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ALPHABETIZE Alpha*bet*ize, v. t. 1. To arrange alphabetically; as, to alphabetize a list of words. 2. To furnish with an alphabet.


ALPHOL Alphol, n. [Alpha- + -ol as in alcohol.] (Pharm.) Defn: A crystalline derivative of salicylic acid, used as an antiseptic and antirheumatic.


ALPHONSINE Al*phonsine, a. Defn: Of or relating to Alphonso X., the Wise, King of Castile (1252- 1284). Alphonsine tables, astronomical tables prepared under the patronage of Alphonso the Wise. Whewell.


ALPIGENE Alpi*gene, a. Etym: [L. Alpes Alps + -gen.] Defn: Growing in Alpine regions.


ALPINE Alpine, a. Etym: [L. Alpinus, fr. Alpes the Alps: cf. F. Alpin.] 1. Of or pertaining to the Alps, or to any lofty mountain; as, Alpine snows; Alpine plants. 2. Like the Alps; lofty. Gazing up an Alpine height. Tennyson.


ALPINIST Alpin*ist, n. Defn: A climber of the Alps.


ALPIST; ALPIA Alpist, Alpi*a, n. Etym: [F.: cf. Sp. & Pg. alpiste.] Defn: The seed of canary grass (Phalaris Canariensis), used for feeding cage birds.


ALQUIFOU Alqui*fou, n. Etym: [Equiv. to arquifoux, F. alquifoux, Sp. alquif?l, fr. the same Arabic word as alcohol. See Alcohol.] Defn: A lead ore found in Cornwall, England, and used by potters to give a green glaze to their wares; potter's ore.


ALREADY Al*ready, adv. Etym: [All (OE. al) + ready.] Defn: Prior to some specified time, either past, present, or future; by this time; previously. Joseph was in Egypt already. Exod. i. 5. I say unto you, that Elias is come already. Matt. xvii. 12. Note: It has reference to past time, but may be used for a future past; as, when you shall arrive, the business will be already completed, or will have been already completed.


ALS Als, adv. 1. Also. [Obs.] Chaucer. 2. As. [Obs.] Chaucer.


ALSATIAN Al*satian, a. Defn: Pertaining to Alsatia.


ALSATIAN Al*satian, n. Defn: An inhabitant of Alsatia or Alsace in Germany, or of Alsatia or White Friars (a resort of debtors and criminals) in London.


ALSIKE Alsike, n. Etym: [From Alsike, in Sweden.] Defn: A species of clover with pinkish or white flowers; Trifolium hybridum.


ALSO Also, adv. & conj. Etym: [All + so. OE. al so, AS. ealswa, alsw, ?lsw?; eal, al, ?l, all + swa so. See All, So, As.] 1. In like manner; likewise. [Obs.] 2. In addition; besides; as well; further; too. Lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven . . . for where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. Matt. vi. 20. 3. Even as; as; so. [Obs.] Chaucer. Syn. -- Also, Likewise, Too. These words are used by way of transition, in leaving one thought and passing to another. Also is the widest term. It denotes that what follows is all so, or entirely like that which preceded, or may be affirmed with the same truth; as, If you were there, I was there also; If our situation has some discomforts, it has also many sources of enjoyment. Too is simply less formal and pointed than also; it marks the transition with a lighter touch; as, I was there too; a courtier yet a patriot too. Pope. Likewise denotes literally in like manner, and hence has been thought by some to be more specific than also. It implies, says Whately, some connection or agreement between the words it unites. We may say, ` He is a poet, and likewise a musician; ' but we should not say, ` He is a prince, and likewise a musician,' because there is no natural connection between these qualities. This distinction, however, is often disregarded.


ALT Alt, a. & n. Etym: [See Alto.] (Mus.) Defn: The higher part of the scale. See Alto. To be in alt, to be in an exalted state of mind.


ALTAIAN; ALTAIC Al*taian, Al*taic, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alta?que.] Defn: Of or pertaining to the Altai, a mountain chain in Central Asia.


ALTAR Altar, n. Etym: [OE. alter, auter, autier, fr. L. altare, pl. altaria, altar, prob. fr. altus high: cf. OF. alter, autier, F. autel. Cf. Altitude.] 1. A raised structure (as a square or oblong erection of stone or wood) on which sacrifices are offered or incense burned to a deity. Noah builded an altar unto the Lord. Gen. viii. 20. 2. In the Christian church, a construction of stone, wood, or other material for the celebration of the Holy Eucharist; the communion table. Note: Altar is much used adjectively, or as the first part of a compound; as, altar bread or altar-bread. Altar cloth or Altar-cloth, the cover for an altar in a Christian church, usually richly embroidered. -- Altar cushion, a cushion laid upon the altar in a Christian church to support the service book. -- Altar frontal. See Frontal. -- Altar rail, the railing in front of the altar or communion table. -- Altar screen, a wall or partition built behind an altar to protect it from approach in the rear. -- Altar tomb, a tomb resembling an altar in shape, etc. -- Family altar, place of family devotions. -- To lead (as a bride) to the altar, to marry; -- said of a woman.


ALTARAGE Altar*age, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. auterage, autelage.] 1. The offerings made upon the altar, or to a church. 2. The profit which accrues to the priest, by reason of the altar, from the small tithes. Shipley.


ALTARIST Altar*ist, n. Etym: [Cf. LL. altarista, F. altariste.] (Old Law) (a) A chaplain. (b) A vicar of a church.


ALTARPIECE Altar*piece`, n. Defn: The painting or piece of sculpture above and behind the altar; reredos.


ALTARWISE Altar*wise`, adv. Defn: In the proper position of an altar, that is, at the east of a church with its ends towards the north and south. Shipley.


ALTAZIMUTH Alt*azi*muth, n. Etym: [Alltude + azimuth.] (Astron.) Defn: An instrument for taking azimuths and altitudes simultaneously.


ALTER Alter, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Altered; p. pr. & vb. n. Altering.] Etym: [F. alt?rer, LL. alterare, fr. L. alter other, alius other. Cf. Else, Other.] 1. To make otherwise; to change in some respect, either partially or wholly; to vary; to modify. To alter the king's course. To alter the condition of a man. No power in Venice can alter a decree. Shak. It gilds all objects, but it alters none. Pope. My covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that is gone out of my lips. Ps. lxxxix. 34. 2. To agitate; to affect mentally. [Obs.] Milton. 3. To geld. [Colloq.] Syn. -- Change, Alter. Change is generic and the stronger term. It may express a loss of identity, or the substitution of one thing in place of another; alter commonly expresses a partial change, or a change in form or details without destroying identity.


ALTER Alter, v. i. Defn: To become, in some respects, different; to vary; to change; as, the weather alters almost daily; rocks or minerals alter by exposure. The law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not. Dan. vi. 8.


ALTERABILITY Al`ter*a*bili*ty, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alt?rabilit?.] Defn: The quality of being alterable; alterableness.


ALTERABLE Alter*a*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alt?rable.] Defn: Capable of being altered. Our condition in this world is mutable and uncertain, alterable by a thousand accidents. Rogers.


ALTERABLENESS Alter*a*ble*ness, n. Defn: The quality of being alterable; variableness; alterability.


ALTERABLY Alter*a*bly, adv. Defn: In an alterable manner.


ALTERANT Alter*ant, a. Etym: [LL. alterans, p. pr.: cf. F. alt?rant.] Defn: Altering; gradually changing. Bacon.


ALTERANT Alter*ant, n. Defn: An alterative. [R.] Chambers.


ALTERATION Al`ter*ation, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alt?ration.] 1. The act of altering or making different. Alteration, though it be from worse to better, hath in it incoveniences. Hooker. 2. The state of being altered; a change made in the form or nature of a thing; changed condition. Ere long might perceive Strange alteration in me. Milton. Appius Claudius admitted to the senate the sons of those who had been slaves; by which, and succeeding alterations, that council degenerated into a most corrupt. Swift.


ALTERATIVE Alter*a*tive, a. Etym: [L. alterativus: cf. F. alt?ratif.] Defn: Causing ateration. Specifically: Defn: Gradually changing, or tending to change, a morbid state of the functions into one of health. Burton.


ALTERATIVE Alter*a*tive, n. Defn: A medicine or treatment which gradually induces a change, and restores healthy functions without sensible evacuations.


ALTERCATE Alter*cate, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Altercated; p. pr. & vb. n. Altercating.] Etym: [L. altercatus, p. p. of altercare, altercari, fr. alter another. See Alter.] Defn: The contend in words; to dispute with zeal, heat, or anger; to wrangle.


ALTERCATION Al`ter*cation, n. Etym: [F. altercation, fr. L. altercatio.] Defn: Warm contention in words; dispute carried on with heat or anger; controversy; wrangle; wordy contest. Stormy altercations. Macaulay. Syn. -- Altercation, Dispute, Wrangle. The term dispute is in most cases, but not necessarily, applied to a verbal contest; as, a dispute on the lawfulness of war. An altercation is an angry dispute between two parties, involving an interchange of severe language. A wrangle is a confused and noisy altercation. Their whole life was little else than a perpetual wrangling and altercation. Hakewill.


ALTERCATIVE Alter*ca*tive, a. Defn: Characterized by wrangling; scolding. [R.] Fielding.


ALTERITY Al*teri*ty, n. Etym: [F. alt?rit?.] Defn: The state or quality of being other; a being otherwise. [R.] For outness is but the feeling of otherness (alterity) rendered intuitive, or alterity visually represented. Coleridge.


ALTERN Altern, a. Etym: [L. alternus, fr. alter another: cf. F. alterne.] Defn: Acting by turns; alternate. Milton. Altern base (Trig.), a second side made base, in distinction from a side previously regarded as base.


ALTERNACY Al*terna*cy, n. Defn: Alternateness; alternation. [R.] Mitford.


ALTERNANT Al*ternant, a. Etym: [L. alternans, p. pr.: cf. F. alternant. See Alternate, v. t.] (Geol.) Defn: Composed of alternate layers, as some rocks.


ALTERNAT Al`ter`nat, n. [F.] Defn: A usage, among diplomats, of rotation in precedence among representatives of equal rank, sometimes determined by lot and at other times in regular order. The practice obtains in the signing of treaties and conventions between nations.


ALTERNATE Al*ternate, a. Etym: [L. alternatus, p. p. of alternate, fr. alternus. See Altern, Alter.] 1. Being or succeeding by turns; one following the other in succession of time or place; by turns first one and then the other; hence, reciprocal. And bid alternate passions fall and rise. Pope. 2. Designating the members in a series, which regularly intervene between the members of another series, as the odd or even numbers of the numerals; every other; every second; as, the alternate members 1, 3, 5, 7, etc. ; read every alternate line. 3. (Bot.) Defn: Distributed, as leaves, singly at different heights of the stem, and at equal intervals as respects angular divergence. Gray. Alternate alligation. See Alligation. -- Alternate angles (Geom.), the internal and angles made by two lines with a third, on opposite sides of it. It the parallels AB, CD, are cut by the line EF, the angles AGH, GHD, as also the angles BGH and GHC, are called alternate angles. -- Alternate generation. (Biol.) See under Generation.


ALTERNATE Al*ternate, n. 1. That which alternates with something else; vicissitude. [R.] Grateful alternates of substantial. Prior. 2. A substitute; one designated to take the place of another, if necessary, in performing some duty. 3. (Math.) Defn: A proportion derived from another proportion by interchanging the means.


ALTERNATE Alter*nate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Alternated; p. pr. & vb. n. Alternating.] Etym: [L. alternatus, p. p. of alternare. See Altern.] Defn: To perform by turns, or in succession; to cause to succeed by turns; to interchange regularly. The most high God, in all things appertaining unto this life, for sundry wise ends alternates the disposition of good and evil. Grew.


ALTERNATE Alter*nate, v. i. 1. To happen, succeed, or act by turns; to follow reciprocally in place or time; -- followed by with; as, the flood and ebb tides alternate with each other. Rage, shame, and grief alternate in his breast. J. Philips. Different species alternating with each other. Kirwan. 2. To vary by turns; as, the land alternates between rocky hills and sandy plains.


ALTERNATELY Al*ternate*ly, adv. 1. In reciprocal succession; succeeding by turns; in alternate order. 2. (Math.) Defn: By alternation; when, in a proportion, the antecedent term is compared with antecedent, and consequent.


ALTERNATENESS Al*ternate*ness, n. Defn: The quality of being alternate, or of following by turns.


ALTERNATING CURRENT Alter*nat`ing current. (Elec.) Defn: A current which periodically changes or reverses its direction of flow.


ALTERNATION Al`ter*nation, n. Etym: [L. alternatio: cf. F. alternation.] 1. The reciprocal succession of things in time or place; the act of following and being followed by turns; alternate succession, performance, or occurrence; as, the alternation of day and night, cold and heat, summer and winter, hope and fear. 2. (Math.) Defn: Permutation. 3. The response of the congregation speaking alternately with the minister. Mason. Alternation of generation. See under Generation.


ALTERNATIVE Al*terna*tive, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alternatif.] 1. Offering a choice of two things. 2. Disjunctive; as, an alternative conjunction. 3. Alternate; reciprocal. [Obs.] Holland.


ALTERNATIVE Al*terna*tive, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alternative, LL. alternativa.] 1. An offer of two things, one of which may be chosen, but not both; a choice between two things, so that if one is taken, the other must be left. There is something else than the mere alternative of absolute destruction or unreformed existence. Burke. 2. Either of two things or propositions offered to one's choice. Thus when two things offer a choice of one only, the two things are called alternatives. Having to choose between two alternatives, safety and war, you obstinately prefer the worse. Jowett (Thucyd. ). 3. The course of action or the thing offered in place of another. If this demand is refused the alternative is war. Lewis. With no alternative but death. Longfellow. 4. A choice between more than two things; one of several things offered to choose among. My decided preference is for the fourth and last of thalternatives. Gladstone.


ALTERNATIVELY Al*terna*tive*ly, adv. Defn: In the manner of alternatives, or that admits the choice of one out of two things.


ALTERNATIVENESS Al*terna*tive*ness, n. Defn: The quality of being alternative, or of offering a choice between two.


ALTERNATOR Alter*na`tor, n. (Elec.) Defn: An electric generator or dynamo for producing alternating currents.


ALTERNITY Al*terni*ty, n. Etym: [LL. alternitas.] Defn: Succession by turns; alternation. [R.] Sir T. Browne.


ALTHAEA; ALTHEA Al*th?a, Al*thea, n. Etym: [althaea, Gr. (Bot.) (a) A genus of plants of the Mallow family. It includes the officinal marsh mallow, and the garden hollyhocks. (b) An ornamental shrub (Hibiscus Syriacus) of the Mallow family.


ALTHEINE Al*theine, n. (Chem.) Defn: Asparagine.


ALTHING Althing, n. [Icel. (modern) alping, earlier alpingi; allr all + ping assembly. See All, and Thing.] Defn: The national assembly or parliament of Iceland. See Thing, n., 8.


ALTHO Al*tho, conj. Defn: Although. [Reformed spelling] Althorn`, n. Etym: [Alt + horn.] (Mus.) Defn: An instrument of the saxhorn family, used exclusively in military music, often replacing the French horn. Grove.


ALTHORN Althorn`, n. [Alt + horn.] (Mus.) Defn: An instrument of the saxhorn family, used exclusively in military music, often replacing the French horn. Grove.


ALTHOUGH Al*though, conj. Etym: [All + though; OE. al thagh.] Defn: Grant all this; be it that; supposing that; notwithstanding; though. Although all shall be offended, yet will no I. Mark xiv. 29. Syn. -- Although, Though. Although, which originally was perhaps more emphatic than though, is now interchangeable with it in the sense given above. Euphonic consideration determines the choice.


ALTILOQUENCE Al*tilo*quence, n. Defn: Lofty speech; pompous language. [R.] Bailey.


ALTILOQUENT Al*tilo*quent, a. Etym: [L. altus (adv. alte) high + loquens, p. pr. of loqui to speak.] Defn: High-sounding; pompous in speech. [R.] Bailey.


ALTIMETER Al*time*ter, n. Etym: [LL. altimeter; altus high + metrum, Gr. altim?tre.] Defn: An instrument for taking altitudes, as a quadrant, sextant, etc. Knight.


ALTIMETRY Al*time*try, n. Etym: [Cf. F. altim?trie.] Defn: The art of measuring altitudes, or heights.


ALTINCAR Al*tincar, n. Defn: See Tincal.


ALTISCOPE Alti*scope, n. Etym: [L. altus high + Gr. Defn: An arrangement of lenses and mirrors which enables a person to see an object in spite of intervening objects.


ALTISONANT Al*tiso*nant, a. Etym: [L. altus high + sonans, p. pr. of sonare to sound.] Defn: High-sounding; lofty or pompous. Skelton.


ALTISONOUS Al*tiso*nous, a. Etym: [L. altisonus.] Defn: Altisonant.


ALTISSIMO Al*tissi*mo, n. Etym: [It.; superl. of alto.] (Mus.) Defn: The part or notes situated above F in alt.


ALTITUDE Alti*tude, n. Etym: [L. altitudo, fr. altus high. Cf. Altar, Haughty, Enhance.] 1. Space extended upward; height; the perpendicular elevation of an object above its foundation, above the ground, or above a given level, or of one object above another; as, the altitude of a mountain, or of a bird above the top of a tree. 2. (Astron.) Defn: The elevation of a point, or star, or other celestial object, above the horizon, measured by the arc of a vertical circle intercepted between such point and the horizon. It is either true or apparent; true when measured from the rational or real horizon, apparent when from the sensible or apparent horizon. 3. (Geom.) Defn: The perpendicular distance from the base of a figure to the summit, or to the side parallel to the base; as, the altitude of a triangle, pyramid, parallelogram, frustum, etc. 4. Height of degree; highest point or degree. He is [proud] even to the altitude of his virtue. Shak. 5. Height of rank or excellence; superiority. Swift. 6. pl. Defn: Elevation of spirits; heroics; haughty airs. [Colloq.] Richardson. The man of law began to get into his altitude. Sir W. Scott. Meridian altitude, an arc of the meridian intercepted between the south point on the horizon and any point on the meridian. See Meridian, 3.


ALTITUDINAL Al`ti*tudi*nal, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to height; as, altitudinal measurements.


ALTITUDINARIAN Al`ti*tu`di*nari*an, a. Defn: Lofty in doctrine, aims, etc. [R.] Coleridge.


ALTIVOLANT Al*tivo*lant, a. Etym: [L. altivolans. See Volant.] Defn: Flying high. [Obs.] Blount.


ALTO Alto, n.; pl. Altos. Etym: [It. alto high, fr. L. altus. Cf. Alt.] 1. (Mus.) Defn: Formerly the part sung by the highest male, or counter-tenor, voices; now the part sung by the lowest female, or contralto, voices, between in tenor and soprano. In instrumental music it now signifies the tenor. 2. An alto singer. Alto clef (Mus.) the counter-tenor clef, or the C clef, placed so that the two strokes include the middle line of the staff. Moore.


ALTO-CUMULUS Al`to-cumu*lus, n. [L. altus high + L. & E. cumulus.] (Meteor.) Defn: A fleecy cloud formation consisting of large whitish or grayish globular cloudlets with shaded portions, often grouped in flocks or rows.


ALTO-RELIEVO Alto-re*lievo, n. Defn: Alto-rilievo.


ALTO-RILIEVO Alto-ri*lie*vo, n.; pl. Alto-rilievos. Etym: [It.] (Sculp.) Defn: High relief; sculptured work in which the figures project more than half their thickness; as, this figure is an alto-rilievo or in alto-rilievo. Note: When the figure stands only half out, it is called mezzo- rilievo, demi-rilievo, or medium relief; when its projection is less than one half, basso-rilievo, bas-relief, or low relief.


ALTO-STRATUS Al`to-stratus, n. [L. altus high + L. & E. stratus.] (Meteor.) Defn: A cloud formation similar to cirro-stratus, but heavier and at a lower level.


ALTOGETHER Al`to*gether, adv. Etym: [OE. altogedere; al all + togedere together. See Together.] 1. All together; conjointly. [Obs.] Altogether they wenChaucer. 2. Without exception; wholly; completely. Every man at his best state is altogether vanity. Ps. xxxix. 5.


ALTOMETER Al*tome*ter, n. Etym: [L. altus high + -meter.] Defn: A theodolite. Knight.


ALTRICAL Altri*cal, a. (Zo?l.) Defn: Like the articles.


ALTRICES Al*trices, n. pl. Etym: [L., nourishes, pl. of altrix.] (Zo?l.) Defn: Nursers, -- a term applied to those birds whose young are hatched in a very immature and helpless condition, so as to require the care of their parents for some time; -- opposed to pr?coces.


ALTRUISM Altru*ism, n. Etym: [F. altruisme (a word of Comte's), It. altrui of or to others, fr. L. alter another.] Defn: Regard for others, both natural and moral; devotion to the interests of others; brotherly kindness; -- opposed to egoism or selfishness. [Recent] J. S. Mill.


ALTRUIST Altru*ist, n. Defn: One imbued with altruism; -- opposed to egoist.


ALTRUISTIC Al`tru*istic, a. Etym: [Cf. F. altruiste, a. See Altruism..] Defn: Regardful of others; beneficent; unselfish; -- opposed to Ant: egoistic or Ant: selfish. Bain. -- Al`tru*istic*al*ly, adv.


ALUDEL Alu*del, n. Etym: [F. & Sp. aludel, fr. Ar. aluthal.] (Chem.) Defn: One of the pear-shaped pots open at both ends, and so formed as to be fitted together, the neck of one into the bottom of another in succession; -- used in the process of sublimation. Ure.


ALULA Alu*la, n. Etym: [NL., dim. of L. ala a wing.] (Zo?l.) Defn: A false or bastard wing. See under Bastard.


ALULAR Alu*lar, a. (Zo?l.) Defn: Pertaining to the alula.


ALUM Alum, n. Etym: [OE. alum, alom, OF. alum, F. alun, fr. L. alumen alum.] (Chem.) Defn: A double sulphate formed of aluminium and some other element (esp. an alkali metal) or of aluminium. It has twenty-four molecules of water of crystallization. Note: Common alum is the double sulphate of aluminium and potassium. It is white, transparent, very astringent, and crystallizes easily in octahedrons. The term is extended so as to include other double sulphates similar to alum in formula.


ALUM Alum, v. t. Defn: To steep in, or otherwise impregnate with, a solution of alum; to treat with alum. Ure.


ALUM ROOT Alum root`. (Bot.) Defn: A North American herb (Heuchera Americana) of the Saxifrage family, whose root has astringent properties.


ALUM SCHIST; ALUM SHALE Alum schist, Alum shale, (Min.) Defn: A variety of shale or clay slate, containing iron pyrites, the decomposition of which leads to the formation of alum, which often effloresces on the rock.


ALUM STONE Alum stone`. (Min.) Defn: A subsulphate of alumina and potash; alunite.


ALUMEN A*lumen, n. Etym: [L.] (Chem.) Defn: Alum.


ALUMINA A*lumi*na, n. Etym: [L. alumen, aluminis. See Alum.] (Chem.) Defn: One of the earths, consisting of two parts of aluminium and three of oxygen, Al2O3. Note: It is the oxide of the metal aluminium, the base of aluminous salts, a constituent of a large part of the earthy siliceous minerals, as the feldspars, micas, scapolites, etc., and the characterizing ingredient of common clay, in which it exists as an impure silicate with water, resulting from the decomposition of other aluminous minerals. In its natural state, it is the mineral corundum.


ALUMINATE A*lu`mi*nate, n. (Chem.) Defn: A compound formed from the hydrate of aluminium by the substitution of a metal for the hydrogen.


ALUMINATED A*lumi*na`ted. a. Defn: Combined with alumina.


ALUMINE Alu*mine, n. Etym: [F.] Defn: Alumina. Davy.


ALUMINIC Al`u*minic, a. Defn: Of or containing aluminium; as, aluminic phosphate.

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