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ADVISEDLY Ad*vised*ly, adv. 1. Circumspectly; deliberately; leisurely. [Obs.] Shak. 2. With deliberate purpose; purposely; by design. Advisedly undertaken. Suckling.


ADVISEDNESS Ad*vised*ness n. Defn: Deliberate consideration; prudent procedure; caution.


ADVISEMENT Ad*visement, n. Etym: [OE. avisement, F. avisement, fr. aviser. See Advise, and cf. Avisement.] 1. Counsel; advise; information. [Archaic] And mused awhile, waking advisement takes of what had passed in sleep. Daniel. 2. Consideration; deliberation; consultation. Tempering the passion with advisement slow. Spenser.


ADVISER Ad*viser, n. Defn: One who advises.


ADVISERSHIP Ad*viser*ship, n. Defn: The office of an adviser. [R.]


ADVISO Ad*viso, n. Etym: [Cf. Sp. aviso. See Advice.] Defn: Advice; counsel; suggestion; also, a dispatch or advice boat. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


ADVISORY Ad*viso*ry, a. Defn: Having power to advise; containing advice; as, an advisory council; their opinion is merely advisory. The General Association has a general advisory superintendence over all the ministers and churches. Trumbull.


ADVOCACY Advo*ca*cy, n. Etym: [OF. advocatie, LL. advocatia. See Advocate.] Defn: The act of pleading for or supporting; work of advocating; intercession.


ADVOCATE Advo*cate, n. Etym: [OE. avocat, avocet, OF. avocat, fr. L. advocatus, one summoned or called to another; properly the p. p. of advocare to call to, call to one's aid; ad + vocare to call. See Advowee, Avowee, Vocal.] 1. One who pleads the cause of another. Specifically: One who pleads the cause of another before a tribunal or judicial court; a counselor. Note: In the English and American Law, advocate is the same as counsel, counselor, or barrister. In the civil and ecclesiastical courts, the term signifies the same as counsel at the common law. 2. One who defends, vindicates, or espouses any cause by argument; a pleader; as, an advocate of free trade, an advocate of truth. 3. Christ, considered as an intercessor. We have an Advocate with the Father. 1 John ii. 1. Faculty of advocates (Scot.), the Scottish bar in Edinburgh. -- Lord advocate (Scot.), the public prosecutor of crimes, and principal crown lawyer. -- Judge advocate. See under Judge.


ADVOCATE Advo*cate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Advocated; p. pr. & vb. n. Advocating.] Etym: [See Advocate, n., Advoke, Avow.] Defn: To plead in favor of; to defend by argument, before a tribunal or the public; to support, vindicate, or recommend publicly. To advocate the cause of thy client. Bp. Sanderson (1624). This is the only thing distinct and sensible, that has been advocated. Burke. Eminent orators were engaged to advocate his cause. Mitford.


ADVOCATE Advo*cate, v. i. Defn: To act as advocate. [Obs.] Fuller.


ADVOCATESHIP Advo*cate*ship, n. Defn: Office or duty of an advocate.


ADVOCATION Ad`vo*cation, n. Etym: [L. advocatio: cf. OF. avocation. See Advowson.] 1. The act of advocating or pleading; plea; advocacy. [Archaic] The holy Jesus . . . sits in heaven in a perpetual advocation for us. Jer. Taylor. 2. Advowson. [Obs.] The donations or advocations of church livings. Sanderson. 3. (Scots Law) Defn: The process of removing a cause from an inferior court to the supreme court. Bell.


ADVOCATORY Advo*ca*to*ry, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to an advocate. [R.]


ADVOKE Ad*voke, v. t. Etym: [L. advocare. See Advocate.] Defn: To summon; to call. [Obs.] Queen Katharine had privately prevailed with the pope to advoke the cause to Rome. Fuller.


ADVOLUTION Ad`vo*lution, n. Etym: [L. advolvere, advolutum, to roll to.] Defn: A rolling toward something. [R.]


ADVOUTRER Ad*voutrer, n. Etym: [OF. avoutre, avoltre, fr. L. adulter. Cf. Adulterer.] Defn: An adulterer. [Obs.]


ADVOUTRESS Ad*voutress, n. Defn: An adulteress. [Obs.] Bacon.


ADVOUTRY; ADVOWTRY Ad*voutry, Ad*vowtry, n. Etym: [OE. avoutrie, avouterie, advoutrie,


ADVOWEE Ad*vow*ee, n. Etym: [OE. avowe, F. avou?, fr. L. advocatus. See Advocate, Avowee, Avoyer.] Defn: One who has an advowson. Cowell.


ADVOWSON Ad*vowson, n. Etym: [OE. avoweisoun, OF. avo?son, fr. L. advocatio. Cf. Advocation.] (Eng. Law) Defn: The right of presenting to a vacant benefice or living in the church. [Originally, the relation of a patron (advocatus) or protector of a benefice, and thus privileged to nominate or present to it.] Note: The benefices of the Church of England are in every case subjects of presentation. They are nearly 12,000 in number; the advowson of more than half of them belongs to private persons, and of the remainder to the crown, bishops, deans and chapters, universities, and colleges. Amer. Cyc.


ADVOYER Ad*voyer, n. Defn: See Avoyer. [Obs.]


ADWARD Ad*ward, n. Defn: Award. [Obs.] Spenser.


ADYNAMIA Ad`y*nami*a, n. Etym: [NL. adynamia, fr. Gr. (Med.) Defn: Considerable debility of the vital powers, as in typhoid fever. Dunglison.


ADYNAMIC Ad`y*namic, a. Etym: [Cf. F. adynamique. See Adynamy.] 1. (Med.) Defn: Pertaining to, or characterized by, debility of the vital powers; weak. 2. (Physics) Defn: Characterized by the absence of power or force. Adynamic fevers, malignant or putrid fevers attended with great muscular debility.


ADYNAMY A*dyna*my, n. Defn: Adynamia. [R.] Morin.


ADYTUM Ady*tum, n. Adyta. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. Defn: The innermost sanctuary or shrine in ancient temples, whence oracles were given. Hence: A private chamber; a sanctum.


ADZ Adz, v. t. Defn: To cut with an adz. [R.] Carlyle.


ADZ; ADZE Adz, Adze, n. Etym: [OE. adese, adis, adse, AS. adesa, adese, ax, hatchet.] Defn: A carpenter's or cooper's tool, formed with a thin arching blade set at right angles to the handle. It is used for chipping or slicing away the surface of wood.


AE ? or Ae. Defn: A diphthong in the Latin language; used also by the Saxon writers. It answers to the Gr. ? was generally replaced by a, the long e or ee. In derivatives from Latin words with ae, it is mostly superseded by e. For most words found with this initial combination, the reader will therefore search under the letter E.


AECIDIUM ?*cidi*um, n.; pl. ?cidia. Etym: [NL., dim. of Gr. (Bot.) Defn: A form of fruit in the cycle of development of the Rusts or Brands, an order of fungi, formerly considered independent plants.


AEDILE ?dile, n. Etym: [L. aedilis, fr. aedes temple, public building. Cf. Edify.] Defn: A magistrate in ancient Rome, who had the superintendence of public buildings, highways, shows, etc.; hence, a municipal officer.


AEDILESHIP ?dile*ship, n. Defn: The office of an ?dile. T. Arnold.


AEGEAN ?*gean, a. Etym: [L. Aegeus; Gr. Defn: Of or pertaining to the sea, or arm of the Mediterranean sea, east of Greece. See Archipelago.


AEGICRANIA ?`gi*crani*a, n. pl. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Arch.) Defn: Sculptured ornaments, used in classical architecture, representing rams' heads or skulls.


AEGILOPS ?gi*lops, n. Etym: [L. aegilopis, Gr. 1. (Med.) Defn: An ulcer or fistula in the inner corner of the eye. 2. (Bot.) (a) The great wild-oat grass or other cornfield weed. Crabb. (b) A genus of plants, called also hardgrass.


AEGIS ?gis, n. Etym: [L. aegis, fr. Gr. Defn: A shield or protective armor; -- applied in mythology to the shield of Jupiter which he gave to Minerva. Also fig.: A shield; a protection.


AEGOPHONY ?*gopho*ny, n. Defn: Same as Egophony.


AEGROTAT ?*grotat, n. Etym: [L., he is sick.] (Camb. Univ.) Defn: A medical certificate that a student is ill.


AENEID ?*neid, n. Etym: [L. Aeneis, Aeneidis, or -dos: cf. F. .] Defn: The great epic poem of Virgil, of which the hero is ?neas.


AENEOUS A*?ne*ous, a. Etym: [L. a?neus.] (Zo?l.) Defn: Colored like bronze.


AEOLIAN ?*oli*an, a. Etym: [L. Aeolius, Gr. 1. Of or pertaining to ?olia or ?olis, in Asia Minor, colonized by the Greeks, or to its inhabitants; ?olic; as, the ?olian dialect. 2. Pertaining to ?olus, the mythic god of the winds; pertaining to, or produced by, the wind; a?rial. Viewless forms the ?olian organ play. Campbell. ?olian attachment, a contrivance often attached to a pianoforte, which prolongs the vibrations, increases the volume of sound, etc., by forcing a stream of air upon the strings. Moore. -- ?olian harp, ?olian lyre, a musical instrument consisting of a box, on or in which are stretched strings, on which the wind acts to produce the notes; -- usually placed at an open window. Moore. -- ?olian mode (Mus.), one of the ancient Greek and early ecclesiastical modes.


AEOLIC ?*olic, a. Etym: [L. Aeolicus; Gr. Defn: ?olian, 1; as, the ?olic dialect; the ?olic mode.


AEOLIPILE; AEOLIPYLE ?*oli*pile, ?*oli*pyle, n. Etym: [L. aeolipilae; Aeolus god of the winds + pila a ball, or Gr. i. e., doorway of ?olus); cf. F. ?olipyle.] Defn: An apparatus consisting chiefly of a closed vessel (as a globe or cylinder) with one or more projecting bent tubes, through which steam is made to pass from the vessel, causing it to revolve. [Written also eolipile.] Note: Such an apparatus was first described by Hero of Alexandria about 200 years b. c. It has often been called the first steam engine.


AEOLOTROPIC ?`o*lo*tropic, a. Etym: [Gr. (Physics) Defn: Exhibiting differences of quality or property in different directions; not isotropic. Sir W. Thomson.


AEOLOTROPY ?`o*lotro*py, n. (Physics) Defn: Difference of quality or property in different directions.


AEOLUS ?o*lus, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. (Gr. & Rom. Myth.) Defn: The god of the winds.


AEON ?on, n. Defn: A period of immeasurable duration; also, an emanation of the Deity. See Eon.


AEONIAN ?*oni*an, a. Etym: [Gr. Defn: Eternal; everlasting. ?onian hills. Tennyson.


AEPYORNIS ?`py*ornis, n. Etym: [Gr. Defn: A gigantic bird found fossil in Madagascar.


AERATE A?r*ate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. A; p. pr. & vb. n. A.] Etym: [Cf. F. a?rer. See Air,v. t.] 1. To combine or charge with gas; usually with carbonic acid gas, formerly called fixed air. His sparkling sallies bubbled up as from a?rated natural fountains. Carlyle. 2. To supply or impregnate with common air; as, to a?rate soil; to a?rate water. 3. (Physiol.) Defn: To expose to the chemical action of air; to oxygenate (the blood) by respiration; to arterialize. A?rated bread, bread raised by charging dough with carbonic acid gas, instead of generating the gas in the dough by fermentation.


AERATION A`?r*ation, n. Etym: [Cf. F. a?ration.] 1. Exposure to the free action of the air; airing; as, a?ration of soil, of spawn, etc. 2. (Physiol.) Defn: A change produced in the blood by exposure to the air in respiration; oxygenation of the blood in respiration; arterialization. 3. The act or preparation of charging with carbonic acid gas or with oxygen.


AERATOR A?r*a`tor, n. Defn: That which supplies with air; esp. an apparatus used for charging mineral waters with gas and in making soda water.


AERENCHYM; AERENCHYMA { A?r*en`chym, A`?r*enchy*ma }, n. [NL. a?renchyma. See A?ro-; Enchyma.] (Bot.) Defn: A secondary respiratory tissue or modified periderm, found in many aquatic plants and distinguished by the large intercellular spaces.


AERIAL A*?ri*al, a. Etym: [L. a?rius. See Air.] 1. Of or pertaining to the air, or atmosphere; inhabiting or frequenting the air; produced by or found in the air; performed in the air; as, a?rial regions or currents. A?rial spirits. Milton. A?rial voyages. Darwin. 2. Consisting of air; resembling, or partaking of the nature of air. Hence: Unsubstantial; unreal. 3. Rising aloft in air; high; lofty; as, a?rial spires. 4. Growing, forming, or existing in the air, as opposed to growing or existing in earth or water, or underground; as, a?rial rootlets, a?rial plants. Gray. 5. Light as air; ethereal. A?rial acid, carbonic acid. [Obs.] Ure. -- A?rial perspective. See Perspective.


AERIAL RAILWAY A*?`ri*al railway`. (a) A stretched wire or rope elevated above the ground and forming a way along which a trolley may travel, for conveying a load suspended from the trolley. (b) An elevated cableway.


AERIAL SICKNESS A*?ri*al sickness. Defn: A sickness felt by a?ronauts due to high speed of flights and rapidity in changing altitudes, combining some symptoms of mountain sickness and some of seasickness.


AERIALITY A*?`ri*ali*ty, n. Defn: The state of being a?rial; [R.] De Quincey.


AERIALLY A*?ri*al*ly, adv. Defn: Like, or from, the air; in an a?rial manner. A murmur heard a?rially. Tennyson.


AERIE Aerie, n. Etym: [OE. aire, eire, air, nest, also origin, descent,


AERIFEROUS A`?r*ifer*ous, a. Etym: [L. a?r air + -ferous: cf. F. a?rif?re.] Defn: Conveying or containing air; air-bearing; as, the windpipe is an a?riferous tube.


AERIFICATION A`?r*i*fi*cation, n. Etym: [Cf. F. a?rification. See A.] 1. The act of combining air with another substance, or the state of being filled with air. 2. The act of becoming a?rified, or of changing from a solid or liquid form into an a?riform state; the state of being a?riform.


AERIFORM A?r*i*form, a. Etym: [L. a?r air + -form: cf. F. a?riforme.] Defn: Having the form or nature of air, or of an elastic fluid; gaseous. Hence fig.: Unreal.


AERIFY A?r*i*fy, v. t. Etym: [L. a?r air + -fly.] 1. To infuse air into; to combine air with. 2. To change into an a?riform state.


AERO- A?r*o-. Etym: [Gr. Defn: The combining form of the Greek word meaning air.


AEROBIC A`?r*obic, a. (Biol.) Defn: Growing or thriving only in the presence of oxygen; also, pertaining to, or induced by, a?robies; as, a?robic fermentation. -- A`?r*obic*al*ly (#), adv.


AEROBIES A?r*o*bies, n. pl. Etym: [A?ro- + Gr. (Biol.) Defn: Micro?rganisms which live in contact with the air and need oxygen for their growth; as the microbacteria which form on the surface of putrefactive fluids.


AEROBIOTIC A`?r*o*bi*otic, a. (Biol.) Defn: Related to, or of the nature of, a?robies; as, a?robiotic plants, which live only when supplied with free oxygen.


AEROBOAT A?r*o*boat`, n. [A?ro- + boat.] Defn: A form of hydro-a?roplane; a flying boat.


AEROBUS A?r*o*bus`, n. [A?ro-+ bus.] Defn: An a?roplane or airship designed to carry passengers.


AEROCLUB A?r*o*club`, n. [A?ro- + club.] Defn: A club or association of persons interested in a?ronautics.


AEROCURVE A?r*o*curve`, n. [A?ro- + curve.] (A?ronautics) Defn: A modification of the a?roplane, having curved surfaces, the advantages of which were first demonstrated by Lilienthal.


AEROCYST A?r*o*cyst, n. Etym: [A?ro- + cyst.] (Bot.) Defn: One of the air cells of algals.


AEROCYST A?r*o*cyst, n. [A?ro-+ cyst.] (Bot.) Defn: One of the air cells of algals.


AERODONETICS A`?*ro*do*netics, n. [A?ro- + Gr. shaken, to shake.] (A?ronautics) Defn: The science of gliding and soaring flight.


AERODROME A?*ro*drome`, n. [A?ro- + Gr. a running.] (A?ronautics) (a) A shed for housing an airship or a?roplane. (b) A ground or field, esp. one equipped with housing and other facilities, used for flying purposes. -- A`?r*o*dromic (#), a.


AERODYNAMIC A?r*o*dy*namic, a. Defn: Pertaining to the force of air in motion.


AERODYNAMICS A`?r*o*dy*namics, n. Etym: [A?ro- + dynamics: cf. F. a?rodynamique.] Defn: The science which treats of the air and other gaseous bodies under the action of force, and of their mechanical effects.


AEROFOIL A?r*o*foil`, n. [A?ro- + foil.] Defn: A plane or arched surface for sustaining bodies by its movement through the air; a spread wing, as of a bird.


AEROGNOSY A`?r*ogno*sy, n. Etym: [A?ro- + Gr. a?rognosie.] Defn: The science which treats of the properties of the air, and of the part it plays in nature. Craig.


AEROGRAPHER A`?r*ogra*pher, n. Defn: One versed in a?ography: an a?rologist.


AEROGRAPHIC; AEROGRAPHICAL A`?r*o*graphic, A`?r*o*graphic*al, a. Defn: Pertaining to a?rography; a?rological.


AEROGRAPHY A`?r*ogra*phy, n. Etym: [A?ro- + -graphy: cf. F. a?rographie.] Defn: A description of the air or atmosphere; a?rology.


AEROGUN A?r*o*gun`, n. [A?ro-+ gun.] Defn: A cannon capable of being trained at very high angles for use against aircraft.


AEROHYDRODYNAMIC A`?r*o*hy`dro*dy*namic, a. Etym: [A?ro- + hydrodynamic.] Defn: Acting by the force of air and water; as, an a?rohydrodynamic wheel.


AEROLITE A?r*o*lite, n. Etym: [A?ro- + -lite: cf. F. a?rolithe.] (Meteor.) Defn: A stone, or metallic mass, which has fallen to the earth from distant space; a meteorite; a meteoric stone. Note: Some writers limit the word to stony meteorites.


AEROLITH A?r*o*lith, n. Defn: Same as A.


AEROLITHOLOGY A`?r*o*li*tholo*gy, n. Etym: [A?ro- + lithology.] Defn: The science of a?rolites.


AEROLITIC A`?r*o*litic, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to a?rolites; meteoric; as, a?rolitic iron. Booth.


AEROLOGIC; AEROLOGICAL A`?r*o*logic, A`?r*o*logic*al, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to a?rology.


AEROLOGIST A`?r*olo*gist, n. Defn: One versed in a?rology.


AEROLOGY A`?r*olo*gy, n. Etym: [A?ro- + -logy: cf. F. a?rologie.] Defn: That department of physics which treats of the atmosphere.


AEROMANCY A?r*o*man`cy, n. Etym: [A?ro- + -mancy: cf. F. a?romancie.] Defn: Divination from the state of the air or from atmospheric substances; also, forecasting changes in the weather.


AEROMECHANIC A`?r*o*me*chanic, n. Defn: A mechanic or mechanician expert in the art and practice of a?ronautics.


AEROMECHANIC; AEROMECHANICAL A`?r*o*me*chanic, A`?r*o*me*chanical, a. Defn: Of or pert. to a?romechanics.


AEROMECHANICS A`?r*o*me*chanics, n. Defn: The science of equilibrium and motion of air or an a?riform fluid, including a?rodynamics and a?rostatics.


AEROMETER A`?r*ome*ter, n. Etym: [A?ro- + -meter: cf. F. ?rom?tre.] Defn: An instrument for ascertaining the weight or density of air and gases.


AEROMETRIC A`?r*o*metric, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to a?rometry; as, a?rometric investigations.


AEROMETRY A`?r*ome*try, n. Etym: [A?ro- + -metry: cf. F. ?rom?trie.] Defn: The science of measuring the air, including the doctrine of its pressure, elasticity, rarefaction, and condensation; pneumatics.


AERONAT A?r*o*nat`, n. [F. a?ronat. See A?ro-; Natation.] Defn: A dirigible balloon.

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