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ARSMETRIKE Ars`metrike, n. Etym: [An erroneous form of arithmetic, as if from L. ars metrica the measuring art.] Defn: Arithmetic. [Obs.] Chaucer.


ARSON Arson, n. Etym: [OF. arson, arsun, fr. L. ardere, arsum, to burn.] (Law) Defn: The malicious burning of a dwelling house or outhouse of another man, which by the common law is felony; the malicious and voluntary firing of a building or ship. Wharton. Note: The definition of this crime is varied by statues in different countries and states. The English law of arson has been considerably modified in the United States; in some of the States it has been materially enlarged, while in others, various degrees of arson have been established, with corresponding punishment. Burrill.


ART Art. Defn: The second person singular, indicative mode, present tense, of the substantive verb Be; but formed after the analogy of the plural are, with the ending -t, as in thou shalt, wilt, orig. an ending of the second person sing. pret. Cf. Be. Now used only in solemn or poetical style.


ART Art, n. Etym: [F. art, L. ars, artis, orig., skill in joining or fitting; prob. akin to E. arm, aristocrat, article.] 1. The employment of means to accomplish some desired end; the adaptation of things in the natural world to the uses of life; the application of knowledge or power to practical purposes. Blest with each grace of nature and of art. Pope. 2. A system of rules serving to facilitate the performance of certain actions; a system of principles and rules for attaining a desired end; method of doing well some special work; -- often contradistinguished from science or speculative principles; as, the art of building or engraving; the art of war; the art of navigation. Science is systematized knowledge . . . Art is knowledge made efficient by skill. J. F. Genung. 3. The systematic application of knowledge or skill in effecting a desired result. Also, an occupation or business requiring such knowledge or skill. The fishermen can't employ their art with so much success in so troubled a sea. Addison. 4. The application of skill to the production of the beautiful by imitation or design, or an occupation in which skill is so employed, as in painting and sculpture; one of the fine arts; as, he prefers art to literature. 5. pl. Defn: Those branches of learning which are taught in the academical course of colleges; as, master of arts. In fearless youth we tempt the heights of arts. Pope. Four years spent in the arts (as they are called in colleges) is, perhaps, laying too laborious a foundation. Goldsmith. 6. Learning; study; applied knowledge, science, or letters. [Archaic] So vast is art, so narrow human wit. Pope. 7. Skill, dexterity, or the power of performing certain actions, asquired by experience, study, or observation; knack; a, a man has the art of managing his business to advantage. 8. Skillful plan; device. They employed every art to soothe . . . the discontented warriors. Macaulay. 9. Cunning; artifice; craft. Madam, I swear I use no art at all. Shak. Animals practice art when opposed to their superiors in strength. Crabb. 10 10 Defn: To black art; magic. [Obs.] Shak. Art and part (Scots Law), share or concern by aiding and abetting a criminal in the perpetration of a crime, whether by advice or by assistance in the execution; complicity. Note: The arts are divided into various classes. The useful, mechanical, or industrial arts are those in which the hands and body are concerned than the mind; as in making clothes and utensils. These are called trades. The fine arts are those which have primarily to do with imagination taste, and are applied to the production of what is beautiful. They include poetry, music, painting, engraving, sculpture, and architecture; but the term is often confined to painting, sculpture, and architecture. The liberal arts (artes liberales, the higher arts, which, among the Romans, only freemen were permitted to pursue) were, in the Middle Ages, these seven branches of learning, -- grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. In modern times the liberal arts include the sciences, philosophy, history, etc., which compose the course of academical or collegiate education. Hence, degrees in the arts; master and bachelor of arts. In America, literature and the elegant arts must grow up side by side with the coarser plants of daily necessity. Irving. Syn. -- Science; literature; aptitude; readiness; skill; dexterity; adroitness; contrivance; profession; business; trade; calling; cunning; artifice; duplicity. See Science.


ART UNION Art` union. Defn: An association for promoting art (esp. the arts of design), and giving encouragement to artists.


ARTEMIA Ar*temi*a, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo?l.) Defn: A genus of phyllopod Crustacea found in salt lakes and brines; the brine shrimp. See Brine shrimp.


ARTEMISIA Ar`te*misi*a, n. Etym: [L. Artemisia, Gr. (Bot.) Defn: A genus of plants including the plants called mugwort, southernwood, and wormwood. Of these A. absinthium, or common wormwood, is well known, and A. tridentata is the sage brush of the Rocky Mountain region.


ARTERIAC Ar*teri*ac, a. Etym: [L. arteriacus, Gr. Artery.] Defn: Of or pertaining to the windpipe.


ARTERIAL Ar*teri*al, a. Etym: [Cf. F. art?riel.] 1. Of or pertaining to an artery, or the arteries; as, arterial action; the arterial system. 2. Of or pertaining to a main channel (resembling an artery), as a river, canal, or railroad. Arterial blood, blood which has been changed and vitalized (arterialized) during passage through the lungs.


ARTERIALIZATION Ar*te`ri*al*i*zation, n. (Physiol.) Defn: The process of converting venous blood into arterial blood during its passage through the lungs, oxygen being absorbed and carbonic acid evolved; -- called also a?ration and hematosis.


ARTERIALIZE Ar*teri*al*ize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Arterialized; p. pr. & vb. n. Arterializing.] Defn: To transform, as the venous blood, into arterial blood by exposure to oxygen in the lungs; to make arterial.


ARTERIOGRAPHY Ar*te`ri*ogra*phy, n. Etym: [Gr. -graphy.] Defn: A systematic description of the arteries.


ARTERIOLE Ar*teri*ole, n. Etym: [NL. arteriola, dim. of L. arteria: cf. F. art?riole.] Defn: A small artery.


ARTERIOLOGY Ar*te`ri*olo*gy, n. Etym: [Gr. -logy.] Defn: That part of anatomy which treats of arteries.


ARTERIOSCLEROSIS Ar*te`ri*o*scle*rosis (?r*te`ri*o*skle*rosis), n. [Gr. 'arthri`a artery + sclerosis.] (Med.) Defn: Abnormal thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries, esp. of the intima, occurring mostly in old age. -- Ar*te`ri*o*scle*rotic (#), a.


ARTERIOTOMY Ar*te`ri*oto*my, n. Etym: [L. arteriotomia, Gr. 1. (Med.) Defn: The opening of an artery, esp. for bloodletting. 2. That part of anatomy which treats of the dissection of the arteries.


ARTERITIS Ar`te*ritis, n. Etym: [Artery + -etis.] Defn: Inflammation of an artery or arteries. Dunglison.


ARTERY Arter*y, n.; pl. Artplwies. Etym: [L. arteria windpipe, artery, Gr. 1. The trachea or windpipe. [Obs.] Under the artery, or windpipe, is the mouth of the stomach. Holland. 2. (Anat.) Defn: One of the vessels or tubes which carry either venous or arterial blood from the heart. They have tricker and more muscular walls than veins, and are connected with them by capillaries. Note: In man and other mammals, the arteries which contain arterialized blood receive it from the left ventricle of the heart through the aorta. See Aorta. The pulmonary artery conveys the venous blood from the right ventricle to the lungs, whence the arterialized blood is returned through the pulmonary veins. 3. Hence: Any continuous or ramified channel of communication; as, arteries of trade or commerce.


ARTESIAN Ar*tesian, a. Etym: [F. art?sien, fr. Artois in France, where many such wells have been made since the middle of the last century.] Defn: Of or pertaining to Artois (anciently called Artesium), in France. Artesian wells, wells made by boring into the earth till the instrument reaches water, which, from internal pressure, flows spontaneously like a fountain. They are usually of small diameter and often of great depth.


ARTFUL Artful, a. Etym: [From Art.] 1. Performed with, or characterized by, art or skill. [Archaic] Artful strains. Artful terms. Milton. 2. Artificial; imitative. Addison. 3. Using or exhibiting much art, skill, or contrivance; dexterous; skillful. He [was] too artful a writer to set down events in exact historical order. Dryden. 4. Cunning; disposed to cunning indirectness of dealing; crafty; as, an artful boy. [The usual sense.] Artful in speech, in action, and in mind. Pope. The artful revenge of various animals. Darwin. Syn. -- Cunning; skillful; adroit; dexterous; crafty; tricky; deceitful; designing. See Cunning.


ARTFULLY Artful*ly, adv. Defn: In an artful manner; with art or cunning; skillfully; dexterously; craftily.


ARTFULNESS Artful*ness, n. Defn: The quality of being artful; art; cunning; craft.


ARTHEN Arthen, a. Defn: Same as Earthen. [Obs.] An arthen pot. Holland.


ARTHRITIC; ARTHRITICAL Ar*thritic, Ar*thritic*al, a. Etym: [L. arthriticus, Gr. Arthritis.] 1. Pertaining to the joints. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne. 2. Of or pertaining to arthritis; gouty. Cowper.


ARTHRITIS Ar*thritis, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. (Med.) Defn: Any inflammation of the joints, particularly the gout.


ARTHROCHONDRITIS Ar`thro*chon*dritis, n. [NL.] (Med.) Defn: Chondritis of a joint.


ARTHRODERM Arthro*derm, n. Etym: [Gr. 'derm.] (Zo?l.) Defn: The external covering of an Arthropod.


ARTHRODESIS Ar*throde*sis, n. [NL., fr. Gr. joint + a binding together.] (Surg.) Defn: Surgical fixation of joints.


ARTHRODIA Ar*throdi*a, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) Defn: A form of diarthrodial articulation in which the articular surfaces are nearly flat, so that they form only an imperfect ball and socket.


ARTHRODIAL; ARTHRODIC Ar*throdi*al, Ar*throdic, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to arthrodia.


ARTHRODYNIA Ar`thro*dyni*a, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) Defn: An affection characterized by pain in or about a joint, not dependent upon structural disease.


ARTHRODYNIC Ar`thro*dynic, a. Defn: Pertaining to arthrodynia, or pain in the joints; rheumatic.


ARTHROGASTRA Ar`thro*gastra, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo?l.) Defn: A division of the Arachnida, having the abdomen annulated, including the scorpions, harvestmen, etc.; pedipalpi.


ARTHROGRAPHY Ar*throgra*phy, n. Etym: [Gr. -graphy.] Defn: The description of joints.


ARTHROLOGY Ar*throlo*gy, n. Etym: [Gr. -logy.] Defn: That part of anatomy which treats of joints.


ARTHROMERE Arthro*mere, n. Etym: [Gr. -mere.] (Zo?l.) Defn: One of the body segments of Arthropods. See Arthrostraca. Packard.


ARTHROPATHY Ar*thropa*thy, n. [Gr. joint + , , to suffer.] (Med.) Defn: Any disease of the joints.


ARTHROPLEURA Ar`thro*pleura, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo?l.) Defn: The side or limb-bearing portion of an arthromere.


ARTHROPOD Arthro*pod, n (Zo?l.) Defn: One of the Arthropoda.


ARTHROPODA Ar*thropo*da, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. -poda.] (Zo?l.) Defn: A large division of Articulata, embracing all those that have jointed legs. It includes Insects, Arachnida, Pychnogonida, and Crustacea. -- Ar*thropo*dal, a.


ARTHROPOMATA Ar`thro*poma*ta, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo?l.) Defn: One of the orders of Branchiopoda. See Branchiopoda.


ARTHROSIS Ar*throsis, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) Defn: Articulation.


ARTHROSPORE Arthro*spore, n. [Gr. joint + E. spore.] (Bacteriol.) Defn: A bacterial resting cell, -- formerly considered a spore, but now known to occur even in endosporous bacteria. -- Ar`thro*sporic (#), Ar*throspo*rous (#), a.


ARTHROSTRACA Ar*throstra*ca, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo?l.) Defn: One of the larger divisions of Crustacea, so called because the thorax and abdomen are both segmented; Tetradecapoda. It includes the Amphipoda and Isopoda.


ARTHROTOME Arthro*tome, n. [Gr. joint + to cut.] (Surg.) Defn: A strong scalpel used in the dissection of joints.


ARTHROZOIC Ar`thro*zoic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Zo?l.) Defn: Of or pertaining to the Articulata; articulate.


ARTHURIAN Ar*thuri*an, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to King Arthur or his knights. J. R. Symonds. In magnitude, in interest, and as a literary origin, the Arthurian invention dwarfs all other things in the book. Saintsbury.


ARTIAD Arti*ad, a. Etym: [Gr. (Chem.) Defn: Even; not odd; -- said of elementary substances and of radicals the valence of which is divisible by two without a remainder.


ARTICHOKE Arti*choke, n. Etym: [It. articioc, perh. corrupted fr. the same word as carciofo; cf. older spellings archiciocco, archicioffo, carciocco, and Sp. alcachofa, Pg. alcachofra; prob. fr. Ar. al- harshaf, al-kharsh.] (Bot.) 1. The Cynara scolymus, a plant somewhat resembling a thistle, with a dilated, imbricated, and prickly involucre. The head (to which the name is also applied) is composed of numerous oval scales, inclosing the florets, sitting on a broad receptacle, which, with the fleshy base of the scales, is much esteemed as an article of food. 2. See Jerusalem artichoke.


ARTICLE Arti*cle, n. Etym: [F., fr. L. articulus, dim. of artus joint, akin to Gr. ar to join, fit. See Art, n.] 1. A distinct portion of an instrument, discourse, literary work, or any other writing, consisting of two or more particulars, or treating of various topics; as, an article in the Constitution. Hence: A clause in a contract, system of regulations, treaty, or the like; a term, condition, or stipulation in a contract; a concise statement; as, articles of agreement. 2. A literary composition, forming an independent portion of a magazine, newspaper, or cyclopedia. 3. Subject; matter; concern; distinct. [Obs.] A very great revolution that happened in this article of good breeding. Addison. This last article will hardly be believed. De Foe. 4. A distinct part. Upon each article of human duty. Paley. Each article of time. Habington. The articles which compose the blood. E. Darwin. 5. A particular one of various things; as, an article of merchandise; salt is a necessary article. They would fight not for articles of faith, but for articles of food. Landor. 6. Precise point of time; moment. [Obs. or Archaic] This fatal news coming to Hick's Hall upon the article of my Lord Russell's trial, was said to have had no little influence on the jury and all the bench to his prejudice. Evelyn. 7. (Gram.) Defn: One of the three words, a, an, the, used before nouns to limit or define their application. A (or an) is called the indefinite article, the the definite article. 8. (Zo?l.) Defn: One of the segments of an articulated appendage. Articles of Confederation, the compact which was first made by the original thirteen States of the United States. They were adopted March 1, 1781, and remained the supreme law until March, 1789. -- Articles of impeachment, an instrument which, in cases of impeachment, performs the same office which an indictment does in a common criminal case. -- Articles of war, rules and regulations, fixed by law, for the better government of the army. -- In the article of death Etym: [L. in articulo mortis], at the moment of death; in the dying struggle. -- Lords of the articles (Scot. Hist.), a standing committee of the Scottish Parliament to whom was intrusted the drafting and preparation of the acts, or bills for laws. -- The Thirty-nine Articles, statements (thirty-nine in number) of the tenets held by the Church of England.


ARTICLE Arti*cle, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Articled; p. pr. & vb. n. Articling.] Etym: [Cf. F. articuler, fr. L. articulare. See Article, n., Articulate.] 1. To formulate in articles; to set forth in distinct particulars. If all his errors and follies were articled against him, the man would seem vicious and miserable. Jer. Taylor. 2. To accuse or charge by an exhibition of articles. He shall be articled against in the high court of admiralty. Stat. 33 Geo. III. 3. To bind by articles of covenant or stipulation; as, to article an apprentice to a mechanic.


ARTICLE Arti*cle, v. i. Defn: To agree by articles; to stipulate; to bargain; to covenant. [R.] Then he articled with her that he should go away when he pleased. Selden.


ARTICLED Arti*cled, a. Defn: Bound by articles; apprenticed; as, an articled clerk.


ARTICULAR Ar*ticu*lar, a. Etym: [L. articularis: cf. F. articulaire. See Article, n.] Defn: Of or pertaining to the joints; as, an articular disease; an articular process.


ARTICULAR; ARTICULARY Ar*ticu*lar, Ar*ticu*la*ry, n. (Anat.) Defn: A bone in the base of the lower jaw of many birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.


ARTICULARLY Ar*ticu*lar*ly, adv. Defn: In an articular or an articulate manner.


ARTICULATA Ar*tic`u*lata, n. pl. Etym: [Neut. pl. from L. articulatus furnished with joints, distinct, p. p. of articulare. See Article, v.] (Zo?l.) 1. One of the four subkingdoms in the classification of Cuvier. It has been much modified by later writers. Note: It includes those Invertebrata having the body composed of ringlike segments (arthromeres). By some writers, the unsegmented worms (helminths) have also been included; by others it is restricted to the Arthropoda. It corresponds nearly with the Annulosa of some authors. The chief subdivisions are Arthropoda (Insects, Myriapoda, Arachnida, Pycnogonida, Crustacea); and Anarthropoda, including the Annelida and allied forms. 2. One of the subdivisions of the Brachiopoda, including those that have the shells united by a hinge. 3. A subdivision of the Crinoidea.


ARTICULATE Ar*ticu*late, a. Etym: [L. articulatus. See Articulata.] 1. Expressed in articles or in separate items or particulars. [Archaic] Bacon. 2. Jointed; formed with joints; consisting of segments united by joints; as, articulate animals or plants. 3. Distinctly uttered; spoken so as to be intelligible; characterized by division into words and syllables; as, articulate speech, sounds, words. Total changes of party and articulate opinion. Carlyle.


ARTICULATE Ar*ticu*late, n. (Zo?l.) Defn: An animal of the subkingdom Articulata.


ARTICULATE Ar*ticu*late, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Articulated; p. pr. & vb. n. Articulating]. 1. To utter articulate sounds; to utter the elementary sounds of a language; to enunciate; to speak distinctly. 2. To treat or make terms. [Obs.] Shak. 3. To join or be connected by articulation.


ARTICULATE Ar*ticu*late, v. t. 1. To joint; to unite by means of a joint; to put together with joints or at the joints. 2. To draw up or write in separate articles; to particularize; to specify. [Obs.] 3. To form, as the elementary sounds; to utter in distinct syllables or words; to enunciate; as, to articulate letters or language. To articulate a word. Ray. 4. To express distinctly; to give utterance to. Luther articulated himself upon a process that hand already begun in the Christian church. Bibliotheca Sacra. To . . . articulate the dumb, deep want of the people. Carlyle.


ARTICULATED Ar*ticu*la`ted, a. 1. United by, or provided with, articulations; jointed; as, an articulated skeleton. 2. Produced, as a letter, syllable, or word, by the organs of speech; pronounced.


ARTICULATELY Ar*ticu*late*ly, adv. 1. After the manner, or in the form, of a joint. 2. Article by article; in distinct particulars; in detail; definitely. Paley. I had articulately set down in writing our points. Fuller. 3. With distinct utterance of the separate sounds.


ARTICULATENESS Ar*ticu*late*ness, n. Defn: Quality of being articulate.


ARTICULATION Ar*tic`u*lation, n. Etym: [Cf. F. articulation, fr. L. articulatio.] 1. (Anat.) Defn: A joint or juncture between bones in the skeleton. Note: Articulations may be immovable, when the bones are directly united (synarthrosis), or slightly movable, when they are united intervening substance (amphiarthrosis), or they may be more or less freely movable, when the articular surfaces are covered with synovial membranes, as in complete joints (diarthrosis). The last (diarthrosis) includes hinge joints, admitting motion in one plane only (ginglymus), ball and socket joints (enarthrosis), pivot and rotation joints, etc. 2. (Bot.) (a) The connection of the parts of a plant by joints, as in pods. (b) One of the nodes or joints, as in cane and maize. (c) One of the parts intercepted between the joints; also, a subdivision into parts at regular or irregular intervals as a result of serial intermission in growth, as in the cane, grasses, etc. Lindley. 3. The act of putting together with a joint or joints; any meeting of parts in a joint. 4. The state of being jointed; connection of parts. [R.] That definiteness and articulation of imagery. Coleridge. 5. The utterance of the elementary sounds of a language by the appropriate movements of the organs, as in pronunciation; as, a distinct articulation. 6. A sound made by the vocal organs; an articulate utterance or an elementary sound, esp. a consonant.


ARTICULATIVE Ar*ticu*la*tive, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to articulation. Bush.


ARTICULATOR Ar*ticu*la`tor, n. Defn: One who, or that which, articulates; as: (a) One who enunciates distinctly. (b) One who prepares and mounts skeletons. (c) An instrument to cure stammering.


ARTICULUS Ar*ticu*lus n.; pl. Articuli. Etym: [L. See Article.] (Zo?l.) Defn: A joint of the cirri of the Crinoidea; a joint or segment of an arthropod appendage.


ARTIFACT Arti*fact, n. [L. ars, artis, art + facere, factum, to make.] 1. (Arch?ol.) Defn: A product of human workmanship; -- applied esp. to the simpler products of aboriginal art as distinguished from natural objects. 2. (Biol.) A structure or appearance in protoplasm due to death or the use of reagents and not present during life.


ARTIFICE Arti*fice, n. Etym: [L. artificium, fr. artifex artificer; ars, artis, art + facere to make: cf. F. artifice.] 1. A handicraft; a trade; art of making. [Obs.] 2. Workmanship; a skillfully contrived work. The material universe.. in the artifice of God, the artifice of the best Mechanist. Cudworth. 3. Artful or skillful contrivance. His [Congreve's] plots were constructed without much artifice. Craik. 4. Crafty device; an artful, ingenious, or elaborate trick. Note: [Now the usual meaning.] Those who were conscious of guilt employed numerous artifices for the purpose of averting inquiry. Macaulay.


ARTIFICER Ar*tifi*cer, n. Etym: [Cf. F. artificier, fr. LL. artificiarius.] 1. An artistic worker; a mechanic or manufacturer; one whose occupation requires skill or knowledge of a particular kind, as a silversmith. 2. One who makes or contrives; a deviser, inventor, or framer. Artificer of fraud. Milton. The great Artificer of all that moves. Cowper. 3. A cunning or artful fellow. [Obs.] B. Jonson. 4. (Mil.) Defn: A military mechanic, as a blacksmith, carpenter, etc.; also, one who prepares the shells, fuses, grenades, etc., in a military laboratory. Syn. -- Artisan; artist. See Artisan.


ARTIFICIAL Ar`ti*ficial, a. Etym: [L. artificialis, fr. artificium: cf. F. artificiel. See Artifice.] 1. Made or contrived by art; produced or modified by human skill and labor, in opposition to natural; as, artificial heat or light, gems, salts, minerals, fountains, flowers. Artificial strife Lives in these touches, livelier than life. Shak. 2. Feigned; fictitious; assumed; affected; not genuine. Artificial tears. Shak. 3. Artful; cunning; crafty. [Obs.] Shak. 4. Cultivated; not indigenous; not of spontaneous growth; as, artificial grasses. Gibbon. Artificial arguments (Rhet.), arguments invented by the speaker, in distinction from laws, authorities, and the like, which are called inartificial arguments or proofs. Johnson. -- Artificial classification (Science), an arrangement based on superficial characters, and not expressing the true natural relations species; as, the artificial system in botany, which is the same as the Linn?an system. -- Artificial horizon. See under Horizon. Artificial light, any light other than that which proceeds from the heavenly bodies. -- Artificial lines, lines on a sector or scale, so contrived as to represent the logarithmic sines and tangents, which, by the help of the line of numbers, solve, with tolerable exactness, questions in trigonometry, navigation, etc. -- Artificial numbers, logarithms. -- Artificial person (Law). See under Person. -- Artificial sines, tangents, etc., the same as logarithms of the natural, tangents, etc. Hutton.


ARTIFICIALITY Ar`ti*fi`ci*ali*ty, n. Defn: The quality or appearance of being artificial; that which is artificial.


ARTIFICIALIZE Ar`ti*ficial*ize, v. t. Defn: To render artificial.


ARTIFICIALLY Ar`ti*ficial*ly, adv. 1. In an artificial manner; by art, or skill and contrivance, not by nature. 2. Ingeniously; skillfully. [Obs.] The spider's web, finely and artificially wrought. Tillotson. 3. Craftily; artfully. [Obs.] Sharp dissembled so artificially. Bp. Burnet.


ARTIFICIALNESS Ar`ti*ficial*ness, n. Defn: The quality of being artificial.


ARTIFICIOUS Ar`ti*ficious, a. Etym: [L. artificiosus.] Defn: Artificial. [Obs.] Johnson.


ARTILIZE Arti*lize, v. t. Defn: To make resemble. [Obs.] If I was a philosopher, says Montaigne, I would naturalize art instead of artilizing nature. Bolingbroke.


ARTILLERIST Ar*tiller*ist, n. Defn: A person skilled in artillery or gunnery; a gunner; an artilleryman.


ARTILLERY Ar*tiller*y, n. Etym: [OE. artilrie, OF. artillerie, arteillerie, fr. LL. artillaria, artilleria, machines and apparatus of all kinds used in war, vans laden with arms of any kind which follow camps; F. artillerie great guns, ordnance; OF. artillier to work artifice, to fortify, to arm, prob. from L. ars, artis, skill in joining something, art. See Art.] 1. Munitions of war; implements for warfare, as slings, bows, and arrows. [Obs.] And Jonathan gave his artillery unto his lad. 1 Sam. xx. 40. 2. Cannon; great guns; ordnance, including guns, mortars, howitzers, etc., with their equipment of carriages, balls, bombs, and shot of all kinds. Note: The word is sometimes used in a more extended sense, including the powder, cartridges, matches, utensils, machines of all kinds, and horses, that belong to a train of artillery. 3. The men and officers of that branch of the army to which the care and management of artillery are confided. 4. The science of artillery or gunnery. Campbell. Artillery park, or Park of artillery. (a) A collective body of siege or field artillery, including the guns, and the carriages, ammunition, appurtenances, equipments, and persons necessary for working them. (b) The place where the artillery is encamped or collected. -- Artillery train, or Train of artillery, a number of pieces of ordnance mounted on carriages, with all their furniture, ready for marching.


ARTILLERY WHEEL Ar*tiller*y wheel. Defn: A kind of heavily built dished wheel with a long axle box, used on gun carriages, usually having 14 spokes and 7 felloes; hence, a wheel of similar construction for use on automobiles, etc.


ARTILLERYMAN Ar*tiller*y*man, n. Defn: A man who manages, or assists in managing, a large gun in firing.


ARTIODACTYLA Ar`ti*o*dacty*la, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo?l.) Defn: One of the divisions of the ungulate animals. The functional toes of the hind foot are even in number, and the third digit of each foot (corresponding to the middle finger in man) is asymmetrical and paired with the fourth digit, as in the hog, the sheep, and the ox; - - opposed to Perissodactyla.


ARTIODACTYLE Ar`ti*o*dactyle, n. (Zo?l.) Defn: One of the Artiodactyla.


ARTIODACTYLOUS Ar`ti*o*dacty*lous, a. (Zo?l.) Defn: Even-toed.


ARTISAN Arti*san, n. Etym: [F. artisan, fr. L. artitus skilled in arts, fr. ars, artis, art: cf. It. artigiano. See Art, n.] 1. One who professes and practices some liberal art; an artist. [Obs.] 2. One trained to manual dexterity in some mechanic art or trade; and handicraftsman; a mechanic. This is willingly submitted to by the artisan, who can . . . compensate his additional toil and fatigue. Hume. Syn. -- Artificer; artist. -- Artisan, Artist, Artificer. An artist is one who is skilled in some one of the fine arts; an artisan is one who exercises any mechanical employment. A portrait painter is an artist; a sign painter is an artisan, although he may have the taste and skill of an artist. The occupation of the former requires a fine taste and delicate manipulation; that of the latter demands only an ordinary degree of contrivance and imitative power. An artificer is one who requires power of contrivance and adaptation in the exercise of his profession. The word suggest neither the idea of mechanical conformity to rule which attaches to the term artisan, nor the ideas of refinement and of peculiar skill which belong to the term artist.


ARTIST Artist, n. Etym: [F. artiste, LL. artista, fr. L. ars. See Art, n., and cf. Artiste.] 1. One who practices some mechanic art or craft; an artisan. [Obs.] How to build ships, and dreadful ordnance cast, Instruct the articles and reward their. Waller. 2. One who professes and practices an art in which science and taste preside over the manual execution. Note: The term is particularly applied to painters, sculptors, musicians, engravers, and architects. Elmes. 3. One who shows trained skill or rare taste in any manual art or occupation. Pope. 4. An artful person; a schemer. [Obs.] Syn. -- Artisan. See Artisan.


ARTISTE Ar*tiste, n. Etym: [F. See Artist.] Defn: One peculiarly dexterous and tasteful in almost any employment, as an opera dancer, a hairdresser, a cook. Note: This term should not be confounded with the English word artist.


ARTISTIC; ARTISTICAL Ar*tistic, Ar*tistic*al, a. Etym: [Cf. F. artistique, fr. artiste.] Defn: Of or pertaining to art or to artists; made in the manner of an artist; conformable to art; characterized by art; showing taste or skill. -- Ar*tistic*al*ly, adv.


ARTISTRY Artist*ry, n. 1. Works of art collectively. 2. Artistic effect or quality. Southey. 3. Artistic pursuits; artistic ability. The Academy.


ARTLESS Artless, a. 1. Wanting art, knowledge, or skill; ignorant; unskillful. Artless of stars and of the moving sand. Dryden. 2. Contrived without skill or art; inartistic. [R.] Artless and massy pillars. T. Warton. 3. Free from guile, art, craft, or stratagem; characterized by simplicity and sincerity; sincere; guileless; ingenuous; honest; as, an artless mind; an artless tale. They were plain, artless men, without the least appearance of enthusiasm or credulity about them. Porteus. O, how unlike the complex works of man, Heaven's easy, artless, unencumbered plan! Cowper. Syn. -- Simple; unaffected; sincere; undesigning; guileless; unsophisticated; open; frank; candid.


ARTLESSLY Artless*ly, adv. Defn: In an artless manner; without art, skill, or guile; unaffectedly. Pope.


ARTLESSNESS Artless*ness, n. Defn: The quality of being artless, or void of art or guile; simplicity; sincerity.


ARTLY Artly, adv. Defn: With art or skill. [Obs.]


ARTOCARPEOUS; ARTOCARPOUS Ar`to*carpe*ous, Ar`to*carpous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.) Defn: Of or pertaining to the breadfruit, or to the genus Artocarpus.


ARTOTYPE Arto*type, n. Etym: [Art + type.] Defn: A kind of autotype.


ARTOTYRITE Ar`to*tyrite, n. Etym: [LL. Artotyritae, pl., fr. Gr. (Eccl. Hist.) Defn: One of a sect in the primitive church, who celebrated the Lord's Supper with bread and cheese, alleging that the first oblations of men not only of the fruit of the earth, but of their flocks. [Gen. iv. 3, 4.]


ARTOW Artow. Defn: A contraction of art thou. [Obs.] Chaucer.


ARTSMAN Artsman, n. Defn: A man skilled in an art or in arts. [Obs.] Bacon.


ARUM Arum, n. Etym: [L. arum, aros, Gr. Defn: A genus of plants found in central Europe and about the Mediterranean, having flowers on a spadix inclosed in a spathe. The cuckoopint of the English is an example. Our common arums the lords and ladies of village children. Lubbock. Note: The American Jack in the pulpit is now separated from the genus Arum.

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