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ALBINISTIC Al`bi*nistic, a. Defn: Affected with albinism.


ALBINO Al*bino, n.; pl. Albinos. Etym: [Sp. or Pg. albino, orig. whitish, fr. albo white, L. albus.] Defn: A person, whether negro, Indian, or white, in whom by some defect of organization the substance which gives color to the skin, hair, and eyes is deficient or in a morbid state. An albino has a skin of a milky hue, with hair of the same color, and eyes with deep red pupil and pink or blue iris. The term is also used of the lower animals, as white mice, elephants, etc.; and of plants in a whitish condition from the absence of chlorophyll. Amer. Cyc. Note: The term was originally applied by the Portuguese to negroes met with on the coast of Africa, who were mottled with white spots.


ALBINOISM Al*bino*ism, n. Defn: The state or condition of being an albino; albinism.


ALBINOTIC Al`bi*notic, a. Defn: Affected with albinism.


ALBION Albi*on, n. Etym: [Prob. from the same root as Gael. alp a height or hill. It may have been bestowed on the land lying behind the white cliffs visible from the coast of Gaul. Albany, the old name of Scotland, means probably the hilly land. I. Taylor.] Defn: An ancient name of England, still retained in poetry. In that nook-shotten isle of Albion. Shak.


ALBITE Albite, n. Etym: [L. albus white.] (Min.) Defn: A mineral of the feldspar family, triclinic in crystallization, and in composition a silicate of alumina and soda. It is a common constituent of granite and of various igneous rocks. See Feldspar.


ALBOLITH Albo*lith, n. Etym: [L. albus white + -lith.] Defn: A kind of plastic cement, or artificial stone, consisting chiefly of magnesia and silica; -- called also albolite.


ALBORAK Albo*rak, n. Etym: [Ar. al-buraq, fr. baraqa to flash, shine.] Defn: The imaginary milk-white animal on which Mohammed was said to have been carried up to heaven; a white mule.


ALBUGINEOUS Al`bu*gine*ous, a. Etym: [See Albugo.] Defn: Of the nature of, or resembling, the white of the eye, or of an egg; albuminous; -- a term applied to textures, humors, etc., which are perfectly white.


ALBUGO Al*bugo, n.; pl. Albugines. Etym: [L., whiteness, fr. albus white.] (Med.) Defn: Same as Leucoma.


ALBUM Album, n. Etym: [L., neut. of albus white: cf. F. album. Cf. Alb.] 1. (Rom. Antiq.) Defn: A white tablet on which anything was inscribed, as a list of names, etc. 2. A register for visitors' names; a visitors' book. 3. A blank book, in which to insert autographs sketches, memorial writing of friends, photographs, etc.


ALBUM GRAECUM Album Gr?cum. Etym: [L., Greek white.] Defn: Dung of dogs or hyenas, which becomes white by exposure to air. It is used in dressing leather, and was formerly used in medicine.


ALBUMEN Al*bumen, n. Etym: [L., fr. albus white.] 1. The white of an egg. 2. (Bot.) Defn: Nourishing matter stored up within the integuments of the seed in many plants, but not incorporated in the embryo. It is the floury part in corn, wheat, and like grains, the oily part in poppy seeds, the fleshy part in the cocoanut, etc. 3. (Chem.) Defn: Same as Albumin.


ALBUMENIZE Al*bumen*ize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Albumenized; p. pr. & vb. n. Albumenizing.] Defn: To cover or saturate with albumen; to coat or treat with an albuminous solution; as, to albuminize paper.


ALBUMIN Al*bumin, n. (Chem.) Defn: A thick, viscous nitrogenous substance, which is the chief and characteristic constituent of white of eggs and of the serum of blood, and is found in other animal substances, both fluid and solid, also in many plants. It is soluble in water is coagulated by heat ad by certain chemical reagents. Acid albumin, a modification of albumin produced by the action of dilute acids. It is not coagulated by heat. -- Alkali albumin, albumin as modified by the action of alkaline substances; -- called also albuminate.


ALBUMINATE Al*bumi*nate, n. (Chem.) Defn: A substance produced by the action of an alkali upon albumin, and resembling casein in its properties; also, a compound formed by the union of albumin with another substance.


ALBUMINIFEROUS Al*bu`mi*nifer*ous, a. Etym: [L. albumen + -ferous.] Defn: Supplying albumen.


ALBUMINIMETER Al*bu`mi*nime*ter, n. Etym: [L. albumen, albuminis + -meter: cf. F. albuminim?tre.] Defn: An instrument for ascertaining the quantity of albumen in a liquid.


ALBUMININ Al*bumi*nin, n. (Chem.) Defn: The substance of the cells which inclose the white of birds' eggs.


ALBUMINIPAROUS Al*bu`mi*nipa*rous, a. Etym: [L. albumen + parere to bear, bring forth.] Defn: Producing albumin.


ALBUMINOID Al*bumi*noid, a. Etym: [L. albumen + -oid.] (Chem.) Defn: Resembling albumin. -- n. Defn: One of a class of organic principles (called also proteids) which form the main part of organized tissues. Brunton.


ALBUMINOIDAL Al*bu`mi*noidal, a. (Chem.) Defn: Of the nature of an albuminoid.


ALBUMINOSE Al*bumi*nose`, n. (Chem.) Defn: A diffusible substance formed from albumin by the action of natural or artificial gastric juice. See Peptone.


ALBUMINOSIS Al*bu`mi*nosis, n. [NL., fr. E. albumin.] (Med.) Defn: A morbid condition due to excessive increase of albuminous elements in the blood.


ALBUMINOUS; ALBUMINOSE Al*bumi*nous, Al*bumi*nose`, a. Etym: [Cf. F. albumineux.] Defn: Pertaining to, or containing, albumen; having the properties of, or resembling, albumen or albumin. -- Al*bumi*nous*ness, n.


ALBUMINURIA Al*bu`mi*nuri*a, n. Etym: [NL., fr. L. albumen + Gr. (Med.) Defn: A morbid condition in which albumin is present in the urine.


ALBUMOSE Albu*mose`, n. Etym: [From albumin.] (Chem.) Defn: A compound or class of compounds formed from albumin by dilute acids or by an acid solution of pepsin. Used also in combination, as antialbumose, hemialbumose.


ALBURN Alburn, n. Etym: [L. alburnus, fr. L. albus white. Cf. Auburn.] (Zo?l.) Defn: The bleak, a small European fish having scales of a peculiarly silvery color which are used in making artificial pearls.


ALBURNOUS Al*burnous, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to alburnum; of the alburnum; as, alburnous substances.


ALBURNUM Al*burnum, n. Etym: [L., fr. albus white.] (Bot.) Defn: The white and softer part of wood, between the inner bark and the hard wood or duramen; sapwood.


ALBYN Albyn, n. Etym: [See Albion.] Defn: Scotland; esp. the Highlands of Scotland. T. Cambell.


ALCADE Al*cade, n. Defn: Same as Alcaid.


ALCAHEST Alca*hest, n. Defn: Same as Alkahest.


ALCAIC Al*caic, a. Etym: [L. Alca?cus, Gr. Defn: Pertaining to Alc?us, a lyric poet of Mitylene, about 6000 b. c. -- n. A kind of verse, so called from Alc?us. One variety consists of five feet, a spondee or iambic, an iambic, a long syllable, and two dactyls.


ALCAID; ALCAYDE Al*caid, Al*cayde, n. Etym: [Sp. alcaide, fr. Ar. al-qa\'c6d governor, fr. qada to lead, govern.] 1. A commander of a castle or fortress among the Spaniards, Portuguese, and Moors. 2. The warden, or keeper of a jail.


ALCALDE Al*calde, n. Etym: [Sp. alcalde, fr. Ar. al-qadi judge, fr. qada to decide, judge. Hence, the cadi of the Turks. Cf. Cadi.] Defn: A magistrate or judge in Spain and in Spanish America, etc. Prescott. Note: Sometimes confounded with Alcaid.


ALCALDIA Al`cal*dia, n. [Sp. Alcald?a.] Defn: The jurisdiction or office of an alcalde; also, the building or chamber in which he conducts the business of his office.


ALCALIMETER Al`ca*lime*ter, n. Defn: See Alkalimeter.


ALCANNA Al*canna, n. Etym: [Sp. alcana, alhe, fr. Ar. al-hinna. See Henna, and cf. Alkanet.] (Bot.) Defn: An oriental shrub (Lawsonia inermis) from which henna is obtained.


ALCARRAZA Al`car*raza, n.; pl. Alcarrazas. Etym: [Sp., from Ar. al-kurraz earthen vessel.] Defn: A vessel of porous earthenware, used for cooling liquids by evaporation from the exterior surface.


ALCAYDE Al*cayde, n. Defn: Same as Alcaid.


ALCAZAR Al*cazar, n. Etym: [ fr. Ar. al the + qacr (in pl.) a castle.] Defn: A fortress; also, a royal palace. Prescott.


ALCEDO Al*cedo, n. Etym: [L., equiv. to Gr. Halcyon.] (Zo?l.) Defn: A genus of perching birds, including the European kingfisher (Alcedo ispida). See Halcyon.


ALCHEMIC; ALCHEMICAL Al*chemic, Al*chemic*al, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alchimique.] Defn: Of or relating to alchemy.


ALCHEMICALLY Al*chemic*al*ly, adv. Defn: In the manner of alchemy.


ALCHEMIST Alche*mist, n. Etym: [Cf. OF. alquemiste, F. alchimiste.] Defn: One who practices alchemy. You are alchemist; make gold. Shak.


ALCHEMISTIC; ALCHEMISTICAL Al`che*mistic, Al`che*mistic*al, a. Defn: Relating to or practicing alchemy. Metaphysical and alchemistical legislators. Burke.


ALCHEMISTRY Alche*mis*try, n. Defn: Alchemy. [Obs.]


ALCHEMIZE Alche*mize, v. t. Defn: To change by alchemy; to transmute. Lovelace.


ALCHEMY Alche*my, n. Etym: [OF. alkemie, arquemie, F. alchimie, Ar. al- kimia, fr. late Gr. alquimia, It. alchimia. Gr. fundere to pour, Goth. guitan, AS. ge?tan, to pour, and so to E. fuse. See Fuse, and cf. Chemistry.] 1. An imaginary art which aimed to transmute the baser metals into gold, to find the panacea, or universal remedy for diseases, etc. It led the way to modern chemistry. 2. A mixed metal composed mainly of brass, formerly used for various utensils; hence, a trumpet. [Obs.] Put to their mouths the sounding alchemy. Milton. 3. Miraculous power of transmuting something common into something precious. Kissing with golden face the meadows green, Gilding pale streams with heavenly alchemy. Shak.


ALCHYMIC; ALCHYMIST; ALCHYMISTIC; ALCHYMY Al*chymic, a., Alchy*mist, n., Al`chy*mistic, a., Alchy*my, n. Defn: See Alchemic, Alchemist, Alchemistic, Alchemy.


ALCO Alco, n. Defn: A small South American dog, domesticated by the aborigines.


ALCOATE; ALCOHATE Alco*ate, Alco*hate, n. Defn: Shortened forms of Alcoholate.


ALCOHOL Alco*hol, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alcool, formerly written alcohol, Sp. alcohol alcohol, antimony, galena, OSp. alcofol; all fr. Ar. al-kohl a powder of antimony or galena, to paint the eyebrows with. The name was afterwards applied, on account of the fineness of this powder, to highly rectified spirits, a signification unknown in Arabia. The Sp. word has bot meanings. Cf. Alquifou.] 1. An impalpable powder. [Obs.] 2. The fluid essence or pure spirit obtained by distillation. [Obs.] Boyle. 3. Pure spirit of wine; pure or highly rectified spirit (called also ethyl alcohol); the spirituous or intoxicating element of fermented or distilled liquors, or more loosely a liquid containing it in considerable quantity. It is extracted by simple distillation from various vegetable juices and infusions of a saccharine nature, which have undergone vinous fermentation. Note: As used in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, alcohol contains 91 per cent by weight of ethyl alcohol and 9 per cent of water; and diluted alcohol (proof spirit) contains 45.5 per cent by weight of ethyl alcohol and 54.5 per cent of water. 4. (Organic Chem.) Defn: A class of compounds analogous to vinic alcohol in constitution. Chemically speaking, they are hydroxides of certain organic radicals; as, the radical ethyl forms common or ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH); methyl forms methyl alcohol (CH3.OH) or wood spirit; amyl forms amyl alcohol (C5H11.OH) or fusel oil, etc.


ALCOHOLATE Alco*hol*ate, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alcolaie.] (Chem.) Defn: A crystallizable compound of a salt with alcohol, in which the latter plays a part analogous to that of water of crystallization. Graham.


ALCOHOLATURE Al`co*hola*ture, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alcoolature.] (Med.) Defn: An alcoholic tincture prepared with fresh plants. New Eng. Dict.


ALCOHOLIC Al`co*holic, a. Etym: [Cf. F. alcolique.] Defn: Of or pertaining to alcohol, or partaking of its qualities; derived from, or caused by, alcohol; containing alcohol; as, alcoholic mixtures; alcoholic gastritis; alcoholic odor.


ALCOHOLIC Al`co*holic, n. 1. A person given to the use of alcoholic liquors. 2. pl. Defn: Alcoholic liquors.


ALCOHOLISM Alco*hol*ism, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alcoolisme.] (Med.) Defn: A diseased condition of the system, brought about by the continued use of alcoholic liquors.


ALCOHOLIZATION Al`co*hol`i*zation, n. Etym: [Cf. F. alcoolisation.] 1. The act of reducing a substance to a fine or impalpable powder. [Obs.] Johnson. 2. The act rectifying spirit. 3. Saturation with alcohol; putting the animal system under the influence of alcoholic liquor.


ALCOHOLIZE Alco*hol*ize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Alcoholized; p. pr. & vb. n. Alcoholizing.] Etym: [Cf. F. alcooliser.] 1. To reduce to a fine powder. [Obs.] Johnson. 2. To convert into alcohol; to rectify; also, to saturate with alcohol.


ALCOHOLOMETER; ALCOHOLMETER Al`co*hol*ome*ter, Al`co*holme*ter, n. Etym: [Alcohol + -meter.] (Chem.) Defn: An instrument for determining the strength of spirits, with a scale graduated so as to indicate the percentage of pure alcohol, either by weight or volume. It is usually a form of hydrometer with a special scale.


ALCOHOLOMETRIC; ALCOHOLOMETRICAL; ALCOHOLMETRICAL Al`co*hol`o*metric, Al`co*hol`o*metric*al, Al`co*hol*metric*al, a. Defn: Relating to the alcoholometer or alcoholometry. The alcoholometrical strength of spirituous liquors. Ure.


ALCOHOLOMETRY Al`co*holome*try, n. Defn: The process or method of ascertaining the proportion of pure alcohol which spirituous liquors contain.


ALCOHOMETER; ALCOHOMETRIC Al`co*home*ter, n., Al`co*ho*metric, a. Defn: Same as Alcoholometer, Alcoholometric.


ALCOOMETRY; ALCOOEMETRY Al`co*?me*try, n. Defn: See Alcoholometry. Note: The chemists say alcom?tre, alcoom?trie, doubtless by the suppression of a syllable in order to avoid a disagreeable sequence of sounds. (Cf. Idolatry.) Littr?.


ALCORAN Alco*ran, n. Etym: [alcoran, fr. Ar. al-qoran, orig. the reading, the book, fr. qaraa to read. Cf. Koran.] Defn: The Mohammedan Scriptures; the Koran (now the usual form). [Spelt also Alcoran.]


ALCORANIC Al`co*ranic, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to the Koran.


ALCORANIST Al`co*ranist, n. Defn: One who adheres to the letter of the Koran, rejecting all traditions.


ALCORNOQUE Al`cor*noque, n. [Sp., cork tree.] Defn: The bark of several trees, esp. of Bowdichia virgilioides of Brazil, used as a remedy for consumption; of Byrsonima crassifolia, used in tanning; of Alchornea latifolia, used medicinally; or of Quercus ilex, the cork tree.


ALCOVE Alcove, n. Etym: [F. alc?ve, Sp. or Pg. alcoba, from Ar. al-quobbah arch, vault, tent.] 1. (Arch.) Defn: A recessed portion of a room, or a small room opening into a larger one; especially, a recess to contain a bed; a lateral recess in a library. 2. A small ornamental building with seats, or an arched seat, in a pleasure ground; a garden bower. Cowper. 3. Any natural recess analogous to an alcove or recess in an apartment. The youthful wanderers found a wild alcove. Falconer.


ALCYON Alcy*on, n. Defn: See Halcyon.


ALCYONACEA Al`cy*o*nace*a, n. pl. Etym: [NL.] (Zo?l.) Defn: A group of soft-bodied Alcyonaria, of which Alcyonium is the type. See Illust. under Alcyonaria.


ALCYONARIA Al`cy*o*nari*a, n. pl. Etym: [NL.] (Zo?l.) Defn: One of the orders of Anthozoa. It includes the Alcyonacea, Pennatulacea, and Gorgonacea.


ALCYONES Al*cyo*nes, n. pl. Etym: [L., pl. of Alcyon.] (Zo?l.) Defn: The kingfishers.


ALCYONIC Al`cy*onic, a. (Zo?l.) Defn: Of or pertaining to the Alcyonaria.


ALCYONIUM Al`cy*oni*um, n. Etym: [Gr. (Zo?l.) Defn: A genus of fleshy Alcyonaria, its polyps somewhat resembling flowers with eight fringed rays. The term was also formerly used for certain species of sponges.


ALCYONOID Alcy*o*noid, a. Etym: [Gr. -oid.] (Zo?l.) Defn: Like or pertaining to the Alcyonaria. -- n. Defn: A zo?phyte of the order Alcyonaria.


ALDAY Alday, adv. Defn: Continually. [Obs.] Chaucer.


ALDEBARAN Al*deba*ran, n. Etym: [Ar. al-debaran, fr. dabar to follow; so called because this star follows upon the Pleiades.] (Astron.) Defn: A red star of the first magnitude, situated in the eye of Taurus; the Bull's Eye. It is the bright star in the group called the Hyades. Now when Aldebaran was mounted high Above the shiny Cassiopeia's chair. Spenser.


ALDEHYDE Alde*hyde, n. Etym: [Abbrev. fr. alcohol dehydrogenatum, alcohol deprived of its hydrogen.] (Chem.) Defn: A colorless, mobile, and very volatile liquid obtained from alcohol by certain of oxidation. Note: The aldehydes are intermediate between the alcohols and acids, and differ from the alcohols in having two less hydrogen atoms in the molecule, as common aldehyde (called also acetic aldehyde or ethyl aldehyde), C2H4O; methyl aldehyde, CH2O. Aldehyde ammonia (Chem.), a compound formed by the union of aldehyde with ammonia.


ALDEHYDIC Al`de*hydic, a. (Chem.) Defn: Of or pertaining to aldehyde; as, aldehydic acid. Miller.


ALDER Alder, n. Etym: [OE. aldir, aller, fr. AS. alr, aler, alor, akin to D. els, G. erle, Icel. erlir, erli, Swed. al, Dan. elle, el, L. alnus, and E. elm.] (Bot.) Defn: A tree, usually growing in moist land, and belonging to the genus Alnus. The wood is used by turners, etc.; the bark by dyers and tanners. In the U. S. the species of alder are usually shrubs or small trees. Black alder. (a) A European shrub (Rhamnus frangula); Alder buckthorn. (b) An American species of holly (Ilex verticillata), bearing red berries.


ALDER FLY Alder fly. 1. Any of numerous neuropterous insects of the genus Sialis or allied genera. They have aquatic larv?, which are used for bait. 2. (Angling) An artificial fly with brown mottled wings, body of peacock harl, and black legs.


ALDER-LIEFEST Al`der-liefest, a. Etym: [For allerliefest dearest of all. See Lief.] Defn: Most beloved. [Obs.] Shak.


ALDER; ALLER Alder, Aller, a. Etym: [From ealra, alra, gen. pl. of AS. eal. The d is excrescent.] Defn: Of all; -- used in composition; as, alderbest, best of all, alderwisest, wisest of all. [Obs.] Chaucer.


ALDERMAN Alder*man, n.; pl. Aldplwmen. Etym: [AS. aldormon, ealdorman; ealdor an elder + man. See Elder, n.] 1. A senior or superior; a person of rank or dignity. [Obs.] Note: The title was applied, among the Anglo-Saxons, to princes, dukes, earls, senators, and presiding magistrates; also to archbishops and bishops, implying superior wisdom or authority. Thus Ethelstan, duke of the East-Anglians, was called Alderman of all England; and there were aldermen of cities, counties, and castles, who had jurisdiction within their respective districts. 3. One of a board or body of municipal officers next in order to the mayor and having a legislative function. They may, in some cases, individually exercise some magisterial and administrative functions.


ALDERMANCY Alder*man*cy, n. Defn: The office of an alderman.


ALDERMANIC Alder*manic, a. Defn: Relating to, becoming to, or like, an alderman; characteristic of an alderman.


ALDERMANITY Al`der*mani*ty, n. 1. Aldermen collectively; the body of aldermen. 2. The state of being an alderman. [Jocular]


ALDERMANLIKE Al`der*man*like`, a. Defn: Like or suited to an alderman.


ALDERMANLY Alder*man*ly, a. Defn: Pertaining to, or like, an alderman.


ALDERMANLY Alder*man*ly, a. Defn: Pertaining to, or like, an alderman. An aldermanly discretion. Swift.


ALDERMANRY Alder*man*ry, n. 1. The district or ward of an alderman. 2. The office or rank of an alderman. [R.] B. Jonson.


ALDERMANSHIP Alder*man*ship, n. Defn: The condition, position, or office of an alderman. Fabyan.


ALDERN Aldern, a. Defn: Made of alder.


ALDERNEY Alder*ney, n. Defn: One of a breed of cattle raised in Alderney, one of the Channel Islands. Alderneys are of a dun or tawny color and are often called Jersey cattle. See Jersey, 3.


ALDINE Aldine, a. (Bibliog.) Defn: An epithet applied to editions (chiefly of the classics) which proceeded from the press of Aldus Manitius, and his family, of Venice, for the most part in the 16th century and known by the sign of the anchor and the dolphin. The term has also been applied to certain elegant editions of English works.


ALDOL Aldol, n. [Aldehyde + -ol as in alcohol.] (Chem.) Defn: A colorless liquid, C4H8O2, obtained by condensation of two molecules of acetaldehyde: CH3CHO + CH3CHO = H3CH(OH)CH2CO; also, any of various derivatives of this. The same reaction has been applied, under the name of aldol condensation, to the production of many compounds.


ALE Ale, n. Etym: [AS. ealu, akin to Icel., Sw., and Dan. ?l, Lith. alus a kind of beer, OSlav. ol beer. Cf. Ir. ol drink, drinking.] 1. An intoxicating liquor made from an infusion of malt by fermentation and the addition of a bitter, usually hops. Note: The word ale, in England and the United States, usually designates a heavier kind of fermented liquor, and the word beer a lighter kind. The word beer is also in common use as the generic name for all malt liquors. 2. A festival in English country places, so called from the liquor drunk. At wakes and ales. B. Jonson.On ember eves and holy ales. Shak.

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