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Edward Robinson

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A, the first letter in almost all alphabets. In Hebrew it is called aleph, (n) which signifies ox, from the shape of it in the old Pheuician alphabet, where it somewhat resembles the head and horns of that ani- mal. (Plutarch. Qusest. Sympos. ix. 2. Gesenii Thesaur. Heb. p. 1 ) This Hebrew name has passed over along with the letter itself, into the Greek alpha. Both the Hebrews and Greeks employed the letters of their alphabets- as numerals ; and A, therefore, (aleph or alpha) denoted one, the first. Hence our Lord says of himself, that he is (to a) Alpha and (to a) Omega, i. e. the first and the last, the beginning and the ending, as he himself explains it, Rev. i. 8, 11 ; xxi. 6 ; xxii. 13. R.


A, or AM ANA, (the former being the Kethib, or reading of the Hebrew text ; and the latter the Keri, or marginal reading,) the name of one of the rivers cited by Naatnan (2 Kings v. 12.) as rivers of Damas- cus. The latter is probably the true name, signifying perennial ; the change of m into 6 being very common m the oriental dialects. Interpreters have been much divided in regard to the streams probably designated by die names A Liana and Pharpar. One of these undoubtedly is the pres- ent Barrada (the cold), the Chrysorrhoas of the an- cients, which rises in Anti-Libanus and flows through Damascus. Just above the city it is divided into several branches, (some travellers say three, and others five,) which pass around the city on the out- side, and afford water for the numerous gardens by which the city is surrounded ; while the main stream passes through and waters the city itself. Below the city they again mostly unite, and the river loses itself in a marsh a few miles S. E. from Damascus. The branches here mentioned are evidently artificial ; and if we now suppose that originally there were but two branches in all, (the others being a w ork of later times,) these two branches may perhaps have been the A nana and Pharpar. — Another supposition, however, is more probable, viz. that one of the streams is the Barrada ; while the other, (perhaps the Amana, or perennial stream,) may be the little river Fijih, or Fege, which rises near the village of like name in a pleasant valley about 15 or 20 miles N. W. of Damas- cus. Dr. Richardson describes it as issuing at once from the limestone rock, a deep, rapid stream of about thirty feet wide. It is pure and cold as iced water, and after coursing down a rugged channel for above a hundred yards, falls into the Barrada, which comes from another valley, and is here only half as wide as the Fijih. Its waters, also, like those of the Jordan, have a white, sulphureous hue. *R.


A, governor of Tirzah, in whose house Zimri killed Elah, king of Israel, 1 Kings xvi. 9.


A, a port of Corinth, whence Paul sail- ed f r Ephesus, Acts xviii. 18. [It was situated on the eastern side of the isthmus, about 70 stadia from Jie city. The other port, on the western side of the isthmus, was Lecha^um. R.


A, in Hebrew iS, Lud, or Lod, by the Greeks [ 647 ] and Latins called Lydda, or Diospolis, is a city in the way from Jerusalem to Caasarea Philippi. It lay east of Joppa four or five leagues, and belonged to Ephraim. It seems to have been inhabited by the Benjamites, after the Babylonish captivity, (Neh. xi. 35.) and was one of the three toparchies which were dismembered from Samaria, and given to the Jews, 1 Mac. xi. 34. Peter, coining to Lydda, cured iEneas, who was sick of the palsy, Acts ix. 33, 34. The Jews inform us, that after the destruction of Jeru- salem, they set up academies in different parts of Palestine, of which Lydda was one, where the fa- mous Akiba was a professor, for some time. Ga- maliel succeeded him, and was obliged to retire to Japhna. Lydda, says D'Arvieux, " is situated on a plain, about a league from Rama. It is so entirely ruined as to be at present but a miserable village, noticeable only on account of the market which is held here, once a week. The dealers resort to it to sell the cotton and other commodities which they have collected during the week. Here was formerly a handsome church, dedicated to St. George, a saint who is equallv in favor with Turks and Christians. Dr. Wittman says, (Trav. p. 203, 205, January 12.) "I rode across the plains of Jaffa and Lydda. We approached the town of Lydda, or Loudda, and saw the Arab inhabitants busily employed in sowing bar- ley. The soil of these fine and extensive plains is a rich black mould, which, with proper care and indus- try, might be rendered extremely fertile. Lydda is denominated by the Greeks Diospolis, the city or temple of Jupiter, probably because a temple had been dedicated in its vicinity to that deity. Since the crusades it has received from the Christians the name of St. George, on account of its having been the scene of the martyrdom and burial of that saint. In this city tradition reports that the emperor Jus- tinian erected a church." I. LYDlA, a woman of Thyatira, a seller of pur- ple, who dwelt in the city of Philippi in Macedonia, (Acts xvi. 14, 40.) and was converted by Paul's preaching. After she and her family had been bap- tized, she offered her house to Paul and his fellow- laborer so earnestly, that he was prevailed on by her entreaties. This woman was not by birth a Jewess, but a proselyte. II. LYDiA, a celebrated kingdom of Asia Minor, peopled by the sons of Lud, son of Shem, Gen. x. 23. We have very little notice of these Lydians in Scripture. They are mentioned in Isa. lxvi. 19, if these be not rather the Lydians in Egypt. (Comp. 1 Mac. viii. 7.) See Lud, and Ludim. is condemned in many places in Scrip- ture, Exod. xxiii. I, 7 ; Lev. xix. 11 ; Prov. xii. 22 ; xiii. 5 ; xix. 22 ; Wisd. i. 11 ; Eccl. vii. 13 ; xx. 10 ; xxv. 23 ; Hos. iv. 1 ; Acts v. 4 ; Eph. iv. 25 ; James v. 12. Our Saviour requires his disciples to be so- plain and sincere, that their word might be equivalent to the most solemn oath ; and that in all their asser- tions, they should say only, " It is," or " It is not," Matt. v. 37. It is in vain, therefore, to attempt to jus- tify some particular persons who have told lies which persons are in other respects commended in Scripture. It never praises their lying, but their good actions. That which is in itself evil never can become good. When Abraham calls Sarah his sister, not his wife ; and Isaac says the same of Re- bekah ; when J«cob, by a lie, defrauds Esau of his father's blessing ; and when the Egyptian midwives declare, that the Hebrew women are delivered with- out their assistance ; they are not, any of them, in these particulars, to be commended ; though the evil which they committed might be mitigated by cir- cumstances not known to us. When we condemn lying, we do not condemn stratagems, hyperboles, or certain railleries and discourses ; or fables, or parables ; which custom and general consent do not rank among lies. God is said to have put a lying spirit into the mouths of false prophets ; that is, he permitted them to follow the impressions of the evil spirit, 1 Kings xxii. 23 ; Prov. xxiii. 3. " We have made lies our refuge," (Isa. xxviii. 15.) i. e. we have placed our confidence in falsehood ; in deceitful allies, or in the delusive promises of false prophets ; or, lastly, in the assistance of idols, whom they call vanity and lying. "The hail shall sweep away the refuge of lies," (ver. 17.) i. e. the vain hopes, previously mentioned by the prophet. "A deceived heart hath turned him aside, that he cannot deliver his soul, nor say, Is there not a lie in my right hand ?" i. e. am I not in the wrong, thus to adore wood ? Isa. xliv. 20 ; also Jer. viii. 8. Waters that fail, that lie, are those that flow part of the year only ; they may be said to be false, for they should flow perpetually, Jer. xv. 18. " Lying hills " (Jer. iii. 24.) are those which, after they have made a fine appearance to the eye, produce nothing. Hosea says, (ix. 2.) The vine shall lie to them ; the vintage shall fail; and Habakkuk, (iii. 17.) that the olive- trees shall lie ; that is, fail. The Latins have the same way of speaking.


A, a city of Ephraim, the native place of Jeroboam, son of Nebat, 1 Kings xi. 26. Perhaps Zeredatha, or Zarthan.


AARON, the son of Amram and Jochebed, of the tribe of Levi, (Exod. vi. 20.) was born A. M. 2430; that is, the year before Pharaoh's edict for destroying the Hebrew male infants, and three- years before his brother Moses, Exod. vii. 7. He married Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab, of the tribe of Judah, (Exod. vi. 23.) by whom he had four sons, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. The eldest two were destroyed by fire from heaven ; from the other two the race of the chief priests was continued in Israel, 1 Chron. xxiv. 2 seq. The Lord, having appeared to Moses, and directed him to deliver the Israelites from their oppressive bondage in Egypt, appointed Aaron to be his assistant and speaker, he being the more eloquent of the two, Exod. iv. 14 — 16; vii. 1. Moses, having been di- rected by God to return into Egypt, quitted Midian, with his family, and entered upon his journey. At mount Horeb he met his brother Aaron, who had come thither by a divine direction; (Exod. iv. 27.) and after the usual salutations, and conference as to the purposes of the Almighty, the brothers prosecuted their journey to Egypt, A. M. 2513. Upon their arrival in Egypt, they called together the elders of Israel, and having announced to them the pleasure of the Almighty, to deliver the people from their bondage, they presented themselves before Pharaoh, and exhibited the credentials of their divine mission. by working several miracles in his presence. Phara- oh, however, drove them away, and for the purpose of repressing the strong hopes of the Israelites of a restoration to liberty, he ordered their laborious oc- cupations to be greatly increased. Overwhelmed with despair, the Hebrews bitterly complained to Moses and Aaron, who encouraged them to sustain their oppressions, and reiterated the determination of God to subdue the obstinacy of Pharaoh, and procure the deliverance of his people, ch. v. In all their subsequent intercourse with Pharaoh, dur- ing which several powerful remonstrances were made, and many astonishing miracles performed, Aaron appears to have taken a very prominent part, and to have pleaded with much eloquence and effect the cause of the injured Hebrews, Exod. vi. — xii. Moses having ascended mount Sinai, to receive the tables of the law, after the ratification of the covenant made with Israel, Aaron, his sons, and seventy elders, followed him partly up. They saw the symbol of the divine presence, without sustain- ing any injury, (Exod. xxiv. 1 — 11.) and were favor- ed with a sensible manifestation of the good pleasure of the Lord. It was at this time that Moses received a divine command to invest Aaron and his four sons with the priestly office, the functions of which they were to discharge before Jehovah for ever. See Priest. During the forty days that Moses continued in the mount, the people became impatient, and tumultu- ously addressed Aaron : " Make us gods," said they, "which shall go before us: for as to this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what is become of him," Exod. xxxii 1 seq Aaron desired them to bring their pendants and the ear-rings of their wives and children ; which, being brought, were melted down under his direc- tion, and formed into a golden calf. Before this calf Aaron built an altar, and the people sacrificed, danced, and diverted themselves around it, exclaim- ing, " These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the laud of Egypt." The Lord having informed Moses of the sin of the Israelites, (Exod. xxxii. 7.) he immediately descended, carrying the tables of the law, which, as he approached the camp, he threw upon the ground and broke, (ver. 19.) re- proaching the people with their transgression, and Aaron with his weakness. Aaron at first endeavor- ed to excuse himself, but afterwards became penitent, humbled himself, and was pardoned. The taberna- cle having been completed, and the offerings prepar- ed, Aaron and his sons were consecrated with the holy oil, and invested with the sacred garments, Exod. xl. Lev. viii. Scarcely, however, were the ceremonies connected with this solemn service com- pleted, when his two eldest sons, Nadab and Abihu, were destroyed by fire from heaven, for presuming to burn incense in the tabernacle with strange fire, Lev. x. Subsequently to this affecting occurrence, there was little in the life of Aaron that demands particular notice. During the forty yetuS that he discharged the priestly office, his duties Avere apparently at- tended to with assiduity, and his general conduct, excepting the case of his joining Miriam in mur- muring against Moses, and distrusting the divine power at Kadesh, was blameless, Numb. xii. xx. 8—11. In the fortieth year after the departure of the Hebrews out of Egypt, and while they were en- camped at Mosera, Aaron, by the divine command, ascended mount Hor. Here Moses divested him of his pontifical robes, which were placed upon his son Eleazar; "and Aaron died on the top of the mount," at the age of one hundred and twenty-three years, " and the congregation mourned for him thirty days," Numb. xx. 23—29 ; xxxiii. 38. There is an apparent discrepancy in the scripture account of the place of Aaron's death. In the pas- sages above referred to, it is said that it occurred in mount Hor ; but in Deut. x. 6. it is stated to have been at Mosera, or more properly, according to the Hebrew form of the word, at Moser. The difficulty, however, is removed, by supposing that the place Mosera lay near the foot z f mount Hor, perhaps on the elevated open plain from which the mountain rises, as described by Burckhardt, Travels in Syria and the Holy Land, p. 430. Josephus, Eusebius, and Jerome, all agree in placing the sepulchre of Aaron upon the summit of mount Hor, where it is still preserved and venerated by the Arabs. When the supposed tomb was visited by Mr. Legh, it was attended by a crippled Arab hermit, about eighty years of age, who conducted the travellers into a small white building, crowned by a cupola. The monument itself is about three feet high, and is patched together out of fragments of stone and mar- ble. The proper tomb is excavated in the rock be- low. See Hon. 1. In reviewing the life of Aaron, we can scarcely fail to remark the manner of his introduction into the history. He at once appears as a kind of assist- ant, and so far an inferior, to his brother Moses ; yet j he had some advantages which seem to have entitled him to prior consideration. He was the elder bro- ther, an eloquent speaker, and also favored by di- i vine inspiration. We have no cause assigned why i he was not preferred to Moses, in respect of authon- ! fy; and therefore no other cause can now be assign- ed than the divine good pleasure, acting perhaps with reference to the superior education and consequent influence of Moses. 2. Among the most confirming signs given by God to Moses, may be placed the interview with his brother Aaron at mount Horeb. This being predict- ed by God, and directly taking place, must have been very convincing to Moses. (See something similar in the case of Jeremiah, chap, xxxii. 8.) It should seem also, that Aaron would not have undertaken a journey of two months, from Egypt to mount Sinai at great hazard and expense, unless he had been well assured of the authority which sent him ; neither could he have expected to rind Moses where he did find him, unless by divine direction ; since the place, afterwards called the mount of God, was then undis- tinguished and unfrequented. Aaron, therefore, was a sign to Moses, as Moses was a sign to Aaron. 3. It seems probable that Aaron was in circumstan- ? ces above those of the lower class of people in Egypt. Had he been among those who were kept to their daily bondage, he- could ill have spared time and cost for a journey to Horeb. Although the brothers, then, had no pretension to sovereign authority by descent, yet they were of consideration among the Israelites, either by property, or office, or perhaps from the fact of Moses' long residence and education at the Egyptian court ; which could not fail to be a source of influence to himself and to his family. Both Moses and Aaron seem to be acknowledged by Pharaoh, and by many of his servants, as persons of consideration, and as proper agents for transacting business between the Israelites and the king. Aaron performed the miracles before Pharaoh, too, without any wonder being expressed by him, how a person like him should acquire such skill and eloquence. Had Moses and Aaron been merely private persons, Pharaoh would, no doubt, have punished their intru- sion and impertinence. 4. We cannot palliate the sin of which Aaron was guilty, when left in charge of Israel, in conjunction with Hu'r, while Moses was in the mount receiving the law. His authority should have been exerted to restrain the people's infatuation, instead of forward- ing their design. (See Calf.) As to his personal concern in the affair, we may remark, that if his own faith or patience was exhausted, or if he supposed Moses to be dead, then there could have been no col- lusion between them. Nor durst he have done as he did, had he expected the immediate return of Moses. His activity in building the altar to the calf renders his subsequent submission to Moses utterly inexpli- cable, had not a divine conviction been employed on the occasion. It is to be remarked, that nothing is said of. the interference of Hur, the coadjutor of Aaron in the government of the people. The latter seems to have shrunk with unholy timidity from his duty of resistance to the proceedings of the people, fearing their disposition, as "set on mis- chief," which" he pleads in excuse, Exod. xxxii. 22—24. 5. The sedition of Aaron and Miriam against Moses, (Numb. xii. 1.) affords another argument against the supposition of collusion between the brothers. Aaron assumes, at first, a high tone, and pretends to no less gifts than his brother; but he afterwards acknowledges his folly, and, with Miriam, submits. Aaron was not visited with the leprosy, but he could well judge of its reality on his sister: it was his proper office to exclude her from the camp for seven days ; and by his expression of " flesh half consumed," it should seem that it was an inveterate kind of the disease, and therefore the more signal. Aaron's affection, interest, and passion, all concur- red to harden him against any thing less than full conviction of a divine interposition. But he well knew that it was not in the power of Moses to in- flict this disease, in so sudden and decided a manner. 6. The departure of Aaron for death, has some- thing in it very singular and impressive. In the sight of all the congregation, he quits the camp for the mountain, where he is to die. On the way, Moses his brother, and Eleazar his son, divest him of his pontifical habits, and attend him to the last. We view, in imagination, the feeble old man ascend- ing the mount, there transferring the insignia of his office to his son, and giving up the ghost, with that faith, that resignation, that meekness, which became one who had been honored with the Holy Spirit, and with the typical representation of the great High- priest himself. 7. In the general character of Aaron there was much of the meekness of his brother Moses. He seems to have been willing to serve his brethren, upon all occasions ; and was too easily persuaded against his own judgment. This appears when the people excited him to make the golden calf, and when Miriam urged him to rival his brother. 8. When we consider the talents of Aaron, his natural eloquence, and his probable acquirements in knowledge, that God often spake to him as well as to Moses, and that Egyptian priests were scribes, as a duty of their profession; it is not very unlikely, that he assisted his brother in writing some parts of the books which now bear the name of Moses; that, at least, he kept journals of public transactions ; that he transcribed, perhaps, the orders of Moses, espe- cially those relating to the priests. If this be admis- sible, then we account at once for such difference of style as appears in these books, and for such smaller variations in different places, as would naturally arise from two persons recording the same facts ; we ac- count for this at once, without, in any degree, lessen- ing the authority, the antiquity, or the real value of these books. It accounts, also, for the third person being used when speaking of Moses : perhaps, too, for some of the praise and commendation of Moses, which is most remarkable where Aaron is most in fault. See Numb. xii. 3. In Deuteronomy, Moses uses the pronouns, , and me : " I said," — " the Lord said to me," which are rarely or never used in the former books. See Bible.


AARONITES, Levites of the family of Aaron ; the priests who particularly served the sanctuary. Numb. iv. 5 seq. 1 Chron. xii. 27 ; xxvii. 17. See Levites.


AB, the eleventh month of the civil year of the Hebrews, and the 5th of their ecclesiastical year, which began with Nisan. It had thirty days, and nearly answers to the moon of July. The name does not occur in Scripture. See the Jewish Cal- endar at the end of the volume.


ABADDON, or APOLLYON, the destroyer ; the name ascribed (Rev. ix. 11.) to the angel of the abyss, or Tartarus, i. e. the angel of death. He is repre- sented as the king and head of the Apocalyptic locusts under the fifth trumpet, Rev. ix. 11. See Locust.


ABAGARUS, see Abgar. ABAR1M, mountains east of Jordan, over against Jericho, on the northern border of Moab, within the limits of the tribe of Reuben. It is impossible to de- fine exactly their extent. Eusebius fixes them at six miles west of Heshbon, and seven east of Livias. The mountains Nebo, Pisgah, and Peor, were summits of the Abarim. Numb, xxvii. 12; xxxiii. 47, 48. Deut. xxxiii. 49.


ABBA, a Syriac word signifying father, and ex- pressive of attachment and confidence. When the Jews came to speak Greek, this word was probably retained from their ancient language, as being easier to pronounce, especially for children, than the Greek pater. Hence Paul says, "Ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father," Rom. viii. 15. . I. ABDON, son of Hillel, of the tribe of Ephraim, and tenth judge of Israel. He succeeded Elon, and judged Israel eight years, Judg. xii. 13, 15. He died A. M. 2848, ante A. D. 1156.


ABEDNEGO, a Chaldee name given by the king of Babylon's officer to Azariah, one of Daniel's com- panions, Dan. i. 7. Abednego was thrown into the fiery furnace at Babylon, with Shadrach and Me- shach, for refusing to adore the statue erected by command of Nebuchadnezzar, Dan. iii. See Daniel Some have supposed this Azariah to be Ezra, but without sufficient grounds.


ABEL-BETH-MAACAH, that is Abel near the house or city of Maacah ; the same as Abel.


ABEL-CARMAIM, or the Place of the Vineyards, a village of the Ammonites, about six miles from Philadelphia, or Rabbath-Ammon, according to Eusabius, and in Iris time still rich in vineyards, Judges xi. 33.


ABEL-MAIM, the same as Abel-beth-Maacah, 1 Kings xv. 20. 2 Chron. xvi. 4. See Abel II.


ABEL-MEHOLAH, the birth-place of Elisha, 1 Kings xix. 16. It was situated about ten miles south of Scythopolis or Bethshan, (1 Kings iv. 12.) and was celebrated in connexion with Gideon's victory over the Midianites, Judges vii. 22.


ABEL-MIZRAIM, "the place of the Egyptians," previously called "the threshing-floor of Atad," Gen. 1. 11. Jerom places it between Jericho and the Jor- dan ; three miles from the former, and two from the latter, where Bethagla afterwards stood. ABEL-SHITTIM was in the plains of Moab, beyond Jordan, opposite to Jericho. It is, undoubt- edly, the Abila of Josephus, (Ant. v. 1. 1. Bell. Jud. iv. 7. 6.) and lay according to him about GO stadia or furlongs from the Jordan. Numb, xxxiii. 49. comp. xxii. 1. It is more frequently called Shittim alone, Numb. xv. 1. Josh. ii. 1. Micah vi. 5. Eusebius says, it was in the neighborhood of mount Peor. Moses encamped at Abel-Shiltim before the Israel- ites passed the Jordan, under J oshua. Here, seduced by Balak, they fell into idolatry, and worshipped Baal-Peor ; on account of which God severely punished them by the hands of the Levites, chap. XXV.


ABELA, see Abila.


ABEZ, a city of Issachar, Josh. xix. 20.


ABGAR, a king of Edessa, and of the district Os- rhoene, the seventeenth of the twenty kings who bore this name, and contemporary with Christ. The name does not occur in Scripture, but is celebrated in ecclesiastical history, on account of the corres- pondence which is said to have passed between him and Christ. The legend is, that Abgar wrote to the Saviour, requesting him to come and heal him of the leprosy ; to which Christ replied, that he could not come to him, but would send one of his disciples. Accordingly he is said to have sent Thaddeus. Both letters are apocryphal, and may be found in Fabric. Codex Apoc. N. T. p. 317. See also the quarto ed. of Cahnet. R.


ABI, mother of Hezekiah, king of Judah ; (2 Kings xviii. 2.) called Abijah, 2 Chron. xxix. 1.


ABIA, in the N. T. the same as Abijah in the O. T. which see. AB1AH, second son of Samuel. Being intrusted with the administration of justice, he behaved ill, and induced the people to require a king, 1 Sam. viii. 2.


ABIATHAR, son of Ahiinelech, and high-priest of the Jews. When Saul sent his emissaries to Nob, to destroy all the priests there, Abiathar, who was young, fled to David in the wilderness, (1 Sam. xxii. 11, seq.) with whom he continued in the character of high-priest. Saul, it would appear, transferred the dignity of the high-priesthood from Ithamar's family to that of Eleazar, by conferring the office upon Zadok. Thus there were, at the same time, two high-priests in Israel ; Abiathar with David, and Zadok with Saul. This double priesthood continued from the death of Ahimelech till the reign of Solo- mon ; when Abiathar, attaching himself to Adonijah, was deprived by Solomon of his priesthood, 1 Kings ii. 27. The race of Zadok alone exercised this min- istry during and after the reign of Solomon, exclud- ing the family of Ithamar, according to the prediction made to Eli the high-priest, 1 Sam. iii. 11, &c. difficulty arises from the circumstance, that in 1 Kings ii. 27, Abiathar is said to be deprived of the priest's office by Solomon ; while in 2 Sam. viii. 17, 1 Chron. xviii. 16, xxiv. 3, 6, 31, Ahimelech the son of Abiathar is said to be high-priest along with Zadok. The most probable solution is, that both father and son each bore the two names Ahimelech and Abiathar ; as was not at all unusual among the Jews. (See one example under Abigail.) In this way also we may remove the difficulty arising from Mark ii. 26, where Abiathar is said to have given David the shew bread, in allusion to 1 Sam. xxi. 1 seq. where it is Ahimelech. — Others suppose the passage in Mark to be merely a Jewish mode of quotation, as if from the "History of Abiathar." This, however, does not remove the other difficulty mentioned above ; and there are also other objections to it, arising from the Greek idiom. See Kuinoel. Comm. II. p. 29. R. B I AB1


ABIB, llie first mouth of the ecclesiastical year of die Hebrews ; afterwards called Nisan. It answered to our March, or part of April. Abib signifies green ears of corn, or fresh fruits. It was so named, be- cause corn, particularly barley, was in ear at that time. It was an early custom to name times, such as months, from observation of nature ; and the cus- tom is still in use among many nations. So it was with our Saxon ancestors ; and the Germans to this day, along with the usual Latin names of the months, have also others of the above character : e. g. June is also called Brachmonath, or month for ploughing ; July, Heumonath, or Hay-month ; November, Wind- monath, or Wind-month, &c. See Month, and the Jewish Calendar.

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