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ALGORISM; ALGORITHM Algo*rism, Algo*rithm, n. Etym: [OE. algorism, algrim, augrim, OF. algorisme, F. algorithme (cf. Sp. algoritmo, OSp. alguarismo, LL. algorismus), fr. the Ar. al-Khowarezmi of Khowarezm, the modern Khiwa, surname of Abu Ja'far Mohammed ben Musa, author of a work on arithmetic early in the 9th century, which was translated into Latin, such books bearing the name algorismus. The spelling with th is due to a supposed connection with Gr. 1. The art of calculating by nine figures and zero. 2. The art of calculating with any species of notation; as, the algorithms of fractions, proportions, surds, etc.


ALGOUS Algous, a. Etym: [L. algosus, fr. alga seaweed.] Defn: Of or pertaining to the alg?, or seaweeds; abounding with, or like, seaweed.


ALGUAZIL Al`gua*zil, n. Etym: [Sp. alguacil, fr. Ar. alwazir the vizier. Cf. Vizier.] Defn: An inferior officer of justice in Spain; a warrant officer; a constable. Prescott.


ALGUM Algum, n. Defn: Same as Almug (and etymologically preferable). 2 Chron. ii. 8.


ALHAMBRA Al*hambra, n. Etym: [Ultimately fr. Ar. al the + hamra red; i. e., the red (sc. house).] Defn: The palace of the Moorish kings at Granada.


ALHAMBRAIC; ALHAMBRESQUE Al`ham*braic, Al`ham*bresque, a. Defn: Made or decorated after the fanciful style of the ornamentation in the Alhambra, which affords an unusually fine exhibition of Saracenic or Arabesque architecture.


ALHENNA Al*henna, n. Defn: See Henna.


ALIAS Ali*as, adv. Etym: [L., fr. alius. See Else.] (Law) (a) Otherwise; otherwise called; -- a term used in legal proceedings to connect the different names of any one who has gone by two or more, and whose true name is for any cause doubtful; as, Smith, alias Simpson. (b) At another time.


ALIAS Ali*as, n.; pl. Aliases. Etym: [L., otherwise, at another time.]Etym: (Law) (a) A second or further writ which is issued after a first writ has expired without effect. (b) Another name; an assumed name.


ALIBI Ali*bi, n. Etym: [L., elsewhere, at another place. See Alias.] (Law) Defn: The plea or mode of defense under which a person on trial for a crime proves or attempts to prove that he was in another place when the alleged act was committed; as, to set up an alibi; to prove an alibi.


ALIBILITY Al`i*bili*ty, n. Defn: Quality of being alible.


ALIBLE Ali*ble, a. Etym: [L. alibilis, fr. alere to nourish.] Defn: Nutritive; nourishing.


ALICANT Ali*cant, n. Defn: A kind of wine, formerly much esteemed; -- said to have been made near Alicant, in Spain. J. Fletcher.


ALIDADE Ali*dade, n. Etym: [LL. alidada, alhidada, fr. Ar. al-'idada a sort of rule: cf. F. alidade.] Defn: The portion of a graduated instrument, as a quadrant or astrolabe, carrying the sights or telescope, and showing the degrees cut off on the arc of the instrument Whewell.


ALIEN Alien, a. Etym: [OF. alien, L. alienus, fr. alius another; properly, therefore, belonging to another. See Else.] 1. Not belonging to the same country, land, or government, or to the citizens or subjects thereof; foreign; as, alien subjects, enemies, property, shores. 2. Wholly different in nature; foreign; adverse; inconsistent (with); incongruous; -- followed by from or sometimes by to; as, principles alien from our religion. An alien sound of melancholy. Wordsworth. Alien enemy (Law), one who owes allegiance to a government at war with ours. Abbott.


ALIEN Alien, n. 1. A foreigner; one owing allegiance, or belonging, to another country; a foreign-born resident of a country in which he does not posses the privileges of a citizen. Hence, a stranger. See Alienage. 2. One excluded from certain privileges; one alienated or estranged; as, aliens from God's mercies. Aliens from the common wealth of Israel. Ephes. ii. 12.


ALIEN Alien, v. t. Etym: [F. ali?ner, L. alienare.] Defn: To alienate; to estrange; to transfer, as property or ownership. [R.] It the son alien lands. Sir M. Hale. The prince was totally aliened from all thoughts of . . . the marriage. Clarendon.


ALIENABILITY Al`ien*a*bili*ty, n. Defn: Capability of being alienated. The alienability of the domain. Burke.


ALIENABLE Alien*a*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. F. ali?nable.] Defn: Capable of being alienated, sold, or transferred to another; as, land is alienable according to the laws of the state.


ALIENAGE Alien*age, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. ali?nage.] 1. The state or legal condition of being an alien. Note: The disabilities of alienage are removable by naturalization or by special license from the State of residence, and in some of the United States by declaration of intention of naturalization. Kent. Wharton. Estates forfeitable on account of alienage. Story. 2. The state of being alienated or transferred to another. Brougham.


ALIENATE Alien*ate, a. Etym: [L. alienatus, p. p. of alienare, fr. alienus. See Alien, and cf. Aliene.] Defn: Estranged; withdrawn in affection; foreign; -- with from. O alienate from God. Milton.


ALIENATE Alien*ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Alienated; p. pr. & vb. n. Alienating.] 1. To convey or transfer to another, as title, property, or right; to part voluntarily with ownership of. 2. To withdraw, as the affections; to make indifferent of averse, where love or friendship before subsisted; to estrange; to wean; -- with from. The errors which . . . alienated a loyal gentry and priesthood from the House of Stuart. Macaulay. The recollection of his former life is a dream that only the more alienates him from the realities of the present. I. Taylor.


ALIENATE Alien*ate, n. Defn: A stranger; an alien. [Obs.]


ALIENATION Al`ien*ation, n. Etym: [F. ali?nation, L. alienatio, fr. alienare, fr. alienare. See Alienate.] 1. The act of alienating, or the state of being alienated. 2. (Law) Defn: A transfer of title, or a legal conveyance of property to another. 3. A withdrawing or estrangement, as of the affections. The alienation of his heart from the king. Bacon. 4. Mental alienation; derangement of the mental faculties; insanity; as, alienation of mind. Syn. -- Insanity; lunacy; madness; derangement; aberration; mania; delirium; frenzy; dementia; monomania. See Insanity.


ALIENATOR Alien*ator, n. Defn: One who alienates.


ALIENE Al*iene, v. t. Defn: To alien or alienate; to transfer, as title or property; as, to aliene an estate.


ALIENEE Alien*ee, n. (Law) Defn: One to whom the title of property is transferred; -- opposed to alienor. It the alienee enters and keeps possession. Blackstone.


ALIENISM Alien*ism, n. 1. The status or legal condition of an alien; alienage. The law was very gentle in the construction of the disability of alienism. Kent. 2. The study or treatment of diseases of the mind.


ALIENIST Alien*ist, n. Etym: [F. ali?niste.] Defn: One who treats diseases of the mind. Ed. Rev.


ALIENOR Al`ien*or, n. Etym: [OF. ali?neur.] Defn: One who alienates or transfers property to another. Blackstone.


ALIETHMOID; ALIETHMOIDAL Al`i*ethmoid, Al`i*eth*moidal, a. Etym: [L. ala wing + E. ethomoid.] (Anat.) Defn: Pertaining to expansions of the ethmoid bone or


ALIFE A*life, adv. Etym: [Cf. lief dear.] Defn: On my life; dearly. [Obs.] I love that sport alife. Beau. & Fl.


ALIFEROUS A*lifer*ous, a. Etym: [L. ala wing + -ferous.] Defn: Having wings, winged; aligerous. [R.]


ALIFORM Ali*form, a. Etym: [L. ala wing + -form.] Defn: Wing-shaped; winglike.


ALIGEROUS A*liger*ous, a. Etym: [L. aliger; ala wing + gerere to carry.] Defn: Having wings; winged. [R.]


ALIGHT A*light, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Alighted sometimes Alit; p. pr. & vb. n. Alighting.] Etym: [OE. alihten, fr. AS. alihtan; pref. a- (cf. Goth. us-, G. er-, orig. meaning out) + lihtan, to alight, orig. to render light, to remove a burden from, fr. liht, leoht, light. See Light, v. i.] 1. To spring down, get down, or descend, as from on horseback or from a carriage; to dismount. 2. To descend and settle, lodge, rest, or stop; as, a flying bird alights on a tree; snow alights on a roof. 3. To come or chance (upon). [R.]


ALIGHT A*light, a. Etym: [Pref. a- + light.] Defn: Lighted; lighted up; in a flame. The lamps were alight. Dickens.


ALIGN A*lign, v. t. Etym: [F. aligner; ? (L. ad) + ligne (L. linea) line. See Line, and cf. Allineate.] Defn: To adjust or form to a line; to range or form in line; to bring into line; to aline.


ALIGN A*lign, v. t. Defn: To form in line; to fall into line.


ALIGNMENT A*lignment, n. Etym: [F. alignement.] 1. The act of adjusting to a line; arrangement in a line or lines; the state of being so adjusted; a formation in a straight line; also, the line of adjustment; esp., an imaginary line to regulate the formation of troops or of a squadron. 2. (Engin.) Defn: The ground-plan of a railway or other road, in distinction from the grades or profile.


ALIKE A*like, a. Etym: [AS. onlic, gelic; pref. a + like.] Defn: Having resemblance or similitude; similar; without difference. [Now used only predicatively.] The darkness and the light are both alike to thee. Ps. cxxxix. 12.


ALIKE A*like, adv. Etym: [AS. gelice, onlice.] Defn: In the same manner, form, or degree; in common; equally; as, we are all alike concerne.


ALIKE-MINDED A*like-mind`ed, a. Defn: Like-minded. [Obs.]


ALIMENT Ali*ment, n. Etym: [L. alimentum, fr. alere to nourish; akin to Goth. alan to grow, Icel. ala to nourish: cf. F. aliment. See Old.] 1. That which nourishes; food; nutriment; anything which feeds or adds to a substance in natural growth. Hence: The necessaries of life generally: sustenance; means of support. Aliments of theiBacon. 2. An allowance for maintenance. [Scot.]


ALIMENT Ali*ment, v. t. 1. To nourish; to support. 2. To provide for the maintenance of. [Scot.]


ALIMENTAL Al`i*mental, a. Defn: Supplying food; having the quality of nourishing; furnishing the materials for natural growth; as, alimental sap.


ALIMENTALLY A`li*mental*ly, adv. Defn: So as to serve for nourishment or food; nourishing quality. Sir T. Browne.


ALIMENTARINESS Al`i*menta*ri*ness, n. Defn: The quality of being alimentary; nourishing quality. [R.]


ALIMENTARY Al`i*menta*ry, a. Etym: [L. alimentarius, fr. alimentum: cf. F. alimentaire.] Defn: Pertaining to aliment or food, or to the function of nutrition; nutritious; alimental; as, alimentary substances. Alimentary canal, the entire channel, extending from the mouth to the anus, by which aliments are conveyed through the body, and the useless parts ejected.


ALIMENTATION Al`i*men*tation, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alimentation, LL. alimentatio.] 1. The act or process of affording nutriment; the function of the alimentary canal. 2. State or mode of being nourished. Bacon.


ALIMENTIVENESS Al`i*mentive*ness, n. Defn: The instinct or faculty of appetite for food. [Chiefly in Phrenol.]


ALIMONIOUS Al`i*moni*ous, a. Defn: Affording food; nourishing. [R.] Alimonious humors. Harvey.


ALIMONY Ali*mo*ny, n. Etym: [L. alimonia, alimonium, nourishment, sustenance, fr. alere to nourish.] 1. Maintenance; means of living. 2. (Law) Defn: An allowance made to a wife out of her husband's estate or income for her support, upon her divorce or legal separation from him, or during a suit for the same. Wharton. Burrill.


ALINASAL Al`i*nasal, a. Etym: [L. ala wing + E. nasal.] (Anat.) Defn: Pertaining to expansions of the nasal bone or cartilage.


ALINE A*line, v. t. Defn: To range or place in a line; to bring into line; to align. Evelyn.


ALINEATION A*lin`e*ation, n. Defn: See Allineation.


ALINEMENT A*linement, n. Defn: Same as Alignment. Note: [The Eng. form alinement is preferable to alignment, a bad spelling of the French]. New Eng. Dict. (Murray).


ALINER A*liner, n. Defn: One who adjusts things to a line or lines or brings them into line. Evelyn.


ALIOTH Ali*oth, n. Etym: [Ar. alyat the tail of a fat sheep.] (Astron.) Defn: A star in the tail of the Great Bear, the one next the bowl in the Dipper.


ALIPED Ali*ped, a. Etym: [L. alipes; ala wing + pes, pedis, foot: cf. F. alip?de.] (Zo?l.) Defn: Wing-footed, as the bat. -- n. Defn: An animal whose toes are connected by a membrane, serving for a wing, as the bat.


ALIPHATIC Al`i*phatic, a. [Gr. , , oil, fat.] (Org. Chem.) Defn: Of, pertaining to, or derived from, fat; fatty; -- applied to compounds having an openc-hain structure. The aliphatic compounds thus include not only the fatty acids and other derivatives of the paraffin hydrocarbons, but also unsaturated compounds, as the ethylene and acetylene series.


ALIQUANT Ali*quant, a. Etym: [L. aliquantus some, moderate; alius other + quantus how great: cf. F. aliquante.] (Math.) Defn: An aliquant part of a number or quantity is one which does not divide it without leaving a remainder; thus, 5 is an aliquant part of 16. Opposed to aliquot.


ALIQUOT Ali*quot, a. Etym: [L. aliquot some, several; alius other + quot how many: cf. F. aliquote.] (Math.) Defn: An aliquot part of a number or quantity is one which will divide it without a remainder; thus, 5 is an aliquot part of 15. Opposed to aliquant.


ALISEPTAL Al`i*septal, a. Etym: [L. ala wing + E. septal.] (Anat.) Defn: Relating to expansions of the nasal septum.


ALISH Alish, a. Defn: Like ale; as, an alish taste.


ALISPHENOID Al`i*sphenoid, n. (Anat.) Defn: The alisphenoid bone.


ALISPHENOID; ALISPHENOIDAL Al`i*sphenoid, Al`i*sphe*noidal, a. Etym: [L. ala wing + E. sphenoid.] (Anat.) Defn: Pertaining to or forming the wing of the sphenoid; relating to a bone in the base of the skull, which in the adult is often consolidated with the sphenoid; as, alisphenoid bone; alisphenoid canal.


ALITRUNK Ali*trunk, n. Etym: [L. ala wing + truncus trunk.] (Zo?l.) Defn: The segment of the body of an insect to which the wings are attached; the thorax. Kirby.


ALITURGICAL Al`i*turgic*al, a. Etym: [Pref. a- + liturgical.] (Eccl.) Defn: Applied to those days when the holy sacrifice is not offered. Shipley.


ALIUNDE A`li*unde, adv. & a. Etym: [L.] (Law) Defn: From another source; from elsewhere; as, a case proved aliunde; evidence aliunde.


ALIVE A*live, a. Etym: [OE. on live, AS. on life in life; life being dat. of lif life. See Life, and cf. Live, a.] 1. Having life, in opposition to dead; living; being in a state in which the organs perform their functions; as, an animal or a plant which is alive. 2. In a state of action; in force or operation; unextinguished; unexpired; existent; as, to keep the fire alive; to keep the affections alive. 3. Exhibiting the activity and motion of many living beings; swarming; thronged. The Boyne, for a quarter of a mile, was alive with muskets and green boughs. Macaulay. 4. Sprightly; lively; brisk. Richardson. 5. Having susceptibility; easily impressed; having lively feelings, as opposed to apathy; sensitive. Tremblingly alive to nature's laws. Falconer. 6. Of all living (by way of emphasis). Northumberland was the proudest man alive. Clarendon. Note: Used colloquially as an intensive; as, man alive! Note: Alive always follows the noun which it qualifies.


ALIZARI A`li*zari, n. Etym: [Perh. fr. Ar. 'a juice extracted from a plant, fr. 'a to press.] (Com.) Defn: The madder of the Levant. Brande & C.


ALIZARIN A*liza*rin, n. Etym: [F. alizarine, fr. alizari.] (Chem.) Defn: A coloring principle, C14H6O2(OH)2, found in madder, and now produced artificially from anthracene. It produces the Turkish reds.


ALKAHEST Alka*hest, n. Etym: [LL. alchahest, F. alcahest, a word that has an Arabic appearance, but was probably arbitrarily formed by Paracelsus.] Defn: The fabled universal solvent of the alchemists; a menstruum capable of dissolving all bodies. -- Al`ka*hestic, a.


ALKALAMIDE Al`kal*amide, n. Etym: [Alkali + amide.] (Chem.) Defn: One of a series of compounds that may be regarded as ammonia in which a part of the hydrogen has been replaced by basic, and another part by acid, atoms or radicals.


ALKALESCENCE; ALKALESCENCY Al`ka*les`cence, Al`ka*lescen*cy, n. Defn: A tendency to become alkaline; or the state of a substance in which alkaline properties begin to be developed, or to predominant. Ure.


ALKALESCENT Al`ka*lescent, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alcalescent.] Defn: Tending to the properties of an alkali; slightly alkaline.


ALKALI Alka*li, n.; pl. Alkalis or Alkalies. Etym: [F. alcali, ultimately fr. Ar. alqali ashes of the plant saltwort, fr. qalay to roast in a pan, fry.] 1. Soda ash; caustic soda, caustic potash, etc. 2. (Chem.) Defn: One of a class of caustic bases, such as soda, potash, ammoma, and lithia, whose distinguishing peculiarities are solubility in alcohol and water, uniting with oils and fats to form soap, neutralizing and forming salts with acids, turning to brown several vegetable yellows, and changing reddened litmus to blue. Fixed alkalies, potash and soda. -- Vegetable alkalies. Same as Alkaloids. -- Volatile alkali, ammonia, so called in distinction from the fixed alkalies.


ALKALI FLAT Alkali flat. Defn: A sterile plain, containing an excess of alkali, at the bottom of an undrained basin in an arid region; a playa.


ALKALI SOIL Alkali soil. Defn: Any one of various soils found in arid and semiarid regions, containing an unusual amount of soluble mineral salts which effloresce in the form of a powder or crust (usually white) in dry weather following rains or irrigation. The basis of these salts is mainly soda with a smaller amount of potash, and usually a little lime and magnesia. Two main classes of alkali are commonly distinguished: black alkali, which may be any alkaline carbonate, but which practically consists of sodium carbonate (sal soda), which is highly corrosive and destructive to vegetation; and white alkali, characterized by the presence of sodium sulphate (Glauber's salt), which is less injurious to vegetation. Black alkali is so called because water containing it dissolves humus, forming a dark-colored solution which, when it collects in puddles and evaporates, produces characteristic black spots.


ALKALI WASTE Alkali waste. Defn: Waste material from the manufacture of alkali; specif., soda waste.


ALKALIFIABLE Alka*li*fi`a*ble, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alcalifiable.] Defn: Capable of being alkalified, or converted into an alkali.


ALKALIFY Alka*li*fy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Alkalified; p. pr. & vb. n. Alkalifying.] Etym: [Alkali + -fly: cf. F. alcalifier.] Defn: To convert into an alkali; to give alkaline properties to.


ALKALIFY Alka*li*fy, v. i. Defn: To become changed into an alkali.


ALKALIMETER Al`ka*lime*ter, n. Etym: [Alkali + -meter. cf. F. alcalim?tre.] Defn: An instrument to ascertain the strength of alkalies, or the quantity of alkali in a mixture.


ALKALIMETRIC; ALKALIMETRICAL Al`ka*li*metric, Al`ka*li*metric*al, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to alkalimetry.


ALKALIMETRY Al`ka*lime*try, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alcalim?trie.] (Chem.) Defn: The art or process of ascertaining the strength of alkalies, or the quantity present in alkaline mixtures.


ALKALINE Alka*line, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alcalin.] Defn: Of or pertaining to an alkali or to alkalies; having the properties of an alkali. Alkaline earths, certain substances, as lime, baryta, strontia, and magnesia, possessing some of the qualities of alkalies. -- Alkaline metals, potassium, sodium, c?sium, lithium, rubidium. -- Alkaline reaction, a reaction indicating alkalinity, as by the action on limits, turmeric, etc.


ALKALINITY Al`ka*lini*ty, n. Defn: The quality which constitutes an alkali; alkaline property. Thomson.


ALKALIOUS Al*kali*ous, a. Defn: Alkaline. [Obs.]


ALKALIZATE Alka*li*zate, a. Defn: Alkaline. [Obs.] Boyle.


ALKALIZATE Alka*li**zate, v. t. Defn: To alkalizate. [R.] Johnson.


ALKALIZATION Al`ka*li*zation, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alcalisation.] Defn: The act rendering alkaline by impregnating with an alkali; a conferring of alkaline qualities.


ALKALIZE Alka*lize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Alkalized; p. pr. & vb. n. Alkalizing.] Etym: [Cf. F. alcaliser.] Defn: To render alkaline; to communicate the properties of an alkali to.


ALKALOID Alka*loid, n. (Chem.) Defn: An organic base, especially one of a class of substances occurring ready formed in the tissues of plants and the bodies of animals. Note: Alcaloids all contain nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen, and many of them also contain oxygen. They include many of the active principles in plants; thus, morphine and narcotine are alkaloids found in opium.


ALKALOID; ALKALOIDAL Alka*loid, Al`ka*loidal, a. Etym: [Alkali + -oid: cf. F. alcalo?de.] Defn: Pertaining to, resembling, or containing, alkali.


ALKANET Alka*net, n. Etym: [Dim. of Sp. alcana, alhe, in which al is the Ar. article. See Henna, and cf. Orchanet.] 1. (Chem.) Defn: A dyeing matter extracted from the roots of Alkanna tinctoria, which gives a fine deep red color. 2. (Bot.) (a) A boraginaceous herb (Alkanna tinctoria) yielding the dye; orchanet. (b) The similar plant Anchusa officinalis; bugloss; also, the American puccoon.


ALKARGEN Al*kargen, n. Etym: [Alkarsin + oxygen.] (Chem.) Defn: Same as Cacodylic acid.


ALKARSIN Al*karsin, n. Etym: [Alkali + arsenic + -in.] (Chem.) Defn: A spontaneously inflammable liquid, having a repulsive odor, and consisting of cacodyl and its oxidation products; -- called also Cadel's fuming liquid.


ALKAZAR Al*kazar. Defn: See Alcazar.

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