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AMEL Amel, n. Etym: [OE. amell, OF. esmail, F. ?mail, of German origin; cf. OHG. smelzi, G. schmelz. See Smelt, v. t.] Defn: Enamel. [Obs.] Boyle.


AMEL Amel, v. t. Etym: [OE. amellen, OF. esmailler, F. ?mailler, OF. esmail, F. ?mail.] Defn: To enamel. [Obs.] Enlightened all with stars, And richly ameled. Chapman.


AMELCORN Amel*corn`, n. Etym: [Ger. amelkorn: cf. MHG. amel, amer, spelt, and L. amylum starch, Gr. Defn: A variety of wheat from which starch is produced; -- called also French rice.


AMELIORABLE A*melio*ra*ble, a. Defn: Capable of being ameliorated.


AMELIORATE A*melio*rate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ameliorated; p. pr. & vb. n. Ameliorating.] Etym: [L. ad + meliorare to make better: cf. F. am?liorer. See Meliorate.] Defn: To make better; to improve; to meliorate. In every human being there is a wish to ameliorate his own condition. Macaulay.


AMELIORATE A*melio*rate, v. i. Defn: To grow better; to meliorate; as, wine ameliorates by age.


AMELIORATION A*mel`io*ration, n. Etym: [Cf. F. am?lioration.] Defn: The act of ameliorating, or the state of being ameliorated; making or becoming better; improvement; melioration. Amelioration of human affairs. J. S. Mill.


AMELIORATIVE A*melio*ra*tive, a. Defn: Tending to ameliorate; producing amelioration or improvement; as, ameliorative remedies, efforts.


AMELIORATOR A*melio*ra`tor, n. Defn: One who ameliorates.


AMEN A`men, interj., adv., & n. Etym: [L. amen, Gr. am certainly, truly.] Defn: An expression used at the end of prayers, and meaning, So be it. At the end of a creed, it is a solemn asseveration of belief. When it introduces a declaration, it is equivalent to truly, verily. It is used as a noun, to demote: (a) concurrence in belief, or in a statement; assent; (b) the final word or act; (c) Christ as being one who is true and faithful. And let all the people say, Amen. Ps. cvi. 48. Amen, amen, I say to thee, except a man be born again, he can not see the kingdom of God. John ii. 3. Rhemish Trans. To say amen to, to approve warmly; to concur in heartily or emphatically; to ratify; as, I say Amen to all.


AMEN A`men, v. t. Defn: To say Amen to; to sanction fully.


AMENABILITY A*me`na*bili*ty, n. Defn: The quality of being amenable; amenableness. Coleridge.


AMENABLE A*mena*ble, a. Etym: [F. amener to lead; ad) = mener to lead, fr. L. minare to drive animals (properly by threatening cries), in LL. to lead; L. minari, to threaten, minae threats. See Menace.] 1. (Old Law) Defn: Easy to be led; governable, as a woman by her husband. [Obs.] Jacob. 2. Liable to be brought to account or punishment; answerable; responsible; accountable; as, amenable to law. Nor is man too diminutive . . . to be amenable to the divine government. I. Taylor. 3. Liable to punishment, a charge, a claim, etc. 4. Willing to yield or submit; responsive; tractable. Sterling . . . always was amenable enough to counsel. Carlyle.


AMENABLENESS A*mena*ble*ness, n. Defn: The quality or state of being amenable; liability to answer charges; answerableness.


AMENABLY A*mena*bly, adv. Defn: In an amenable manner.


AMENAGE Ame*nage, v. t. Etym: [OF. amesnagier. See Manage.] Defn: To manage. [Obs.] Spenser.


AMENANCE Ame*nance, n. Etym: [OF. See Amenable.] Defn: Behavior; bearing. [Obs.] Spenser.


AMEND A*mend, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Amended; p. pr. & vb. n. Amending.] Etym: [F. amender, L. emendare; e(ex) + mendum, menda, fault, akin to Skr. minda personal defect. Cf. Emend, Mend.] Defn: To change or modify in any way for the better; as, (a) by simply removing what is erroneous, corrupt, superfluous, faulty, and the like; (b) by supplying deficiencies; (c) by substituting something else in the place of what is removed; to rectify. Mar not the thing that can not be amended. Shak. An instant emergency, granting no possibility for revision, or opening for amended thought. De Quincey. We shall cheer her sorrows, and amend her blood, by wedding her to a Norman. Sir W. Scott. To amend a bill, to make some change in the details or provisions of a bill or measure while on its passage, professedly for its improvement. Syn. -- To Amend, Emend, Correct, Reform, Rectify. These words agree in the idea of bringing things into a more perfect state. We correct (literally, make straight) when we conform things to some standard or rule; as, to correct proof sheets. We amend by removing blemishes, faults, or errors, and thus rendering a thing more a nearly perfect; as, to amend our ways, to amend a text, the draft of a bill, etc. Emend is only another form of amend, and is applied chiefly to editions of books, etc. To reform is literally to form over again, or put into a new and better form; as, to reform one's life. To rectify is to make right; as, to rectify a mistake, to rectify abuses, inadvertencies, etc.


AMEND A*mend, v. i. Defn: To grow better by rectifying something wrong in manners or morals; to improve. My fortune . . . amends. Sir P. Sidney.


AMENDABLE A*menda*ble, a. Defn: Capable of being amended; as, an amendable writ or error. -- A*menda*ble*ness, n.


AMENDATORY A*menda*to*ry, a. Defn: Supplying amendment; corrective; emendatory. Bancroft.


AMENDE A`mende, n. Etym: [F. See Amend.] Defn: A pecuniary punishment or fine; a reparation or recantation. Amende honorable(#). (Old French Law) A species of infamous punishment in which the offender, being led into court with a rope about his neck, and a lighted torch in his hand, begged pardon of his God, the court, etc. In popular language, the phrase now denotes a public apology or recantation, and reparation to an injured party, for improper language or treatment.


AMENDER A*mender, n. Defn: One who amends.


AMENDFUL A*mendful, a. Defn: Much improving. [Obs.]


AMENDMENT A*mendment, n. Etym: [F. amendement, LL. amendamentum.] 1. An alteration or change for the better; correction of a fault or of faults; reformation of life by quitting vices. 2. In public bodies; Any alternation made or proposed to be made in a bill or motion by adding, changing, substituting, or omitting. 3. (Law) Defn: Correction of an error in a writ or process. Syn. -- Improvement; reformation; emendation.


AMENDS A*mends, n. sing. & pl. Etym: [F. amendes, pl. of amende. Cf. Amende.] Defn: Compensation for a loss or injury; recompense; reparation. [Now const. with sing. verb.] An honorable amends. Addison. Yet thus far fortune maketh us amends. Shak.


AMENITY A*meni*ty, n.; pl. Amenities. Etym: [F. am?nit?, L. amoenitas, fr. amoenus pleasant.] Defn: The quality of being pleasant or agreeable, whether in respect to situation, climate, manners, or disposition; pleasantness; civility; suavity; gentleness. A sweetness and amenity of temper. Buckle. This climate has not seduced by its amenities. W. Howitt.


AMENORRHOEA A*men`or*rhoea, n. Etym: [Gr. am?norrh?e.] (Med.) Defn: Retention or suppression of the menstrual discharge.


AMENORRHOEAL A*men`or*rhoeal, a. Defn: Pertaining to amenorrhoea. A MENSA ET THORO A mensa et thoro. Etym: [L., from board and bed.] (Law) Defn: A kind of divorce which does not dissolve the marriage bond, but merely authorizes a separate life of the husband and wife. Abbott.


AMENT Ament, n. Etym: [L. amentum thong or strap.] (Bot.) Defn: A species of inflorescence; a catkin. The globular ament of a buttonwood. Coues.


AMENTACEOUS Am`en*taceous, a. Etym: [LL. amentaceus.] (Bot.) (a) Resembling, or consisting of, an ament or aments; as, the chestnut has an amentaceous inflorescence. (b) Bearing aments; having flowers arranged in aments; as, amentaceous plants.


AMENTIA A*menti*a, n. Etym: [L.] (Med.) Defn: Imbecility; total want of understanding.


AMENTIFEROUS Am`en*tifer*ous, a. Etym: [L. amentum + -ferous.] (Bot.) Defn: Bearing catkins. Balfour.


AMENTIFORM A*menti*form, a. Etym: [L. amentum + -form.] (Bot.) Defn: Shaped like a catkin.


AMENTUM A*mentum, n.; pl. Amenta. Defn: Same as Ament.


AMENUSE Ame*nuse, v. t. Etym: [OF. amenuisier. See Minute.] Defn: To lessen. [Obs.] Chaucer.


AMERCE A*merce, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Amerced; p. pr. & vb. n. Amercing.] Etym: [OF. amercier, fr. a merci at the mercy of, liable to a punishment. See Mercy.] 1. To punish by a pecuniary penalty, the amount of which is not fixed by law, but left to the discretion of the court; as, the amerced the criminal in the sum on the hundred dollars. Note: The penalty of fine may be expressed without a preposition, or it may be introduced by in, with, or of. 2. To punish, in general; to mulct. Millions of spirits for his fault amerced Of Heaven. Milton. Shall by him be amerced with penance due. Spenser.


AMERCEABLE A*mercea*ble, a. Defn: Liable to be amerced.


AMERCEMENT A*mercement, n. Etym: [OF. amerciment.] Defn: The infliction of a penalty at the discretion of the court; also, a mulct or penalty thus imposed. It differs from a fine,in that the latter is, or was originally, a fixed and certain sum prescribed by statue for an offense; but an amercement is arbitrary. Hence, the act or practice of affeering. [See Affeer.] Blackstone. Note: This word, in old books, is written amerciament. Amercement royal, a penalty imposed on an officer for a misdemeanor in his office. Jacobs.


AMERCER A*mercer, n. Defn: One who amerces.


AMERCIAMENT A*mercia*ment, n. Etym: [LL. amerciamentum.] Defn: Same as Amercement. Mozley & W.


AMERICAN A*meri*can, a. Etym: [Named from Americus Vespucius.] 1. Of or pertaining to America; as, the American continent: American Indians. 2. Of or pertaining to the United States. A young officer of the American navy. Lyell. American ivy. See Virginia creeper. -- American Party (U. S. Politics), a party, about 1854, which opposed the influence of foreign-born citizens, and those supposed to owe allegiance to a foreign power. -- Native american Party (U. S. Politics), a party of principles similar to those of the American party. It arose about 1843, but soon died out.


AMERICAN A*meri*can, n. Defn: A native of America; -- originally applied to the aboriginal inhabitants, but now applied to the descendants of Europeans born in America, and especially to the citizens of the United States. The name American must always exalt the pride of patriotism. Washington.


AMERICAN PLAN A*meri*can plan. Defn: In hotels, aplan upon which guests pay for both room and board by the day, week, or other convenient period; -- contrasted with European plan.


AMERICAN PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION A*meri*can Pro*tective As*so`ci*ation. Defn: A secret organization in the United States, formed in Iowa in 1887, ostensibly for the protection of American institutions by keeping Roman Catholics out of public office. Abbrev. commonly to A. P .A.


AMERICANISM A*meri*can*ism, n. 1. Attachment to the United States. 2. A custom peculiar to the United States or to America; an American characteristic or idea. 3. A word or phrase peculiar to the United States.


AMERICANIZATION A*mer`i*can*i*zation, n. Defn: The process of Americanizing.


AMERICANIZE A*meri*can*ize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Americanizer; p. pr. & vb. n. Americanizing.] Defn: To render American; to assimilate to the Americans in customs, ideas, etc.; to stamp with American characteristics.


AMES-ACE Ames-ace, n. Defn: Same as Ambs-ace.


AMESS Amess, n. (Eccl.) Defn: Amice, a hood or cape. See 2d Amice.


AMETABOLA Am`e*tabo*la, n. pl. Etym: [NL.] (Zo?l.) Defn: A group of insects which do not undergo any metamorphosis. [Written also Ametabolia.]


AMETABOLIAN A*met`a*boli*an, a. Etym: [Gr. (Zo?l.) Defn: Of or pertaining to insects that do undergo any metamorphosis.


AMETABOLIC; AMETABOLOUS A*met`a*bolic, Am`e*tabo*lous, a. (Zo?l.) Defn: Not undergoing any metamorphosis; as, ametabolic insects.


AMETHODIST A*metho*dist, n. Etym: [Pref. a- not + methodist.] Defn: One without method; a quack. [Obs.]


AMETHYST Ame*thyst, Etym: [F. ametiste, amatiste, F. am?thyste, L. amethystus, fr. Gr. Mead.] 1. (Min.) Defn: A variety of crystallized quartz, of a purple or bluish violet color, of different shades. It is much used as a jeweler's stone. Oriental amethyst, the violet-blue variety of transparent crystallized corundum or sapphire. 2. (Her.) Defn: A purple color in a nobleman's escutcheon, or coat of arms.


AMETHYSTINE Am`e*thystine, a. Etym: [L. amethystinus, Gr. 1. Resembling amethyst, especially in color; bluish violet. 2. Composed of, or containing, amethyst.


AMETROPIA Am`e*tropi*a, n. Etym: [Gr. (Med.) Defn: Any abnormal condition of the refracting powers of the eye. -- Am`e*tropic, a.


AMHARIC Am*haric, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to Amhara, a division of Abyssinia; as, the Amharic language is closely allied to the Ethiopic. -- n. Defn: The Amharic language (now the chief language of Abyssinia).


AMIA Ami*a, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. (Zo?l.) Defn: A genus of fresh-water ganoid fishes, exclusively confined to North America; called bowfin in Lake Champlain, dogfish in Lake Erie, and mudfish in South Carolina, etc. See Bowfin.


AMIABILITY A`mi*a*bili*ty, n. Defn: The quality of being amiable; amiableness; sweetness of disposition. Every excellency is a degree of amiability. Jer. Taylor.


AMIABLE Ami*a*ble, a. Etym: [F. amiable, L. amicabilis friendly, fr. amicus friend, fr. amare to love. The meaning has been influenced by F. aimable, L. amabilis lovable, fr. amare to love. Cf. Amicable, Amorous, Amability.] 1. Lovable; lovely; pleasing. [Obs. or R.] So amiable a prospect. Sir T. Herbert. 2. Friendly; kindly; sweet; gracious; as, an amiable temper or mood; amiable ideas. 3. Possessing sweetness of disposition; having sweetness of temper, kind-heartedness, etc., which causes one to be liked; as, an amiable woman. 4. Done out of love. [Obs.] Lay an amiable siege to the honesty of this Ford's wife. Shak.


AMIABLENESS A`mi*a*ble*ness, n. Defn: The quality of being amiable; amiability.


AMIABLY Ami*a*bly, adv. Defn: In an amiable manner.


AMIANTH Ami*anth, n. Defn: See Amianthus. [Poetic]


AMIANTHIFORM Am`i*anthi*form, a. Etym: [Amianthus + -form.] Defn: Resembling amianthus in form.


AMIANTHOID Am`i*anthoid, a. Etym: [Amianthus + -oid: cf. F. amianto?de.] Defn: Resembling amianthus.


AMIANTHUS Am`i*anthus, n. Etym: [L. amiantus, Gr. (Min.) Defn: Earth flax, or mountain flax; a soft silky variety of asbestus.


AMIC Amic, a. Etym: [L. ammonia + -ic.] (Chem.) Defn: Related to, or derived, ammonia; -- used chiefly as a suffix; as, amic acid; phosphamic acid. Amic acid (Chem.), one of a class of nitrogenized acids somewhat resembling amides.


AMICABILITY Am`i*ca*bili*ty, n. Defn: The quality of being amicable; friendliness; amicableness. Ash.


AMICABLE Ami*ca*ble, a. Etym: [L. amicabilis, fr. amicus friend, fr. amare to love. See Amiable.] Defn: Friendly; proceeding from, or exhibiting, friendliness; after the manner of friends; peaceable; as, an amicable disposition, or arrangement. That which was most remarkable in this contest was . . . the amicable manner in which it was managed. Prideoux. Amicable action (Law.), an action commenced and prosecuted by amicable consent of the parties, for the purpose of obtaining a decision of the court on some matter of law involved in it. Bouvier. Burrill. -- Amicable numbers (Math.), two numbers, each of which is equal to the sum of all the aliquot parts of the other. Syn. -- Friendly; peaceable; kind; harmonious. -- Amicable, Friendly. Neither of these words denotes any great warmth of affection, since friendly has by no means the same strength as its noun friendship. It does, however, imply something of real cordiality; while amicable supposes very little more than that the parties referred to are not disposed to quarrel. Hence, we speak of amicable relations between two countries, an amicable adjustment of difficulties. Those who entertain friendly feelings toward each other can live amicably together.


AMICABLENESS Ami*ca*ble*ness, n. Defn: The quality of being amicable; amicability.


AMICABLY Ami*ca*bly, adv. Defn: In an amicable manner.


AMICE Amice, n. Etym: [OE. amyse, prob. for amyt, OF. amit, ameit, fr. L. amictus cloak, the word being confused with amice, almuce, a hood or cape. See next word.] Defn: A square of white linen worn at first on the head, but now about the neck and shoulders, by priests of the Roman Catholic Church while saying Mass.


AMICE Amice, n. Etym: [OE. amuce, amisse, OF. almuce, aumuce, F. aumusse,


AMID A*mid, prep. Defn: See Amidst.


AMIDE Amide, n. Etym: [Ammonia + -ide.] (Chem.) Defn: A compound formed by the union of amidogen with an acid element or radical. It may also be regarded as ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an acid atom or radical. Acid amide, a neutral compound formed by the substitution of the amido group for hydroxyl in an acid.


AMIDIN Ami*din, n. Etym: [Cf. F. amidine, fr. amido starch, fr. L. amylum, Gr. Meal.] (Chem.) Defn: Start modified by heat so as to become a transparent mass, like horn. It is soluble in cold water.


AMIDO A*mido, a. Etym: [From Amide.] (Chem.) Defn: Containing, or derived from, amidogen. Amido acid, an acid in which a portion of the nonacid hydrogen has been replaced by the amido group. The amido acids are both basic and acid. -- Amido group, amidogen, NH2.


AMIDOGEN A*mido*gen, n. Etym: [Amide + -gen.] (Chem.) Defn: A compound radical, NH2, not yet obtained in a separate state, which may be regarded as ammonia from the molecule of which one of its hydrogen atoms has been removed; -- called also the amido group, and in composition represented by the form amido.


AMIDOL Ami*dol, n. [Amide + -ol as in alcohol.] (Photog. & Chem.) Defn: A salt of a diamino phenol, C6H3(OH)(NH2)2, used as a developer.


AMIDSHIPS A*midships, adv. (Naut.) Defn: In the middle of a ship, with regard to her length, and sometimes also her breadth. Totten.


AMIDST; AMID A*midst, A*mid, prep. Etym: [OE. amidde, amiddes, on midden, AS. on middan, in the middle, fr. midde the middle. The s is an adverbial ending, originally marking the genitive; the t is a later addition, as in whilst, amongst, alongst. See Mid.] Defn: In the midst or middle of; surrounded or encompassed by; among. This fair tree amidst the garden. Unseen amid the throng. Amidst thick clouds. Milton. Amidst acclamations. Amidst the splendor and festivity of a court. Macaulay. But rather famish them amid their plenty. Shak. Syn. -- Amidst, Among. These words differ to some extent from each other, as will be seen from their etymology. Amidst denotes in the midst or middle of, and hence surrounded by; as, this work was written amidst many interruptions. Among denotes a mingling or intermixing with distinct or separable objects; as, He fell among thieves. Blessed art thou among women. Hence, we say, among the moderns, among the ancients, among the thickest of trees, among these considerations, among the reasons I have to offer. Amid and amidst are commonly used when the idea of separate or distinguishable objects is not prominent. Hence, we say, they kept on amidst the storm, amidst the gloom, he was sinking amidst the waves, he persevered amidst many difficulties; in none of which cases could among be used. In like manner, Milton speaks of Abdiel, -- The seraph Abdiel, faithful found; Among the faithless faithful only he, because he was then considered as one of the angels. But when the poet adds, -- From amidst them forth he passed, we have rather the idea of the angels as a collective body. Those squalid cabins and uncleared woods amidst which he was born. Macaulay.


AMIGO A*migo, n.; pl. Amigos (#). [Sp., fr. L. amicus.] Defn: A friend; -- a Spanish term applied in the Philippine Islands to friendly natives.


AMINE Amine, n. Etym: [Ammonia + -ine.] (Chem.) Defn: One of a class of strongly basic substances derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by a basic atom or radical.


AMINOL Ami*nol, n. [From amine.] (Pharm.) Defn: A colorless liquid prepared from herring brine and containing amines, used as a local antiseptic.


AMIOID Ami*oid, a. (Zo?l.) Defn: Like or pertaining to the Amioidei. -- n. Defn: One of the Amioidei.


AMIOIDEI Am`i*oide*i, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Amia + -oid.] (Zo?l.) Defn: An order of ganoid fishes of which Amis is type. See Bowfin and Ganoidei.


AMIR A*mir, n. Defn: Same as Ameer.


AMISH Amish, n. pl. [Written also Omish.] (Eccl. Hist.) Defn: The Amish Mennonites.


AMISH Amish, a. [Written also Omish.] (Eccl. Hist.) Defn: Of, pertaining to, or designating, the followers of Jacob Amman, a strict Mennonite of the 17th century, who even proscribed the use of buttons and shaving as worldly conformity. There are several branches of Amish Mennonites in the United States.


AMISS A*miss, adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + miss.] Defn: Astray; faultily; improperly; wrongly; ill. What error drives our eyes and ears amiss Shak. Ye ask and receive not, because ye ask amiss. James iv. 3. To take (an act, thing) amiss, to impute a wrong motive to (an act or thing); to take offense at' to take unkindly; as, you must not take these questions amiss.


AMISS A*miss, a. Defn: Wrong; faulty; out of order; improper; as, it may not be amiss to ask advice. Note: [Used only in the predicate.] Dryden. His wisdom and virtue can not always rectify that which is amiss in himself or his circumstances. Wollaston.


AMISS A*miss, n. Defn: A fault, wrong, or mistake. [Obs.] Each toy seems prologue to some great amiss. Shak.


AMISSIBILITY A*mis`si*bili*ty, Etym: [Cf. F. amissibilit?. See Amit.] Defn: The quality of being amissible; possibility of being lost. [R.] Notions of popular rights and the amissibility of sovereign power for misconduct were alternately broached by the two great religious parties of Europe. Hallam.


AMISSIBLE A*missi*ble, a. Etym: [L. amissibilis: cf. F. amissible.] Defn: Liable to be lost. [R.]


AMISSION A*mission, n. Etym: [L. amissio: cf. F. amission.] Defn: Deprivation; loss. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


AMIT A*mit, v. t. Etym: [L. amittere, amissum, to lose; a (ab) + mittere to send. See Missile.] Defn: To lose. [Obs.] A lodestone fired doth presently amit its proper virtue. Sir T. Browne.


AMITOSIS Am`i*tosis, n. [NL. See A-not, and Mitosis.] (Biol.) Defn: Cell division in which there is first a simple cleavage of the nucleus without change in its structure (such as the formation of chromosomes), followed by the division of the cytoplasm; direct cell division; -- opposed to mitosis. It is not the usual mode of division, and is believed by many to occur chiefly in highly specialized cells which are incapable of long-continued multiplication, in transitory structures, and in those in early stages of degeneration.


AMITOTIC Am`i*totic, a. (Biol.) Defn: Of or pertaining to amitosis; karyostenotic; -- opposed to mitotic.


AMITY Ami*ty, n.; pl. Amities. Etym: [F. amiti?, OF. amisti?, amist?, fr. an assumed LL. amisitas, fr. L. amicus friendly, from amare to love. See Amiable.] Defn: Friendship, in a general sense, between individuals, societies, or nations; friendly relations; good understanding; as, a treaty of amity and commerce; the amity of the Whigs and Tories. To live on terms of amity with vice. Cowper. Syn. -- Harmony; friendliness; friendship; affection; good will; peace.

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