished two risings in mount Calvary ; though Dr. Clarke passed the distinction over without notice. How greatly his observation confirms the derivation traced in the name, may safely be left to the reader's intelligence. To obtain a clear idea of mount Calvary, we must imagine a rising, now about fifteen feet high. — The ascent comprises eighteen stairs. The first flight contains ten stairs, the second flight contains eight. There are also two others, in length more than forty feet ; and in width more than thirty feet ; and upon this, nearly in the centre, a smaller rising about seventeen inches in height ; which smaller rising is, says Bernardino, " il proprio Monte Caluario." After this, how can Dr. Clarke affirm that there exists no evi- dence in the church of the holy sepulchre ; "nothing that can be. reconciled with the history of our Saviour's sufferings and burial ?" It is affirmed that mount Cal- vary was leveled for the foundations of the church. 3. In reply to Dr. Clarke's last objection, Mr. Tay- lor adopts a course of reasoning to the following effect : — The first step to be taken in the inquiry is, to determine what kind of sepulchral edifice was constructed by Joseph of Arimathea ; and this can only be accomplished by strictly examining the words of the original writers who describe it. Dr. Clarke having inspected a great number of ancient tombs cut in the rock, in various parts of the coun- tries through which he had travelled, and not a few at Jerusalem itself, had suffered this idea to take en- tire possession of his mind : he looked for an exca- vation in a rock, and nothing more. But before we determine that there really was nothing more, we are bound to examine whether the terms employed by the evangelists to describe the eventually sacred sepulchre, are completely satisfied, by this restricted acceptation. Matthew uses two words to describe Joseph's intended place of burial ; chap, xxvii. verse 60, he says, he laid the body of Jesus in his o wn new firr;fis.lw r (tomb, Eng. tr.) — avi they rolled a great stone to the door th fivijutis (of the sepulchre, Eng. tr.) — And there were Mary Magdalene, fyc. sitting over against tb Tuyu (the sepulchre, Eng. tr.) This rendering of the same word, ,m »;nefoi', by both tomb and sepul- chre, is injudicious. Campbell more prudently con- tinues to each term of the original that by which he had first chosen to express it, in English : " he deposited the body in his own monument — Mary Mag- dalene, &c. sitting over against the sepulchre.'" — " Command that the sepulchre (toy ruyov) be guard- ed." — "Make the sepulchre (toy r&ipov) as secure as- ye can." — Mary Magdalene, &c. went to visit the sep - ulchre, (r'uy Ti«pov.) — " Come, see the place where the Lord lay ; — they went out from the monument, ra ftvijfis'iu." It is inferred, then, that what is rendered monument implies a kind of frontispiece, or orna- mental door-way, (the stone portal of captain Light,} and the evangelist may include the chambers in this term, as from these the women came out. Neither of the other evangelists uses more than one term — the monument. The nature of this will justify a closer inspection of it. The evangelist Matthew says, this monument was iXaTiiinjOir iv Tij nirqa, cut out — hollowed out — SCOOped out of the rock, which formed the substratum of the soil ; while his other term (taphos) intends the exter- nal hillock, or mound-like form of the rock, rising above the general level of the ground. There is no occasion for going beyond the volumes of Dr. Clarke for proof of this acceptation of the term taphos; whether we accompany him among the tumuli of the Steppes, or those in the plain of Troy, — to the tomb of Ajax,- — to the tomb of iEsyetes, (which are coni- cal mounds of earth, like our English barrows,) all are taphoi. Mark repeats nearly the words of Mat- thew, in reference to the monument : but Luke uses the term ).ai.ivrZ. This sepulchre of the "rich man of Arimathea" may perhaps be compared to the sep- ulchres discovered at Tehnessus ; of which Dr. Clarke says, — "In such situations are seen excavated cham- bers, worked with such marvellous art as to exhibit open facades, porticoes with Ionic columns, gates and doors beautifully sculptured, on which are carved the representation as of embossed iron-work bolts, and hinges." Those ornaments were hewn in the rock ; but Luke's words are not restricted to this sense ; for, it should seem that the very term rendered monument, leads us to building of some kind, prefixed to the rock ; or even standing above it. This evangelist's phrase (chap. xi. 47.) is express to the point; oixoSopun t'u intifuia— " ye build the monuments of the prophets," where the term build is explicit. Perhaps even this term, uvijuciov, includes or implies some kind of con- struction, not merely excavation ; so in the tomb of which Dr. Clarke gives a delineation, p. 244. Helen "constructed this monument for herself," — to fivi^utov xaTiay.evaatv, — but this monument is "composed of five immense masses of stone," wrought into conjunction ; and forming an upper chamber, " which seemed to communicate with an inferior vault." The sepulchre [ 224 ] of David (Ads ii. 29.) was a monument ; not an exca- vation in the rock of Sion. The rocks were rent, (Matt, xxviii. 32.) but the monuments in which the dead were deposited were opened. It is concluded, then, on the authority of Matthew, that the intended burial-place of Joseph of Arimathea presented two distinctions, a taphos — sepulchre, and a mnemeion — monument. Not unlike is the tomb now shown for that of the Saviour. It is affirmed to be a rock encased with building. Heartily do we wish the building were not there ; heartily do we agree with honest Sandys, — " tnose naturall formes are vtterly deformed, which would haue better satisfied the beholder ; and too much regard hath made them lesse regardable. For, as the Satyre speaketh of the fountaine of iEgeria, How much more venerable had it beene, If grasse had cloth'd the circling banks in greene, Nor marble had the native tophis marr'd." . Yet Sandys speaks expressly of " a c'ompast roofe of the solid rocke, but lined for the most part with white marble." This distinction is not noticed by Dr. Clarke ; neither has he noticed that the frontis- piece to this tomb is confessedly modern ; — that in this exterior building the arch of the roof ispointed ; whereas, in the interior chamber, the arch is circular; — proof enough of reparation, without consulting the monks. But if Mr. Hawkins's History of this Church be correct, in which he says, " Hequen, caliph of Egypt, sent Hyaroc to Jerusalem, who took effectual care that the church should be pulled down to the ground, conformably to the royal command"- — if this be true, no doubt the sepulchre, which was the princi- pal object of veneration in the church, was demolish- ed most unrelentingly. It would, therefore, be no" wonder to find, that the present building is little other than a shell over the spot assigned to the tomb ; and this without any reflection on the character of Hele- na, who could not foresee what the Saracens would do nearly nine hundred years after her death. So much for the similarities between the evange- lists' description of the sacred places and those ap- pearances which they now present : it remains to inquire, what proof we have that their localities were accurately preserved. It is certain that many thousands of strangers resorted every year to Jerusa- lem, for purposes of devotion, who would find them- selves interested, in a more than ordinary degree, in the transactions which that city had lately witnessed, and with the multitudinous reports concerning them, which were of a nature too stupendous to be con- cealed. The language of Luke (xxiv. 28.) plainly imports wonder that so much as a single pilgrim to the holy city could be ignorant of late events : and Paul appeals to Agrippa's knowledge that "these things were not done in a corner." It is, in short, impossible, that the natural curiosity of the human mind — to adduce no superior principle — should be content to undergo the fatigues of a long journey to visit Jerusalem, and yet, when there, should refrain from visiting the scenes of the late astonishing won- ders. So long as access to the temple was free, so long would Jews and proselytes from all nations pay their devotions there ; and so long would the inquisi- tive, whether converts to Christianity or not, direct their attention to mount Calvary, with the garden and sepulchre of Joseph. The apostles were at hand, to direct all inquirers ; neither James nor John could be mistaken ; and during more than thirty years the localities would be ascertained beyond a doubt, by the participators and the eye-witnesses themselves. — . Though the fact is credible, yet we do not read of any attempt of the rulers of the Jews to obstruct ac- cess to them, or to destroy them : but it is likely that they might be in danger on the breaking out of the Jewish war, (A. D. 66,) and especially on the circum- vallation of Jerusalem, A. D. 70. The soldiers of Titus, who destroyed every tree in the country around to employ its timber in the construction of their works, would effectually dismantle the garden of Joseph ; and we cannot from this time reckon, with any cer- tainty, on more of its evidence than what was afforded by the chambers cut into the rock ; and, possibly, the portal, or monument, annexed to them. At the time of the commotions in Judea, and the siege of Jerusalem, the Christians of that city retired to Pella, beyond the Jordan. These must have known well the situation of mount Calvary ; nor were they so long absent, as might justify the notion that they could forget it when they returned; or that they were a new. generation, and therefore had no previous acquaintance with it. They were the same persons ; the same church officers, with the same bishop at their head, Simeon son of Cleophas ; and whether we allow for the time of thoir absence two year^, or five years, or seven years, it is morally impossible that they could make any mistake in this matter. Simeon lived out the century ; and fromthetime of his death to the rebellion of the Jews under Barchochebas, was but thirty years — too short a period, certainly, for the successors of Simeon at Jerusalem, to lose the knowl- edge of places adjacent to that city. That Barcho chebas and his adherents would willingly have destroyed every evidence of Christianity, with Chris- tianity itself, we know ; but whether his power included Jerusalem, in which was a Roman garrison, may be doubted. The war ended some time before A. D. 140 ; and from the end of the war we are to consider the emperor and his successors as intent on establishing his new city, iElia, and on mortifying to the utmost both Jews and Christians, who were gen- erally considered as a sect of the Jews. It is worth our while to examine the evidence in proof of the continued veneration of the Christians for the holy places, which should properly be divided into two periods ; the first to the time of Adrian's v£lia ; the second from that time to the days of Constantine. Jerome, writing to Marcella concerning this custom, has this remarkable passage : Longum est nunc ah ascensu Domini usque ad prcesentem diem per singidas estates currere, qui Episcoporum, qui Martyrum, qui eloquentiam in doctrina Ecclesiastica virorum venerint Hierosolymam, putantes se minus religionis, minus ha- bere scientiee, nisi in illis Christum adordssent locis, de quibus primum, Evangelium de patibulo coruscaverat. (Ep. 17. ad Marcell.) "During the whole time from the ascension of the Lord to the present day, through every age as it rolled on, as well bishops, martyrs, and men eminently eloquent in ecclesiastical learning, came to Jerusalem ; thinking themselves deficient in religious knowledge, unless they adored Christ in those places from which the gospel dawn burst from the cross." It is- a pleasing reflection that the lead- ing men in the early Christian communities were thus diligent in acquiring the most exact information. They spared no pains to obtain the sacred books in their complete and perfect state, and to satisfy them- selves by ocular inspection, so far as possible, of the truth of those facts on which , they built the doctrine they delivered to their hearers. So Meli'.o, bishop [ 225 ] of Sardis, [A. D. 170,] writes to Onesimus, When I went into the East, and was come to the place where those things were preached and done :" — so we read that Alexander, bishop of Cappadocia, (A. D. 211,) going to Jerusalem for the sake of prayer, and to visit the sacred places, was chosen assistant bishop of that city. This seems to have been aie regular phraseol- ogy on such occasions; for t. this cause Sozomen ascribes the visit of Helena iO Jerusalem, " for the sake of prayer, and to visit sacred places." This may properly intr&rioce the second period in this history, on which w^ uy great stress ; — it is no longer the testimony of fiK.nds ; it is the testimony of enemies ; it is the recdc of their determination to destroy to their utmost c ery vestige of the gospel of Christ. On that deterw nation we rest our confidence ; they could not be > itaken ; and their endeavors guide our judgme. Jerome says, Ah Hadriani temporibus usque *t tmperium Constantini, per annos circiter centum O'uginta, in loco resurrectioms simula- crum Jovis, in fticis rupe statua ex marmore Veneris agentibus postta colebatur, existimantibus persecutions auctoribus, quod tollerent nobis fidem resurrectionis et crucis, si loca Sancta per idola polluissent. Bethlehem nunc nostrum et augustissimum orbis locum, de quo Psalmista canit, Veritas de Terra orta est, lucus inum- brabat Thamuz, i. e. Adonidis ; et in specu, ubi quon- dam Christus parvulus vagiit, Veneris Amasius plan- gebatur. < [Ess. 13. ad Paulin.) " From the time of Hadrian to that of the government of Constantine, about the space of one hundred and eighty years, in the place of the resurrection was set up an image of Jupiter ; in the rock of the cross a marble statue of Venus was stationed, to be worshipped by the peo- ple ; the authors of these persecutions supposing that they should deprive us of our faith in the resurrec- tion and the cross, if they could but pollute the holy places by idols. Bethlehem, now our most venera- ble place, and that of the whole world, of which the Psalmist sings, ' Truth is sprung out of the earth,' was overshadowed by the grov§ of Thammuz, i. e. of Adonis ; and in the cave where once the Messiah ap- peared as an infant, the lover of Venus was loudly lamented." This is a general account of facts ; a few additional hints may be gleaned from other writers. Socrates (Hist. Eccl. lib. i. cap. 17.) says, " Those who followed the faith of Christ, after his death, held in great reverence the monument of that wonderful work; but those who hated the religion of Christ, filled up the place with a dyke of stones, and built in it a temple of Venus, with a figure standing up on it ; by which they intended to dissipate all recollection of the holy place. 'A

CAMBYSES

CAMBYSES, the son of Cyrus, succeeded his father, A. M. 3475. In the Old Testament he is call- ed Ahasuerus, Ezra iv. 6 ; and at the solicitation of the Samaritans, prohibited the Jews from proceeding in rebuilding their temple. What Ezekiel says (chap, xxxviii. xxxix.)of the wars of Gog and Magog against Israel, and the judgments of God against the enemies of his people, Cahnet thinks may be referred to the time of Cambyses. Also, what the prophets ,say of the misfortunes of the Israelites, alter their return from captivity. See Joel ii. 30, 31 ; iii. 2, 3, 4, 5, 15, 16 ; Isa. xli. 15, 16 ; Micah iv. 11. 12, 13. Some authors refer the history of Judith to the time of Cambyses.

CAMEL

CAMEL, an animal common in the East, and placed by Moses among unclean creatures, Deut. xiv. 7. We may distinguish three sorts of camels. Some are large and full of flesh, fit only to cany burdens ; (it is said, 1000 pounds weight ;) others, which have two hunches on the back like a natural saddle, are fit either to carry burdens or to be ridden ; and a third kind, leaner and smaller, are called dromedaries, be- cause of their swiftness ; and are generally used by men of quality to ride on. Bruce has the following remarks on this creature : "Nature has furnished the camel with parts and qualities adapted to the office he is employed to discharge. The driest thistle and the barest thorn is all the food this useful quadruped requires ; and eventhese, to save time, he eats while advancing on his journey, without stopping, or occa- sioning a moment of delay. As it is his lot to cross immense deserts, where no water is found, and coun- tries not even moistened by the dew of heaven, he is endued with the power, at one watering-place, to lay in a store, with which he supplies himself for thirty days to come. To contain this enormous quantity of fluid, nature has formed large cisterns within him, from which, once filled, he draws, at pleasure, the quantity he wants, and pours it into his stomach with the same effect as if he then drew it from a spring ; and with this he travels patiently and vigorously all day long, carrying a prodigious load upon him, through countries infected with poisonous winds, and glowing with parching and never cooling sands. We attempted to raise our camels at Saffieha by every method that we could devise, but all in vain ; only one of them could get upon his legs ; and that one did not stand two minutes till he kneeled down, and could never be raise'd afterwards. This the Arabs all declared to be the effects of cold ; and yet Fahrenheit's thermometer, an hour before day, stood at 42\ Every way we turned ourselves, death stared us in the face. We had neither time nor strength to wast nor provisions to support us. We then took the small skins that had contained our water, and filled them, as far as we thought a man could carry them with ease ; but, after all these shifts, there was not enough to serve us three days, at which I had estimated our journey to Syene, which still, however, was uncertain. Finding, therefore, the camels would not rise, we killed two of them, and took so much flesh as might serve for the deficiency of bread, and from the stomach of each of the camels, got about four gallons of water, which the Bishareen Arab managed with great dexterity. It is known to peo- ple conversant with natural history, that the camel has within him reservoirs, in which he can preserve drink for any number of days he is used to. In those caravans of long course, which come from the Niger across the desert of Selima, it is said that each camel, by drinking, lays in a store of water, that will support him for forty days. I will by no means be a voucher of this account, which carries with it an air of exaggeration ; but fourteen or sixteen days, it is well known, an ordinary camel will live, though he hath no fresh supply of water. When he chews his cud, or when he eats, you constantly see him throw from his repository, mouthfuls of water to dilute his food ; and nature has contrived this vessel with such properties, that the water within it never putrefies, nor turns unwholesome. It was indeed vapid, of a bluish cast, but had neither taste nor smell." (Vol. iv. p. 596.) The Arabians, Persians, and others, eat the flesh of camels, and it is served up at the best tables of the country. When a camel is born, the breeders tie his four feet under his belly, and a carpet over his back. Thus they teach him the habit of bending his knees to rest himself; or when being loaded, or unloaded. The camel has a large solid foot, but not a hard one. In the spring of the year all his hair falls off in less than three days' time, and his skin re- mains quite naked. At this time the flies are ex- tremely troublesome to him. He is dressed with a switch, instead of a curry comb ; and beaten as one would beat a carpet, to clear it of dust. On a jour- ney his master goes before him piping, singing, and whistling; and the louder he sings the better the camel follows. [The following is Niebuhr's account of the drom- edary of Egypt: (Trav. vol. i. p. 215, Germ, ed.) "My four companions took horses for this journey, [from Cairo to Suez] ; I chose from curiosity a dromedary, and found myself very well off, although feared at first I should not be able to ride comfort- ably upon so high a beast. The dromedary lies down, like the camel, in order to let his rider mount. In getting up, he rises upon his hind legs first, so that the rider must take care not to fall down over his head ; he has also the same pace as the camels, while horses have to go sometimes faster, sometimes slow- er, in order to keep along with the caravan.. When on the march, he must not be stopped«ven to mount : and to avoid the need of this, he is taught on a cer- tain signal to lower his head to the ground, so that his rider can set his foot upon his neck ; and wheir he again raises his head, it requires but little practice to be able easily to place one's self upon the saddle. The saddle of the camels that carry heavy loads, is open on the top, and the load hangs down on each side, in order that the hump of fat upon the back of the animal may not be subjected to pressure.. A riding saddle for a camel or dromedary is not very differ- ent from the common saddle, and consequently cov- r; s he hump on his back. Upon this saddle I slung [ 227 ] my mattresses ; and could thus set myself on one side or the other, or upright, according as I wished to avoid the sun's rays, which at this season are very oppressive. My companions, on the contrary, could only remain in one position upon their horses, and were therefore greatly fatigued ; while at evening I was commonly not much more weary from riding, than if I had had to sit still all day upon a chair. If, however, one had to trot upon so high a beast, it would indeed be inconvenient. But the camels take long and slow steps ; and the motion which one feels upon them is, therefore, more like that of a cradle." Burckhardt says, too: "When mounted on a camel, which can never be stopped while its companions are moving on, I was obliged to jump off when I wished to take a bearing. The Arabs are highly pleased with a traveller who jumps off his beast and remounts without stopping it; as the act of kneeling down is troublesome and fatiguing to the loaded camel, and before it can rise again, the caravan is considerably ahead." (Trav. in Syr. p. 445.) The hardiness of the camel, and the slender and coarse fare with which he is contented, during long and severe journeys, are truly surprising. Burck- hardt, in his route from the country south of the Dead sea, directly across the desert to Egypt, was with a party of Bedouins, who heard that a troop from a hostile tribe was in the vicinity. " It was, therefore, determined to travel by night, until we should be out of their reach ; 'and we stopped at sunset, after a day's march of eleven hours and a half, merely for the purpose of allowing the camels to eat. Being ourselves afraid to light a fire, lest it should be descried by the enemy, we were obliged to take a supper of dry flour mixed with a little salt. During the whole of this journey, the camels had no oth- er provender than the withered shrubs of the desert, my dromedary excepted, to which I gave a few hand- fuls of barley every , evening. Loaded camels are scarcely able to perform such a journey without a daily allowance of beans and barley. — Aug. 31st. We set out before midnight, and continued at a quick rate the whole night. In these northern districts of Arabia the Bedouins, in general, are not fond of pro- ceeding by night ; they seldom travel at that time, even in the hottest season, if they are not in very large numbers, because, as they say, during the night nobody can distinguish the face of his friend from that of his enemy. Another reason is, that camels on the march never feed at their ease in the day time, and nature seems to require that they should have their principal meal and a few hours' rest in the even- ing. The favorite mode of travelling in these parts is, to set out about two hours before sunrise, to stop two hours at noon, when every one endeavors to sleep under his mantle, and to alight for the evening at about one hour before sunset. We always sat round ? the fire, in conversation, for two or three hours after supper." (Trav. in Syr. p. 451.) Similar to this is the account given by Messrs. Fisk and King, dur- ing their journey from Cairo to Palestine, under date of April 10, 1823 : " When the caravan stops, the camels are turned out to feed on the thistles, weeds and grass which the desert produces. At sunset they are assembled, and made to lie down around the encampment. Yesterday afternoon four of them, which carried merchandise for an Armenian, went off, and could not be found. Two or three men were despatched in search of them. This morning they were not found, and we arranged our baggage so as to give the Armenian one of ours. The rest of the company also gave him assistance in carrying ins baggage, and we set off at seven. In the course of the day, the four camels were found at a distance, and brought into the encampment at evening." (Missionary Herald, 1824, p. 35.) The value of the camel to the Arabs, and indeed to all the oriental nations, is inestimable ; and indeed they regard it as the peculiar gift of Heaven to the people of their race. Their wealth often consists solely in their camels. So Job is said to have had three thousand of them at first, and afterwards six thousand, i. 3 ; xlii. 12. An anecdote mentioned by Chardin in his MS. (Harmar's Obs. iv. p. 318.) illus- trates this, and shows that the wealth of Job was truly princely. "The king of Persia being in Ma- zanderan, in the year 1676, the Tartars set upon the camels of the king in the month of February, and took three thousand of them; which was a great loss to him, for he has but seven thousand in all, it their number should be complete ; especially con- sidering it was winter, when it was difficult to pro- cure others in a country that was a stranger to commerce ; and considering, too, their importance, these beasts carrying all the baggage, for which rea- son they are called the ships of Persia. Upon these accounts the king presently retired." The camel is here most graphically compared with a ship, and this epithet is justly applied to him, as being the medium of commerce, the bearer of bur- dens across the pathless deserts of the East, which may well be likened to the trackless ocean. This is also further illustrated by the following extracts. *R. Sandys writes thus : (p. 138.) " The whole Caruan being now assembled, consists of a thousand horses, mules, and asses ; and of five hundred camels. These are the ships of Arabia ; their seas are the deserts, a creature created for burthen," &c. It does not clearly appear in this extract, though it might be gathered from it, that the camel has the name of " the ship of Arabia :" but Mr. Bruce comes in to our as- sistance, by saying, (p. 388, vol. i.) " What enables the shepherd to perform the long and toilsome jour- neys across Africa, is the camel, emphatically called, by the Arabs, the ship of the desert! He seems to have been created for this very trade," &c. [From the above extracts it is manifest, that the camel is thus poetically called the ship of the desert, from the circumstance of his being a beast of bur- den, and not with any reference to his speed, which is not great. The dromedary, on the contrary, is celebrated for its fleetness ; or rather on account of its being able to hold out for so long a time in a hard rapid trot. R.] In Morgan's History of Algiers, this writer states, that the dromedary in Barbary, cailed Aashare, will, in one night, and through a lev- el country, traverse as much ground, as any single horse can in ten. The Arabs affirm that it makes nothing of holding its rapid pace, which is a most violent hard trot, for four and twenty hours on a stretch, without showing the least sign of weariness, or inclination to bait ; and that having then swallow- ed a ball or two of a sort of paste made up of barley- meal, and may be a little powder of dry dates among it, with a bowl of water or camel's milk, the indefat- igable animal will seem as fresh as at first setting out, and be ready to run at the same scarcely credi- ble rate, for as many hours longer, and so on from one extremity of the African desert to the othei ; provided its rider could hold out without sleep and other refreshments. During his stay in Algiers, Mr. Morgan was a party in a diversion in which one of [ 22ti ] AM these Aashari ran against some of the swiftest Barbs in the whole Neja, which is famed for having good ones, of the true Libyan breed, shaped like grey- hounds, and which will sometimes run down an ostrich. "We all started," he remarks, "like racers, and for the first spurt most of the best mounted amongst us kept pace pretty well, but our grass-fed horses soon flagged : several of the Libyan and Numidian run- ners held pace, till we, who still followed upon a good round hand gallop, could no longer discern them, and then gave out ; as we were told after their return. When the dromedary had been out of sight about half an hour, we again espied it flying towards us with an amazing velocity, and in a very few mo- ments was among us, and seemingly nothing con- cerned ; while the horses and mares were all on a foam, and scarcely able to breathe, as was likewise a fleet, tall greyhound bitch, of the young prince's, who had followed and kept pace the whole time, and was no sooner got back to us, but lay down panting as if ready to expire." p. 101. [With reference to these facts, Mr. Taylor has at- tempted to illustrate the passage in Jobix. 26, "They (my days) are passed away like swift ships ;" where the proper version is either "ships of desire," i. e. eager to arrive at their place of destination ; or, accord- ing to Gesenius and others, "ships of papyrus," in allusion to the light and rapid skiffs made of this ma- terial, and which are celebrated in ancient histo- ry. Mr. Taylor supposes the writer to allude to these ships of the desert, or dromedaries. But, in the first place, neither the camel nor dromedary is ever called directly a ship, i. e. merely the word ship alone never denotes a camel or a dromedary ; and then, too, the qualifying word (heh (pdn) does not- here point to any such use of the word. Moreover, it is not the dromedary, which is so called on ac- count of its speed ; but the camel, on account of its usefulness as a beast of burden. R. Our Lord's words in Matt. xix. 24, " It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of heaven," have given rise to much discussion. Theophylact, with many ancient and some modern commentators, read xuiu?.ov, or at least interpret xauri?.ov, a cable, as does Whitby. But Euthymius, and some ancient versions, with Grotius, Erasmus, Drusius, Lightfoot, Michaelis, Rosenmtiller, and Kuinoel, contend that the xuinp.ov is to be retained. Campbell has well de- fended the common reading ; and the rabbinical citations adduced by Lightfoot, Schoettgen, and oth- ers, prove that there was a similar proverb in use among the Jews : " Perhaps thou art one of the Pampedithians, who can make an elephant pass through the eye of a needle ;" that is, says the Aruch, tvho speak things impossible. But the very proverb itself is found in the Koran : " The impious shall find the gates of heaven shut ; nor shall he enter there till a camel shall pass through the eye of a needle." The design of our Lord was evidently to hint to the rich their danger, in order that they may exert themselves to surmount the peculiar tempta- tions by which they are assailed ; and learn not to trust in uncertain riches, but in the living God. In Matt, xxiii. 24, there is another proverbial ex- pression, which also has been much misunderstood : " Ye strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel." Dr. A. Clarke has shovn that there is an error of the press in the English translation, in which at has been sub- stituted for out. The expression alludes to the Jew- ish custom of filtering wine, for fear of swallowing any insect forbidden by the law as unclean ; and is applied to those who are superstitiously anxious in avoiding smaller faults, yet do not scruple to commit the greater sins. To make the antithesis as strong as may be, two things are selected as opposite as possi- ble ; the smallest insect, and the largest animal. CAMELS' HAIR, an article of clothing. John the Baptist was habited in raiment of camels' hair, and Chardin states, that such garments are worn by the modern dervishes. There is a coarse cloth made of camels' hair in the East, which is used for manu- facturing the coats of shepherds, and camel-drivers, and also for the cohering of tents. It was, doubtless, this coarse kind which was adopted by John. By this he was distinguished from those residents in royal palaces who wore soft raiment. Elijah is said in the Eng. Bible to have been " a hairy man ;" (2 Kings i. 8.) but it should be "amarulressed in hair;" that is, camels' hair. In Zech. xiii. 4, "a rough gar- ment," that is, a garment of a hairy manufacture, is characteristic of a prophet.

CAMELEON

CAMELEON, a kind of lizard, the flesh of which . Moses forbids the Hebrews to eat, Lev. xi. 30. There is no reason for supposing that the Hebrew word nis means the real cameleon, but some kind of lizard distinguished for its strength.

CAMELO-PARDUS

CAMELO-PARDUS, or Camelo-Pardalus, an animal like a camel in form ; and like a panther in colors, or spots. The Hebrews were allowed it as food, Deut. xiv. 5, 6, according to the Vulgate ; in the English version it is translated chamois, which see. The camelo-pardalus has been supposed the giraffe, an animal found in the East Indies, beyond the Ganges ; also in Africa, though rarely in the north of that continent. Its neck is very long and slender ; its ears are slit ; its feet are cloven ; its tail is round and short ; its legs, especially its fore legs, are taller than those of any other animal, so that it cannot drink without straddling ; and it has two little horns. Bochart is of opinion, however, that Moses did not intend the giraffe, or camelo-pardus, because the res- idence of this animal is in countries too remote ; and further, that the camel being unclean, it was not likely the giraffe should be allowed. He thinks the Hebrew zemer signifies a wild goat. Others translate it an elk. See Chamois.

CAMPHIRE

CAMPHIRE, Cant. i. 14 ; iv. 13. The Hebrew copher is rendered cypress in the LXX and the Vul- gate. It is an odoriferous shrub, common in the isle ' of Cyprus, where it is called henna, or al-henna, and the purposes for which it is employed are thus de- scribed by Sonnini : — (Travels in Egypt, vol. i. p. 264, &c.) " If large black eyes, which they are at pains to darken still more, be essential to Egyptian female beauty, it likewise requires, as an accessory of first rate importance, that the hands and nails should be dyed red. This last fashion is fully as general as the other, and not to conform to it would be reckon- ed indecent. The women could no more dispense with this daubing than with their clothes. Of what- ever condition, of whatever religion they may be, all employ the same means to acquire this species of or- nament, which the empire of fashion alone could perpetuate, for it assuredly spoils fine hands much [ 229 ] more than it decorates them. The animated white- ness of the palm of the hand, the tender rose-color of the nails, are effaced by a dingy layer of a red- dish or orange-colored drug. The sole of the foot, the epidermis of which is not hardened by long or frequent walking, and which daily friction makes still thinner, is likewise loaded with the same color. It is with the greenish powder of the dried leaves of the henna that the women procure for themselves a decoration so whimsical. It is prepared chiefly in the Said, from whence it is distributed over all the cities of Egypt. The markets are constantly sup- plied with it, as a commodity of habitual and indis- pensable use. They dilute it in water, and rub the soft paste it makes on the parts which they mean to color : they are wrapped up in linen, and at the end of two or three hours the orange hue is strongly im- pressed on them. Though the women wash both hands and feet several times a day with lukewarm water and soap, this color adheres for a long time, and it is sufficient to renew it about every fifteen days : that of the nails lasts much longer.; nay, it passes for ineffaceable. In Turkey, likewise, the women make use of henna, but apply it to the nails only, and leave to their hands and feet the color of nature. It would appear, that the custom of dyeing the nails was known to the ancient Egyptians, for those of mummies are, most commonly, of a reddish hue. But the Egyptian ladies refine still further on the general practice ; they, too, paint their fingers, space by space only, and, in order that the color may not lay hold of the whole, they wrap them round with thread at the proposed distances, before the applica- tion of the color-giving paste ; so that, when the operation is finished, they have the fingers marked circularly, from end to end, with small orange-color- ed belts. Others — and this practice is more common among certain Syrian dames — have a mind, that their hands should present the sufficiently disagreeable mixture of black and white. The belts, which the henna had first reddened, become of a. shining black, by rubbing them with a composition of sal-am- moniac, lime and honey." This practice of staining the hands and nails explains, perhaps, the phraseol- ogy in Deut. xxi. 12. "You sometimes meet with men, likewise, who apply tincture of henna to their beards, and anoint the head with it : they allege, that it strengthens the organs, that it prevents the falling off of the hair (the followers of Mahomet, it is well known, preserve, on the crown of the head, a long tuft of hair) and beard, and banishes vermin." The plant is thus described : — " The henna is a tall shrub, endlessly multiplied in Egypt ; the leaves are of a lengthened oval form, opposed to each oth- er, and of a faint green color. The flowers grow at the extremity of the branches, in long and tufted bouquets ; the smaller ramifications which support them are red, and likewise opposite : from their arm- pit cavity (axilla:) springs a small leaf almost round, but terminating in a point : the corolla is formed of four petals curling up, and of a light yellow. Be- tween each petal are two white stamina with a yellow summit; there is only one white pistil. The pedicle, reddish at its issuing from the bough, dies away into a faint green. The calix is cut into four pieces, of a tender green up toward their extremity, which is reddish. The fruit or berry is a green capsule pre- vious to its maturity ; it assumes a red tint as it ripens, and becomes brown when' it is dried : it is divided into four compartments, in which are enclos- ed the seeds, triangular and brown-colored. The bark of the stem and of the branches is of a deep gray, and the wood has, internally, a light cast ot yellow. In truth, this is one of the plants the most grateful to both the sight and the smell. The gently deepish color of its bark, the light green of its foliage, the softened mixture of white and yellow, with which the flowers, collected into long clusters like the lilac, are colored, the red tint of the ramifications which support them, form a combination of the most agree- able effect. These flowers, whose shades are so del- icate, diffuse around the sweetest odors, and em- balm the gardens and the apartments which they embellish ; they accordingly form the usual nosegay of beauty ; the women, ornament of the prisons of jealousy, whereas they- might be that of a whole country, take pleasure to deck themselves with these beautiful clusters of fragrance, to adorn their apart- ments with them, to carry them to the bath, to hold them in their hand, in a word, to perfume their bosom with them. They attach to this possession, which the mildness of the climate, and the facility of culture, seldom refuses them, a value so high, that they would willingly appropriate it exclusively to themselves, and that they suffer with impatience Christian women and Jewesses to partake of it with them. The hen- na grows in great quantities in the vicinity of Rosetta, and constitutes one of the principal ornaments of the beautiful gardens which surround that city. Its root, which penetrates to a great depth with the utmost ease, swells to a large size in a soil, soft, rich, mixed with sand, and such as every husbandman wou M have to work upon ; the shrub, of course, acquires a more vigorous growth there than any where else ; it is, at the same time, more extensively multiplied ; it grows, however, in all the other cultivated districts of Egypt, and principally in the upper part. There is much reason to presume, that the henna of Epypt is the kupros of the ancient Greeks. The des crip- tions, incomplete it is admitted, which authors have given of it, and particularly the form and the f^weet perfume of its flowers which they have celebrated, leave scarcely any doubt respecting the identity of these two plants. [The name of kupros is no longer in use among the modern Greeks ; they give to the henna the corrupted denominations of kene, kna, &c. The seamen of Provence, whose vessels were em- ployed in carrying the powder of henna, called it quene'.] Besides that, the clusters of Cyprus, botrus cypri, of the Song of Songs, (chap. i. 13, 14.) can be nothing else but the very clusters of the flowers of the henna; this is, at least, the opinion of the best com- mentators. It is not at all astonishing, that a flower so delicious should have furnished to oriental poesy agreeable allusions and amorous comparisons. This furnishes an answer to part of the forty-fifth question of Michaelis ; for the flower of henna is disposed in clusters, and the women of Egypt, who dearly love the smell of it, are fond of carrying it, as I have said, in the spot which the text indicates — in their bosom."

CANA

CANA, the city in which our Lord performed his first miracle, was in Galilee, and pertained to the tribe of Zebulun. The village now bearing the name, and supposed to occupy the site of the ancient town, is pleasantly situated on the descent of a hill about sixteen miles north-west of Tiberias, and six north-east of Nazareth. Dr. Richardson states that, in a small Greek church in this place, he was shown an old stone pot, made of the common compact lime- stone of the country, which the hierophant informed * him was one of the original pots that contained the [ 230 J water which underwent the miraculous change at the wedding, which was here honored by the pres- ence of Christ. " It is worthy of note," says Dr. Clarke, " that, walking among the ruins of a church, we saw large massy stone pots, answering the de- scription given of the ancient vessels of the country ; not preserved nor exhibited as reliques, but lying about, disregarded by the present inhabitants, as an- tiquities with whose original use they were unac- quainted. From their appearance, and the number of them, it was quite evident, that a practice of keep- ing water in large stone pots, each holding from eighteen to twenty-seven gallons, was once common in the country." (Travels, p. ii. ch. 14.) Caua, or, as it is now called, Kefer Kenna, or Cane Galil, con- tains about 300 inhabitants,-who are chiefly Catho- lic Christians. There was another place bearing the same name, belonging to the tribe of Asher, which was situated in the neighborhood of Sidon.

CANAANITES

CANAANITES, the descendants of Canaan. Their first habitation was in the land of Canaan, where they multiplied extremely, and by trade and war acquired great riches, and settled colonies over almost all the islands and coasts of the Mediterrane- an. When the measure of their idolatries and abom inations was completed, God delivered their country into the hands of the Israelites, who conquered it un- der Joshua. He destroyed great numbers of them, and obliged the rest to fly, some into Africa, others into Greece. Procopius says, they first retreated into Egypt ; but gradually advanced into Africa, where they built many cities, and spread themselves over those vast regions, which reach to the Straits, pre serving their old language, with little alteration. He adds, that in the ancient city of Tingis, (Tangiers,) founded by them, were two great pillars of white stone, near a large fountain, inscribed in Phoenician characters, "We are people "reserved by flight from [ 243 ] that robber Jesus, [Joshua,] the son of Nave, who pursued us." In Athanasius's time, the Africans continued to say, they were descended from the Ca- naanites ; and when asked their origin, they answer- ed Canard. It is generally agreed, that the Punic tongue was nearly the same as the Canaanitish and Hebrew ; and this seems to be confirmed by several ancient inscriptions found at Malta, which are in Phoenician characters, but may be read by means of the Hebrew. The colonies which Cadmus carried to Thebes, in Boeotia, and his brother Cilex into Cili- cia, were from the stock of Canaan. Sicily, Sar- dinia, Malta, Cyprus, Corfu, Majorca and Minorca, Gades, and Ebusus are thought to have been peopled by Canaanites. Bochart, in his Canaan, has set this matter in a clear, light. This name was given to the Canaanites, not only by the Hebrews, but they themselves adopted it ; as appears from inscriptions on Phoenician coins, in Phoenician letters, (first read by Dr. Swinton, of Ox- ford,) on one of which (in Gent. Mag. Dec. 1760) we have, "Laodicea, mother in Canaan-;" where we also remark, that this city claims the dignity of (asi) metropolis, or mother, like certain others which we read of in Scripture. This removes an error of Bo- chart, who imagined that the Canaanites were asham- ed of the name of their ancestor, by reason of his un- filial conduct, Gen. ix. 22, 25. We read in the life of Abraham, (Gen. xii. 6 ; xiii. 7.) that the Canaanites were then in the land. It appears, also, that Esau took to wife two Canaanitish women, (Gen. xxxvi. 2.) which implies that the parents and relations of these women were Canaanites, as Anah and Zibeon, (ver. 24, 25.) though of Hittite or Hivite families. [The Canaanites, who partly expelled the original inhabitants of Palestine, and partly incorporated themselves with them, were descended from Canaan, according to the genealogical table in Gen. x. 6, 15, seq. Hence they must, like the Hebrews, though earlier, have advanced from the eastern parts of Asia towards the western ; and that they really were kindred to the Semitish tribes, and had been with them, is shown by their common language, the Hebrew and the Phoeni- cian languages being only dialects of one great stock. Canaan had eleven sons, viz. Sidon, Heth, Jebusi, Amori, Girgashi, Hivi, Arki, Sini, Arvadi, Zemari, and Hamathi ; and these all became the heads of as many tribes, which, accor jng to Gen. x. 19, occupied the whole country from Sidon to Gaza. Five of these tribes settled in Syria and Phoenicia, viz. the Zidoni- ans, Arkites, Arvadites, Hamathites, and Sinites. The other six, viz. the Hittites, or children of Heth, Jebu- sites, Amorites, Girgashites, Hivites, and Zemarites, fixed themselves in Canaan proper, and were divided up into many small districts or domains, of which thirty-one are enumerated in Josh. xii. 9 — 24. But in the various passages of the Old Testament where these tribes are spoken of, there is no uniformity in regard to the number of them. Sometimes they are all included under the general name of Canaanites ; (Ex. xiii. 11 ; Deut. xi. 30.) sometimes two are named, the Canaanites and Perizzites, (Gen. xiii. 7.) of which names the first is a general patronymic, and the oth- er signifies inhabitants of plains ; sometimes three, the Hivites, Canaanites, and Hittites; (Ex. xxiii. 28.) then again five ; (Ex. xiii. 5; 2 Chron. viii. 7.) six ; (Ex. iii. 8, 17.) seven, Deut. vii. 1 ; Acts xiii. 19. Finally, in Gen. xv. 19, seq. ten tribes are named, the Kenites, Keni- zites, Kadmonites, Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaims, Amorites, Canaanites, Girgashites, and Jebusites, — among which, however, several, as the Rephaims, Kenites, and Kenizites, belong to the original inhabit- ants of the land, who still dwelt among the Canaan- ites, when Abraham migrated into that country. It is probable that this difference in the number speci- fied is entirely casual, without any definite design. 1. The Hivites dwelt in the northern part of the country, at the foot of mount Hermon, or Anti- lebanon, according to Josh. xi. 3, where it is related that they, along with the united forces of northern Canaan, were defeated by Joshua. They were not, however, entirely driven out of their possessions ; for according to Judg. iii. 3, they still dwelt upon the mountains of Lebanon, from Baal-Hermon to Ha- math. In David's time they still existed, 2 Sam. xxiv. 7 ; 1 Kings ix. 20. Of the tribes or race of the Hivites were also the Shechemites and Gibeonites, xxxiv. 2 ; Josh. xi. 19. 2. The Canaanites, in a stricter sense, in so far as they constituted one of the various tribes which were included under this general name, inhabited partly the plains on the west side of the Jordan, and partly the plains on the coast of the Mediterranean sea. Hence they are divided into the Canaanites by the sea and by the coast of Jordan, (Num. xiii. 29.) and into those of the east and of the west, Josh. xi. 3. 3. The Girgashites dwelt between the Canaan- ites and the Jebusites ; as may be inferred from the order in which they are mentioned in Josh. xxiv. 11. 4. The Jebusites had possession of the hill coun- try around Jerusalem, and of that city itself, of which the ancient name was Jebus, Josh. xv. 8. 63 ; xviii. 28. The Benjamites, to whom this region was allotted, did not drive out the Jebusites, Judg. i. 21. David first captured the citadel of Jebus, 2 Sam. v. 6, seq. Still the Jebusites continued to dwell there in quiet ; as appears from the transaction of David with Arau- nah, a Jebusite chief, 2 Sam. xxiv. 23, seq. 5. The Amorites inhabited, in Abraham's time, the region of Hazazou-tamar, afterwards En-gedi, south of Jerusalem, on the western side of the Dead sea, Gen. xiv. 7. At a later period, they spread themselves out over the mountainous country which forms the southern part of Canaan, between the Dead sea and the Mediterranean, and which was called from them the "mountain of the Amorites," and afterwards the " mountain of Judah," Deut. i. 19, 20 ; Num. xiii. 29 ; Josh. xi. 3. They ex- tended themselves also towards the north ; for Ja- , cob speaks (Gen. xlviii. 22.) of the " piece of ground which he took from the Amorites," and which, according to Gen. xxxiii. 18, lay near Shechem. Sometimes the name Amorites is used in a wider sense for Canaanites in general ; as Gen. xv. 16. From Josh. v. 1, it appears, that the name Amorites was applied especially to those Canaanitish tribes which dwelt in the mountainous region of the south, as above described. This is confirmed by Josh. x. 5, 6, where it is said that the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, &c. were kings of the Amorites, although Jerusalem, as we know, belonged to the Jebusites. How widely the Amorites had extended themselves in the land of Canaan, appears also from Judg. i. 34, seq. where they are said to have compelled the Dan- ites to remain in the mountains, and also to have es- tablished themselves at Aijalon and Shaalbim, places within the territory of Ephraim, and consequently in the middle of the land ; while, according to verse 19, their southern border was the hill Akrabbim. On the east side of the Jordan, also, they had, before the time of Moses, founded two kingdoms, that of Bashan on the north, and the other, bounded at first by the Jab- [ 244 ] bok, oil the south. But under Sihon they crossed the Jabbok, and took from the Amorites and Moabites all die country between the Jabbok and the Anion ; so that this latter stream, now became the southern boundary of the Amorites, Num. xxi. 13, 14, 26 ; xxxii. 33, 39 ; Deut. iv. 46, 47 ; xxxi. 4. This last tract the Is- raelites took possession of after their victory over Sihon, and defended themselves in it by the right of conquest against the claims of the Ammonites, Judg. xi. 8, seq. 6. The Hittites, or children of Heth, ac- cording to the report of the spies, (Num. xiii. 29.) dwelt among the Amorites, on the mountainous dis- trict of the south, afterwards called the "mountain of Jutlah." In the time of Abraham they possess- ed Hebron ; and the patriarch purchased from them the cave of Machpelah as a sepulchre, Gen. xxiii ; xxv. 9, 10. We may also infer that they dwelt at or near Beersheba ; for it was while Isaac was residing there, that Esau married two wives of the Hittites, Gen. xxvi. 23, 34. After the Israelites entered Ca- naan, the Hittites seem to have moved farther north- ward. The country around Bethel (Luz) is called the land of the Hittites, Judg. i. 26. But even at a far later period they continued to maintain themselves in the land ; for Uriah the Hittite was one of David's officers, (2 Sam. xi. 3.) and Solomon was the first to render them tributary, 1 Kings ix. 20. He also had Hit- tite females in his harem, 1 Kings xi. 1. Under his reign, too, there is still mention of kings of the Hit- tites, 1 Kings ix. 29 ; 2 Kings vii. 6. So late also as the return of the Jews from the Babylonish exile, the Hit- tites are mentioned as one of the heathen tribes from which the children of Israel unlawfully took wives, Ezra ix. 1. 7. The Perizzites were found in various parts of Canaan. The name signifies inhabitants of the plains. According to Gen. xiii. 7, they dwelt with the Canaanites, between Bethel and Ai ; and accord- ing to Gen. xxxiv. 30, in the vicinity of Shechem. It would seem also from Josh. xvii. 15, that they were spread out towards the north into the territo- ries of Ephraim and Manasseh ; since Joshua recom- mends to these tribes, to hew down the forests in the district of the Perizzites and Rephaims, and establish themselves there. There dwelt Perizzites in the southern part of Judah also ; as appears from Judg. i. 4, seq. The Canaanites, like their neighbors the Phoeni- cians, with whom, indeed, they constituted one race or people, appear very early to have attained to a not unimportant degree of cultivation. Moses informs the Hebrews, (Deut. vi. 10, 11.) that they will find " great and goodly cities, and houses full of all good things, wells, vineyards, and olive-trees." Like the Syrians and Phoenicians, the Canaanites also consti- tuted no single and independent state ; like the for- mer, these, too, were divided up into many small dis- tricts and communities, under kings or chiefs. "The form of government seems, in the earliest times, to have been aristocratic, under a chief with very limit- ed powers. This is plain from Gen. xxxiv. where Hamor, the chief of the Hivites, could not contract an alliance with Jacob and his family, before he had laid the matter before the elders and the people, and obtained their consent. So also in the case of Abra- ham and Ephron, Gen. xxiii. As being peculiar in his relations, appears Melchisedek, king of Salem, and at the same time priest of the Most High, to whom Abraham gave a tenth of the spoil, Gen. xiv. 18, seq. That th?re were frequent wars among this multitude of smaller kings and states, (of which thirty one are enumerated, Josh. xii. 9, seq.) is not only prob- able in itself, but also evident from Judg. i. 7, where Adoni-bezek is said to have cut off the thumbs and great toes of seventy kings vanquished by him, and then caused them to gather the crumbs under Ins- table. Several of the Canaanitish kings appear to have had a sort of superior dominion over others around them ; as Adoni-zedek, king of Jerusalem, (Josh. x. 1 — 4,) and also Jabin, king of Hazor, Josh, xi. 1 — 5. — See, on this whole subject, Roseniniiller's Bibl. Geograph. vol. ii. part i. p. 251, seq. *R.

CANDACE

CANDACE, an Ethiopian queen, whose eunuch, having been at Jerusalem to worship, was met, and, being converted, was baptized by Philip the Deacon, near Bethsura, as lie was returning to his own coun- try, Acts viii. 26. (See Philip.) It is thought that Candace, or Chendaqui, was the general name of the queens of Ethiopia, in the age of Christ. (Pliny vi. 29. Ludolf. Comment, ad Hist. ^Ethiop. 89. Light- foot. Hor. Heb. 85.) of gold, made by Moses for the service of the temple, (Exod. xxv. 31, 32.) consisted wholly of pure gold, and had seven branches ; that is, three on each side, and one in the centre. These branches were at equal distances, and each one was adorned with flowers, like lilies, gold knobs after the form of an apple, and smaller ones resembling an al- mond. Upon the extremities of the branches were seven golden lamps, which were fed with pure olive oil, and lighted every evening by the priests on duty, and extinguished every morning. The candlestick was placed in the holy place, and served to illumine the altar of incense and the table of shew-bread, which stood in the same chamber. The golden can- dlestick has been, sometimes, erroneously represent- ed as seven golden candlesticks, placed individually in the sanctuary ; and the passage in Rev. i. 12, 13, Las been thought to countenance this idea of separate candlesticks ; but the representation there given is of an entirely different nature, and has no reference to the golden candlestick of the temple ; like the de- scription in Zechariah mentioned below. The word f-vvla constantly answers in the LXX to the golden lamp-sconces of the tabernacle and tem- ple, i. e. of the golden candlestick. The following is from rabbis Kimchi and Levi Gerson. The concluding though.' of Kiinchi is cer- tainly ingenious : These lamps were called the candle of the Lord, in 1 Sam. iii. 3, where it is said, " before the candle of the Lord went out, the Lord called to Samuel," upon which words, David Kimchi gives this gloss : " If this be spoken concerning the lamps in the candlestick, this was somewhat before day ; for the lamps burnt from even till morning, yet did they sometimes some of them go out in the night. They put oil into them by such a measure as should keep them burning from even till morning, and many times they did burn till morning ; and they always found the western lamp burning. Now it is said, that this prophecy came to Samuel, 'before the lamp went out,' while it was yet night, about the time of coek-crowing ; for it is said, afterward, that Samuel lay till morning : or, allegorically, it speaks of the candle of prophecy ; as they say the sun ariseth, and the sun sets : before the holy blessed God cause the sun of one righteous man to set, he causeth the sun of another righteous man to rise. Before Moses' sun set, Joshua's sun arose ; before Eli's sun set, Samuel's sun arose ; and this is that which is said, before the candle of the Lord ivent out " [ 245 ] In Zechariah, cliap. iv. there is an account of the splendid and significant emblem presented in vision to the prophet, which will abundantly reward an at- tentive examination. The principal object that met the eyes of Zechariah, was a candelabrum, a candle- stick or lampbearer, entirely of gold, pure, solid, cost- ly, precious, consisting of a tall, upright shaft, sur- mounted by a bowl, and of a number of branches;, each of which supported a lamp, springing out of it, as boughs from the trunk of a tree, but only on two sides. The image is evidently taken from the can- dlesticks in the tabernacle and temple, but differed widely from them. The difference is very closely examined by Dr. Stonard, in his commentary on the prophet : and very remarkable it is. In the first place, there was a bowl or basin on the top of the shaft, intended to contain oil for the nourishment of the lights of the lamps ; " and its seven lamps upon it, seven and seven." From the bowl . proceeded pipes conveying oil to the lamps; and beside the can- dlestick stood two olive-trees, one on each side of it, whose branches shed their produce into spouts or gutters, from which the bowl was supplied. This is thus explained by Dr. Stonard, who has followed it at great length, with a minuteness, and often a felici- ty of expression, that show the taste and admiration with which he contemplates the magnificent picture. Light, in general, is the emblem of excellence, dis- cerned, acknowledged, and admired by the world. material lamp is an instrument formed to yield an artificial light, which, being sustained by oil, is really nothing but oil kindled into a flame. When a lamp is taken for the emblem of spiritual and intellectual excellence, truth must be its oil, the pabulum of its light, which, in reality, is nothing else than truth dis- played showing itself to the world. Accordingly, the oil, which is food of the symbolical lamp set before us in the part of the vision, is truth ; divine, moral, religious, or saving truth. When the truth is receiv- ed by any man, he has then the mystic oil in himself; and when that oil is kindled into a flame, not only is he internally enlightened, but he conducts himself accordingly, and becomes truly good and holy. It is the property of light to diffuse itself uponali objects within its reach. He that hath in himself that spirit- ual'light, who acts and lives according to the truth, makes it shine before men ; he gives light to the world. • . A material candlestick is an instrument construct- ed to bear a lamp, or many lamps, for the purpose of giving light. A symbolical or spiritual candlestick, with many branches and lamps, represents a body or assemblage of persons enlightened and shining, as be- fore mentioned, collected into a regular society, for the purpose of dissipating the spiritual dulness of a world lying in sin, and enveloped in ignorance. Such a society is the church, which alone containing in it- self the principles of saving truth, of holiness, of solid comfort, and everlasting happiness, is the in- strument constructed and appointed by God, to hold forth the light, which may guide the steps of men into the way of peace. Every true member of it is luminous, at once enlightened and enlightening ; so speaking and so living, as to show forth to others the light that is in himself. And not only is the symbol of a candlestick well adapted to represent the church of God, but the church is actually represented by it, as we have seen, in other parts of Scripture. Since, then, a candlestick, in general, is the scriptural sym- bol of a church, a candlestick with seven branches and lamps must be the symbol of the universal church, (see Seven,) spread abroad through all its numerous congregations, having and giving light; at the same time that, being fixed upon branches pro- ceeding from one shaft, they plainly imply that all those congregations are united in one body of the universal church. The church of Israel was represented by this fig- ure of a candlestick, in the tabernacle and temple ; and since the Gentile church was, on every account, entitled to be represented by a like symbol as the Jewish, the two great divisions of the church would be properly represented by two candlesticks of seven branches each. But since these churches have been made one, what symbol could be so apt and so consistent with Scripture doctrines and imagery, as that of a candlestick bearing fourteen lamps on as many branches, issuing in two septenaries from its opposite sides ? Such, exactly, was the candlestick exhibited to Zechariah. The candlestick must have had some base or foot, which would represent the foundation on which the church stands. This is no other than Jesus Christ, and the base, therefore, must have been the stone with seven eyes, mentioned in this and the foregoing vision of the prophet. The shaft of a candlestick springs up immediately from the base, and is, in re- ality, nothing more than the elongation or elevation of it. In the one, Christ is represented as the foun- dation of the church ; in the other, he appears as the principle of spiritual vitality to all its congregations and members. The branches of the candlestick growing out of the shaft intimate the closest union and absolute depend- ence of all of them upon him ; in exact correspond- ence with that other figure, under which our Lord is pleased to represent himself, as the trunk of the spiritual vine, and his disciples as the branches. On the right and left sides of the candlestick were two olive-trees, which attracted the particular atten- tion of the prophet; and he inquired, "What are those two olive-trees?" and again, "What are the two branches of the olive-trees, which, through two oil gutters, drain off the oil from them ?" The an- swer of the interpreting angel seems to imply an al- most culpable ignorance in the prophet. " Knowest thou not what these be ? These are the sons of oil, which stand before the Lord of the whole earth." An olive-tree is used as an emblem of the Jewish church. (See Olive.) But the church compounded of Jewish and Gentile believers is already set before us in the significant emblem of the golden candle- stick. We must, therefore, find for the two olive- trees a different interpretation, which shall join the subjects represented by them in the most intimate relation to the church. Dr. Blayney presumes them to be "no other than the two dispensations of the law and the gospel, under which were communicat- ed the precious oracles of divine truth, which illu- minate the sou], and make men wise to salvation." The dispensations of God in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, are the sole fountains of the spiritual oil, the only sources whence* divine or moral, religious or saving, truth is derived to men in perfect purity. The olive-trees give out their oil by two peculiar and conspicuous branches, and of course are intended to represent some eminent and especial instruments for the propagation of the true religion. These are the ministers of the law and the gospel, considered as two distinct bodies of men, following, in analogy to the candlestick, the grand division of the universal church into its two primitive and principal [ 246 branches, the Jewish and the Gentile. The two branches shed forth the juice of the trees to the sup- port of the lights on the candlesticks ; so do the min- isters of religion convey to their congregations the sacred truths contained in the dispensations of the law and the gospel. " These," said the angel, " are the two sons of oil, which stand before the Lord of the whole earth." These two sons of oil possess abundantly, and are capable of supplying adequately to the wants of the church, those divine and moral truths which enlighten men's minds with the knowl- edge, and touch their hearts with the love, of God, and of the things which are conducive to salvation. They are said to stand before the Lord of the whole earth — the whole territory of Christendom — as min- isters of his presence, strengthened by his might ; as stewards of his mysteries, to act the part of the wise householder, who bringeth forth out of his treasures things new and old. The flow of juice from these symbolical trees is n6t limited to any particular sea- sons, but is perennial and perpetual. This is quite suitable to the nature of the subjects represented by them, which continually send forth their sacred streams of truth without intermission or failure, in all places, at all seasons and periods, through the hands and instruments appointed to convey the same. Again, the two branches send out the oil through two oil gutters or spouts. These must represent the channels, as it were, through which the ministers of the divine dispensations convey the blessings of reli- gious, saving truth ; those institutions which afford to the ministry the most convenient and edifying means of making known the truth. The bowl, which is the reservoir of all the oil poured forth from the two olive-trees, must necessa- rily signify something which is the recipient of the whole body of truth, made known by the two dis- pensations. Now, such a recipient is nowhere to be found, but in the body of the church universal. The bowl, indeed, cannot typify the church, as it is known to the world in the outward and visible persons and actions of its members ; but as it is discernible in contemplation only to the eye of the understanding. It represents the church at unity, having all its parts nourished by the same food, pervaded by the same circulating blood, animated by the same living spirit, according to the image repeatedly employed by Paul to represent the unity of the church. The pipes, which are the media between the lamps and the bowl, answer the same purpose to the dishes and cups of the former, as the oil gutters do to the latter. They consequently represent the same things with respect to the several congregations, as the others do with respect to the whole body of the catholic church ; that is, the ministry of the two dispensations convey- ing the doctrines of truth and salvation to their re- spective flocks. But it may be asked, since the lamps are supposed to be alight, and they could not light themselves, Who is it that kindled their flames ? The work, being not represented by any symbol, is plainly intended to be conceived, as Dr. Stonard remarks, as that of an in- visible hand of one who operates by natural secret influence. This answers precisely to the effect of me Holy Spirit upon Christians. In vain will the truth be heard with their ears and received by their understandings by the two dispensations, if the Holy Ghost, by his influences, did not give effect to the word, and to the labor of those who publish it. All that is well pleasing in the sight of God and truly useful to man, all proceed from the operation of the Holy Spirit, bringing the principle of truth il o ac- tion, kindling the sacred oil into a bright and steady flame.

Next Page >>

Home | Resources