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APPURTENANCE Ap*purte*nance, n. Etym: [OF. apurtenaunce, apartenance, F. appartenance, LL. appartenentia, from L. appertinere. See Appertain.] Defn: That which belongs to something else; an adjunct; an appendage; an accessory; something annexed to another thing more worthy; in common parlance and legal acceptation, something belonging to another thing as principal, and which passes as incident to it, as a right of way, or other easement to land; a right of common to pasture, an outhouse, barn, garden, or orchard, to a house or messuage. In a strict legal sense, land can never pass as an appurtenance to land. Tomlins. Bouvier. Burrill. Globes . . . provided as appurtenances to astronomy. Bacon. The structure of the eye, and of its appurtenances. Reid.


APPURTENANT Ap*purte*nant, a. Etym: [F. appartenant, p. pr. of appartenir. See Appurtenance.] Defn: Annexed or pertaining to some more important thing; accessory; incident; as, a right of way appurtenant to land or buildings. Blackstone. Common appurtenatn. (Law) See under Common, n.


APPURTENANT Ap*purte*nant, n, Defn: Something which belongs or appertains to another thing; an appurtenance. Mysterious appurtenants and symbols of redemption. Coleridge.


APRICATE Apri*cate, v. t. & i. Etym: [L. apricatus, p. p. of apricare, fr. apricus exposed to the sun, fr. aperire to uncover, open.] Defn: To bask in the sun. Boyle.


APRICATION Ap`ri*cation, n. Defn: Basking in the sun. [R.]


APRICOT Apri*cot, n. Etym: [OE. apricock, abricot, F. abricot, fr. Sp. albaricoque or Pg. albricoque, fr. Ar. albirq, al-burq. Though the E. and F. form abricot is derived from the Arabic through the Spanish, yet the Arabic word itself was formed from the Gr. praecoquus, praecox, early ripe. The older E. form apricock was prob. taken direct from Pg. See Precocious, Cook.] (Bot.) Defn: A fruit allied to the plum, of an orange color, oval shape, and delicious taste; also, the tree (Prunus Armeniaca of Linn?us) which bears this fruit. By cultivation it has been introduced throughout the temperate zone.


APRIL April, n. Etym: [L. Aprilis. OE. also Averil, F. Avril, fr. L. Aprilis.] 1. The fourth month of the year. 2. Fig.: With reference to April being the month in which vegetation begins to put forth, the variableness of its weather, etc. The April's her eyes; it is love's spring. Shak. April fool, one who is sportively imposed upon by others on the first day of April. A PRIORI A` pri*ori. Etym: [L. a (ab) + prior former.] 1. (Logic) Defn: Characterizing that kind of reasoning which deduces consequences from definitions formed, or principles assumed, or which infers effects from causes previously known; deductive or deductively. The reverse of a posteriori. 3. (Philos.) Defn: Applied to knowledge and conceptions assumed, or presupposed, as prior to experience, in order to make experience rational or possible. A priori, that is, form these necessities of the mind or forms of thinking, which, though first revealed to us by experience, must yet have pre?xisted in order to make experience possible. Coleridge.


APRIORISM A`pri*orism, n. Etym: [Cf. F. apriorisme.] Defn: An a priori principle.


APRIORITY A`pri*ori*ty, n. Defn: The quality of being innate in the mind, or prior to experience; a priori reasoning.


APROCTA A*procta, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo?l.) Defn: A group of Turbellaria in which there is no anal aperture.


APROCTOUS A*proctous, a. (Zo?l.) Defn: Without an anal office.


APRON Apron, n. Etym: [OE. napron, OF. naperon, F. napperon, dim. of OF. nape, F. nappe, cloth, tablecloth, LL. napa, fr. L. mappa, napkin, table napkin. See Map.] 1. An article of dress, of cloth, leather, or other stuff, worn on the fore part of the body, to keep the clothes clean, to defend them from injury, or as a covering. It is commonly tied at the waist by strings. 2. Something which by its shape or use suggests an apron; as, (a) The fat skin covering the belly of a goose or duck. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell. (b) A piece of leather, or other material, to be spread before a person riding on an outside seat of a vehicle, to defend him from the rain, snow, or dust; a boot. The weather being too hot for the apron. Hughes. (c) (Gun.) A leaden plate that covers the vent of a cannon. (d) (Shipbuilding) A piece of carved timber, just above the foremost end of the keel. Totten. (e) A platform, or flooring of plank, at the entrance of a dock, against which the dock gates are shut. (f) A flooring of plank before a dam to cause the water to make a gradual descent. (g) (Mech.) The piece that holds the cutting tool of a planer. (h) (Plumbing) A strip of lead which leads the drip of a wall into a gutter; a flashing. (i) (Zo?l.) The infolded abdomen of a crab.


APRON MAN Apron man`. Defn: A man who wears an apron; a laboring man; a mechanic. [Obs.] Shak.


APRON STRING Apron string`. Defn: The string of an apron. To be tied to a wife's or mother's apron strings, to be unduly controlled by a wife or mother. He was so made that he could not submit to be tied to the apron strings even of the best of wives. Macaulay.


APRONED Aproned, a. Defn: Wearing an apron. A cobbler aproned, and a parson gowned. Pope.


APRONFUL Apron*ful, n.; pl. Apronfuls. Defn: The quality an apron can hold.


APRONLESS Apron*less, a. Defn: Without an apron.


APROPOS Apro*pos`, a. & adv. Etym: [F. ad) + propos purpose, L. proposium plan, purpose, fr. proponere to propose. See Propound.] 1. Opportunely or opportune; seasonably or seasonable. A tale extremely apropos. Pope. 2. By the way; to the purpose; suitably to the place or subject; -- a word used to introduce an incidental observation, suited to the occasion, though not strictly belonging to the narration.


APSE Apse, n.; pl. Apses. [See Apsis.] 1. (Arch.) (a) A projecting part of a building, esp. of a church, having in the plan a polygonal or semicircular termination, and, most often, projecting from the east end. In early churches the Eastern apse was occupied by seats for the bishop and clergy. Hence: (b) The bishop's seat or throne, in ancient churches. 2. A reliquary, or case in which the relics of saints were kept. Note: This word is also written apsis and absis.


APSIDAL Apsi*dal, a. 1. (Astron.) Defn: Of or pertaining to the apsides of an orbit. 2. (Arch.) Defn: Of or pertaining to the apse of a church; as, the apsidal termination of the chancel.


APSIDES Apsi*des, n. pl. Defn: See Apsis.


APSIS Apsis, n.; pl. Apsides. See Apse. Etym: [L. apsis, absis, Gr. 1. (Astron.) Defn: One of the two points of an orbit, as of a planet or satellite, which are at the greatest and least distance from the central body, corresponding to the aphelion and perihelion of a planet, or to the apogee and perigee of the moon. The more distant is called the higher apsis; the other, the lower apsis; and the line joining them, the line of apsides. 2. (Math.) Defn: In a curve referred to polar co?rdinates, any point for which the radius vector is a maximum or minimum. 3. (Arch.) Defn: Same as Apse.


APT Apt, a Etym: [F. apte, L. aptus, fr. obsolete apere to fasten, to join, to fit, akin to apisci to reach, attain: cf. Gr. apta fit, fr. ap to reach attain.] 1. Fit or fitted; suited; suitable; appropriate. They have always apt instruments. Burke. A river . . . apt to be forded by a lamb. Jer. Taylor. 2. Having an habitual tendency; habitually liable or likely; -- used of things. My vines and peaches . . . were apt to have a soot or smuttiness upon their leaves and fruit. Temple. This tree, if unprotected, is apt to be stripped of the leaves by a leaf-cutting ant. Lubbock. 3. Inclined; disposed customarily; given; ready; -- used of persons. Apter to give than thou wit be to ask. Beau. & Fl. That lofty pity with which prosperous folk are apt to remember their grandfathers. F. Harrison. 4. Ready; especially fitted or qualified (to do something); quick to learn; prompt; expert; as, a pupil apt to learn; an apt scholar. An apt wit. Johnson. Live a thousand years, I shall not find myself so apt to die. Shak. I find thee apt . . . Now, Hamlet, hear. Shak. Syn. -- Fit; meet; suitable; qualified; inclined; disposed; liable; ready; quick; prompt.


APT Apt, v. t. Etym: [L. aptare. See Aptate.] Defn: To fit; to suit; to adapt. [Obs.] To apt their places. B. Jonson. That our speech be apted to edification. Jer. Taylor.


APTABLE Apta*ble, a. Etym: [LL. aptabilis, fr. L. aptare.] Defn: Capable of being adapted. [Obs.] Sherwood.


APTATE Aptate, v. t. Etym: [L. aptatus, p. p. of aptare. See Apt.] Defn: To make fit. [Obs.] Bailey


APTERA Apte*ra, n. pl. Etym: [NL. aptera, fr. Gr. (Zo?l.) Defn: Insects without wings, constituting the seventh Linn?n order of insects, an artificial group, which included Crustacea, spiders, centipeds, and even worms. These animals are now placed in several distinct classes and orders.


APTERAL Apter*al, a. 1. (Zo?l.) Defn: Apterous. 2. (Arch.) Defn: Without lateral columns; -- applied to buildings which have no series of columns along their sides, but are either prostyle or amphiprostyle, and opposed to peripteral. R. Cyc.


APTERAN Apter*an, n. (Zo?l.) Defn: One of the Aptera.


APTERIA Ap*teri*a, n. pl. Etym: [NL. See Aptera.] (Zo?l.) Defn: Naked spaces between the feathered areas of birds. See Pteryli?.


APTEROUS Apter*ous, a. 1. (Zo?l.) Defn: Destitute of wings; apteral; as, apterous insects. 2. (Bot.) Defn: Destitute of winglike membranous expansions, as a stem or petiole; -- opposed to atate.


APTERYGES Ap*tery*ges, n. pl. Etym: [NL. See Apteryx.] (Zo?l.) Defn: An order of birds, including the genus Apteryx.


APTERYX Apte*ryx, n. Etym: [Gr. Aptera.] (Zo?l.) Defn: A genus of New Zealand birds about the size of a hen, with only short rudiments of wings, armed with a claw and without a tail; the kiwi. It is allied to the gigantic extinct moas of the same country. Five species are known.


APTITUDE Apti*tude, n. Etym: [F. aptitude, LL. aptitudo, fr. L. aptus. See Apt, and cf. Attitude.] 1. A natural or acquired disposition or capacity for a particular purpose, or tendency to a particular action or effect; as, oil has an aptitude to burn. He seems to have had a peculiar aptitude for the management of irregular troops. Macaulay. 2. A general fitness or suitableness; adaptation. That sociable and helpful aptitude which God implanted between man and woman. Milton. 3. Readiness in learning; docility; aptness. He was a boy of remarkable aptitude. Macaulay.


APTITUDINAL Apt`i*tudi*nal, a. Defn: Suitable; fit. [Obs.]


APTLY Aptly, adv. Defn: In an apt or suitable manner; fitly; properly; pertinently; appropriately; readily.


APTNESS Aptness, n. 1. Fitness; suitableness; appropriateness; as, the aptness of things to their end. The aptness of his quotations. J. R. Green. 2. Disposition of the mind; propensity; as, the aptness of men to follow example. 3. Quickness of apprehension; readiness in learning; docility; as, an aptness to learn is more observable in some children than in others. 4. Proneness; tendency; as, the aptness of iron to rust.


APTOTE Aptote, n. Etym: [L. aptotum, Gr. (Gram.) Defn: A noun which has no distinction of cases; an indeclinable noun.


APTOTIC Ap*totic, a. Defn: Pertaining to, or characterized by, aptotes; uninflected; as, aptotic languages.


APTYCHUS Apty*chus, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo?l.) Defn: A shelly plate found in the terminal chambers of ammonite shells. Some authors consider them to be jaws; others, opercula.


APUS Apus, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. Apode, n.] (Zo?l.) Defn: A genus of fresh-water phyllopod crustaceans. See Phyllopod.


APYRETIC Ap`y*retic, a. Etym: [Pref. a not + pyretic.] (Med.) Defn: Without fever; -- applied to days when there is an intermission of fever. Dunglison.


APYREXIA; APYREXY Ap`y*rexi*a, Ap`y*rex`y, n. Etym: [NL. apyrexia, fr. Gr. apyrexie.] (Med.) Defn: The absence or intermission of fever.


APYREXIAL Ap`y*rexi*al, a. (Med.) Defn: Relating to apyrexy. Apyrexial period. Brande & C.


APYROUS Apy*rous, a. Etym: [Gr. Defn: Incombustible; capable of sustaining a strong heat without alteration of form or properties.


AQUA Aqua, n. Etym: [L. See Ewer.] Defn: Water; -- a word much used in pharmacy and the old chemistry, in various signification, determined by the word or words annexed. Aqua ammoni?, the aqueous solution of ammonia; liquid ammonia; often called aqua ammonia. -- Aqua marine, or Aqua marina. Same as Aquamarine. -- Aqua regia. Etym: [L., royal water] (Chem.), a very corrosive fuming yellow liquid consisting of nitric and hydrochloric acids. It has the power of dissolving gold, the royal metal. -- Aqua Tofana, a fluid containing arsenic, and used for secret poisoning, made by an Italian woman named Tofana, in the middle of the 17th century, who is said to have poisoned more than 600 persons. Francis. -- Aqua vit? Etym: [L., water of life. Cf. Eau de vie, Usquebaugh], a name given to brandy and some other ardent spirits. Shak.


AQUA FORTIS A`qua fortis. Etym: [L., strong water.] (Chem.) Defn: Nitric acid. [Archaic]


AQUAMARINE A`qua*ma*rine, n. (Min.) Defn: A transparent, pale green variety of beryl, used as a gem. See Beryl.


AQUAPUNCTURE A`qua*puncture, n. Etym: [L. aqua water, + punctura puncture, pungere, punctum, to, prick.] (Med.) Defn: The introduction of water subcutaneously for the relief of pain.


AQUARELLE Aq`ua*relle, n. Etym: [F., fr. Ital acquerello, fr. acqua water, L. aqua.] Defn: A design or painting in thin transparent water colors; also, the mode of painting in such colors.


AQUARELLIST Aq`ua*rellist, n. Defn: A painter in thin transparent water colors.


AQUARIAL; AQUARIAN A*quari*al, A*quari*an, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to an aquarium.


AQUARIAN A*quari*an, n. Etym: [L. (assumed) Aquarianus, fr. aqua: cf. F. Aquarien. See Aqua.] (Eccl. Hist.) Defn: One of a sect of Christian in the primitive church who used water instead of wine in the Lord's Supper.


AQUARIUM A*quari*um, n.; pl. E. Aquariums, L. Aquaria. Etym: [L. See Aquarius, Ewer.] Defn: An artificial pond, or a globe or tank (usually with glass sides), in which living specimens of aquatic animals or plants are kept.


AQUARIUS A*quari*us, n. Etym: [L. aquarius, adj., relating to water, and n., a water-carrier, fr. aqua. See Aqua.] (Astron.) (a) The Water-bearer; the eleventh sign in the zodiac, which the sun enters about the 20th of January; -- so called from the rains which prevail at that season in Italy and the East. (b) A constellation south of Pegasus.


AQUATIC A*quatic, a. Etym: [L. aquaticus: cf. F. aquatique. See Aqua.] Defn: Pertaining to water growing in water; living in, swimming in, or frequenting the margins of waters; as, aquatic plants and fowls.


AQUATIC A*quat`ic, n. 1. An aquatic animal or plant. 2. pl. Defn: Sports or exercises practiced in or on the water.


AQUATICAL A*quatic*al, a. Defn: Aquatic. [R.]


AQUATILE Aqua*tile, a. Etym: [L. aquatilis: cf. F. aquatile.] Defn: Inhabiting the water. [R.] Sir T. Browne.


AQUATINT; AQUATINTA Aqua*tint, A`qua*tinta, n. Etym: [It. acquatinta dyed water; acqua (L. aqua) water + tinto, fem. tinta, dyed. See Tint.] Defn: A kind of etching in which spaces are bitten by the use of aqua fortis, by which an effect is produced resembling a drawing in water colors or India ink; also, the engraving produced by this method.


AQUEDUCT Aque*duct, n. Etym: [F. aqueduc, OF. aqueduct (Cotgr.), fr. L. aquaeductus; aquae, gen. of aqua water + ductus a leading, ducere to lead. See Aqua, Duke.] 1. A conductor, conduit, or artificial channel for conveying water, especially one for supplying large cities with water. Note: The term is also applied to a structure (similar to the ancient aqueducts), for conveying a canal over a river or hollow; more properly called an aqueduct bridge. 2. (Anat.) Defn: A canal or passage; as, the aqueduct of Sylvius, a channel connecting the third and fourth ventricles of the brain.


AQUEITY A*quei*ty, n. Defn: Wateriness. [Obs.]


AQUEOUS Aque*ous, a. Etym: [Cf. F. aqueux, L. aquosus, fr. aqua. See Aqua, Aquose.] 1. Partaking of the nature of water, or abounding with it; watery. The aqueous vapor of the air. Tyndall. 2. Made from, or by means of, water. An aqueous deposit. Dana. Aqueous extract, an extract obtained from a vegetable substance by steeping it in water. -- Aqueous humor (Anat.), one the humors of the eye; a limpid fluid, occupying the space between the crystalline lens and the cornea. (See Eye.) -- Aqueous rocks (Geol.), those which are deposited from water and lie in strata, as opposed to volcanic rocks, which are of igneous origin; -- called also sedimentary rocks.


AQUEOUSNESS A`que*ous*ness, n. Defn: Wateriness.


AQUIFEROUS A*quifer*ous, a. Etym: [L. aqua water + -ferous.] Defn: Consisting or conveying water or a watery fluid; as, aquiferous vessels; the aquiferous system.


AQUIFORM Aqui*form, a. Etym: [L. aqua water + -form.] Defn: Having the form of water.


AQUILA Aqui*la, n; pl. Aquil?. Etym: [L., an eagle.] 1. (Zo?l.) Defn: A genus of eagles. 2. (Astron.) Defn: A northern constellation southerly from Lyra and Cygnus and preceding the Dolphin; the Eagle. Aquila alba Etym: [L., white eagle], an alchemical name of calomel. Brande & C.


AQUILATED Aqui*la`ted, a. (Her.) Defn: Adorned with eagles' heads.


AQUILINE Aqui*line, a. Etym: [L. aquilinus, fr. aquila eagle: cf. F. aquilin. See Eagle. ] 1. Belonging to or like an eagle. 2. Curving; hooked; prominent, like the beak of an eagle; -- applied particularly to the nose Terribly arched and aquiline his nose. Cowper.


AQUILON Aqui*lon, n. Etym: [L. aquilo, -lonis: cf. F. aquilon.] Defn: The north wind. [Obs.] Shak.


AQUIPAROUS A*quipa*rous, a. Etym: [L. aqua water + parere to bring forth.] (Med.) Defn: Secreting water; -- applied to certain glands. Dunglison.


AQUITANIAN Aq`ui*tani*an, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to Aquitania, now called Gascony.


AQUOSE A*quose, a. Etym: [L. aquosus watery, fr. aqua. See Aqua, Aqueous.] Defn: Watery; aqueous. [R.] Bailey.


AQUOSITY A*quosi*ty, n. Etym: [LL. aquositas.] Defn: The condition of being wet or watery; wateriness. Huxley. Very little water or aquosity is found in their belly. Holland.


AR Ar, conj. Defn: Ere; before. [Obs.] Chaucer.


ARA Ara, n. Etym: [L.] (Astron.) Defn: The Altar; a southern constellation, south of the tail of the Scorpion.


ARA Ara, n. Etym: [Native Indian name.] (Zo?l.) Defn: A name of the great blue and yellow macaw (Ara ararauna), native of South America.


ARAB Arab, n. Etym: [Prob. ultimately fr. Heb. arabah a desert, the name employed, in the Old Testament, to denote the valley of the Jordan and Dead Sea. Ar. Arab, Heb. arabi, arbi, arbim: cf. F. Arabe, L. Arabs, Gr. Defn: One of a swarthy race occupying Arabia, and numerous in Syria, Northern Africa, etc. Street Arab, a homeless vagabond in the streets of a city, particularly and outcast boy or girl. Tylor. The ragged outcasts and street Arabs who are shivering in damp doorways. Lond. Sat. Rev.


ARABA A*raba, n. [Written also aroba and arba.] [Ar. or Turk. 'arabah: cf. Russ. arba.] Defn: A wagon or cart, usually heavy and without springs, and often covered. [Oriental] The araba of the Turks has its sides of latticework to admit the air Balfour (Cyc. of India).


ARABESQUE Ar`a*besque, n. Etym: [F. arabesque, fr. It. arabesco, fr. Arabo Arab.] Defn: A style of ornamentation either painted, inlaid, or carved in low relief. It consists of a pattern in which plants, fruits, foliage, etc., as well as figures of men and animals, real or imaginary, are fantastically interlaced or put together. Note: It was employed in Roman imperial ornamentation, and appeared, without the animal figures, in Moorish and Arabic decorative art. (See Moresque.) The arabesques of the Renaissance were founded on Greco-Roman work.


ARABESQUE Ar`a*besque, a. 1. Arabian. [Obs.] 2. Relating to, or exhibiting, the style of ornament called arabesque; as, arabesque frescoes.


ARABESQUED Ar`a*besqued, a. Defn: Ornamented in the style of arabesques.


ARABIAN A*rabi*an, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to Arabia or its inhabitants. Arabian bird, the phenix. Shak.


ARABIAN A*rabi*an, n. Defn: A native of Arabia; an Arab.


ARABIC Ara*bic, a. Etym: [L. Arabicus, fr. Arabia.] Defn: Of or pertaining to Arabia or the Arabians. Arabic numerals or figures, the nine digits, 1, 2, 3, etc., and the cipher 0. -- Gum arabic. See under Gum.


ARABIC Ara*bic, n. Defn: The language of the Arabians. Note: The Arabic is a Semitic language, allied to the Hebrew. It is very widely diffused, being the language in which all Mohammedans must read the Koran, and is spoken as a vernacular tongue in Arabia, Syria, and Northern Africa.


ARABICAL A*rabic*al, a. Defn: Relating to Arabia; Arabic. -- A*rabic*al*ly, adv.


ARABIN Ara*bin, n. 1. (Chem.) Defn: A carbohydrate, isomeric with cane sugar, contained in gum arabic, from which it is extracted as a white, amorphous substance. 2. Mucilage, especially that made of gum arabic.


ARABINOSE Ara*bin*ose`, n. (Chem.) Defn: A sugar of the composition C5H10O5, obtained from cherry gum by boiling it with dilute sulphuric acid.


ARABISM Ara*bism, n. Etym: [Cf. F. Arabisme.] Defn: An Arabic idiom peculiarly of language. Stuart.


ARABIST Ar`a*bist, n. Etym: [Cf. F. Arabiste.] Defn: One well versed in the Arabic language or literature; also, formerly, one who followed the Arabic system of surgery.


ARABLE Ara*ble, a. Etym: [F. arable, L. arabilis, fr. arare to plow, akin to Gr. ear, to plow. See Earable.] Defn: Fit for plowing or tillage; -- hence, often applied to land which has been plowed or tilled.


ARABLE Ara*ble, n. Defn: Arable land; plow land.


ARABY Ara*by, n. Defn: The country of Arabia. [Archaic & Poetic]


ARACANESE Ar`a*ca*nese, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to Aracan, a province of British Burmah. -- n. sing. & pl. Defn: A native or natives of Aracan.


ARACARI A`ra*, n. (Zo?l.) Defn: A South American bird, of the genus Pleroglossius, allied to the toucans. There are several species.


ARACE A*race, v. t. Etym: [OE. aracen, arasen, OF. arachier, esracier, F. arracher, fr. L. exradicare, eradicare. The prefix a- is perh. due to L. ab. See Eradicate.] Defn: To tear up by the roots; to draw away. [Obs.] Wyatt.


ARACEOUS A*raceous, a. Etym: [L. arum a genus of plants, fr. Gr. (Bot.) Defn: Of or pertaining to an order of plants, of which the genus Arum is the type.


ARACHNID A*rachnid, n. Defn: An arachnidan. Huxley.


ARACHNIDA A*rachni*da, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo?l.) Defn: One of the classes of Arthropoda. See Illustration in Appendix. Note: They have four pairs of legs, no antenn? nor wings, a pair of mandibles, and one pair of maxill? or palpi. The head is usually consolidated with the thorax. The respiration is either by tranche? or by pulmonary sacs, or by both. The class includes three principal orders: Araneina, or spiders; Arthrogastra, including scorpions, etc.; and Acarina, or mites and ticks.

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