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AA farraginous concurrence of all conditions, tempers, sexes, and ages. Sir T. Browne.


AAM Aam, n. Etym: [D. aam, fr. LL. ama; cf. L. hama a water bucket, Gr. Defn: A Dutch and German measure of liquids, varying in different cities, being at Amsterdam about 41 wine gallons, at Antwerp 36?, at Hamburg 38?. [Written also Aum and Awm.]


AARD-VARK Aard-vark`, n. Etym: [D., earth-pig.] (Zo?l.) Defn: An edentate mammal, of the genus Orycteropus, somewhat resembling a pig, common in some parts of Southern Africa. It burrows in the ground, and feeds entirely on ants, which it catches with its long, slimy tongue.


AARD-WOLF Aard-wolf`, n. Etym: [D, earth-wolf] (Zo?l.) Defn: A carnivorous quadruped (Proteles Lalandii), of South Africa, resembling the fox and hyena. See Proteles.


AARON'S ROD Aaron's rod`. Etym: [See Exodus vii. 9 and Numbers xvii. 8] 1. (Arch.) Defn: A rod with one serpent twined around it, thus differing from the caduceus of Mercury, which has two. 2. (Bot.) Defn: A plant with a tall flowering stem; esp. the great mullein, or hag-taper, and the golden-rod.


AARONIC; AARONICAL Aa*ronic, Aa*ronic*al, a. Defn: Pertaining to Aaron, the first high priest of the Jews.


AB- Ab-. Etym: [Latin prep., etymologically the same as E. of, off. See Of.] Defn: A prefix in many words of Latin origin. It signifies from, away , separating, or departure, as in abduct, abstract, abscond. See A- (6).


AB Ab, n. Etym: [Of Syriac origin.] Defn: The fifth month of the Jewish year according to the ecclesiastical reckoning, the eleventh by the civil computation, coinciding nearly with August. W. Smith.


ABACA Aba*ca, n. Etym: [The native name.] Defn: The Manila-hemp plant (Musa textilis); also, its fiber. See Manila hemp under Manila.


ABACINATE A*baci*nate, v.t. Etym: [LL. abacinatus, p.p. of abacinare; ab off + bacinus a basin.] Defn: To blind by a red-hot metal plate held before the eyes. [R.]


ABACINATION A*bac`i*nation, n. Defn: The act of abacinating. [R.]


ABACISCUS Ab`a*ciscus, n. Etym: [Gr.Abacus.] (Arch.) Defn: One of the tiles or squares of a tessellated pavement; an abaculus.


ABACIST Aba*cist, n. Etym: [LL abacista, fr. abacus.] Defn: One who uses an abacus in casting accounts; a calculator.


ABACK A*back, adv. Etym: [Pref. a- + back; AS. on b?c at, on, or toward the back. See Back.] 1. Toward the back or rear; backward. Therewith aback she started. Chaucer. 2. Behind; in the rear. Knolles. 3. (Naut.) Defn: Backward against the mast;-said of the sails when pressed by the wind. Totten. To be taken aback. (a) To be driven backward against the mast; -- said of the sails, also of the ship when the sails are thus driven. (b) To be suddenly checked, baffled, or discomfited. Dickens.


ABACK Aback, n. Defn: An abacus. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


ABACTINAL Ab*acti*nal, a. Etym: [L. ab + E. actinal.] (Zo?l.) Defn: Pertaining to the surface or end opposite to the mouth in a radiate animal; -- opposed to actinal. The aboral or abactinal area. L. Agassiz.


ABACTION Ab*action, n. Defn: Stealing cattle on a large scale. [Obs.]


ABACTOR Ab*actor, n. Etym: [L., fr. abigere to drive away; ab+agere to drive.] (Law) Defn: One who steals and drives away cattle or beasts by herds or droves. [Obs.]


ABACULUS A*bacu*lus, n.; pl. Abaculi. Etym: [L., dim. of abacus.] (Arch.) Defn: A small tile of glass, marble, or other substance, of various colors, used in making ornamental patterns in mosaic pavements. Fairholt.


ABACUS Aba*cus, n. E. pl. Abacuses ; L. pl. Abaci. Etym: [L. abacus, abax, Gr. 1. A table or tray strewn with sand, anciently used for drawing, calculating, etc. [Obs.] 2. A calculating table or frame; an instrument for performing arithmetical calculations by balls sliding on wires, or counters in grooves, the lowest line representing units, the second line, tens, etc. It is still employed in China. 3. (Arch.) (a) The uppermost member or division of the capital of a column, immediately under the architrave. See Column. (b) A tablet, panel, or compartment in ornamented or mosaic work. 4. A board, tray, or table, divided into perforated compartments, for holding cups, bottles, or the like; a kind of cupboard, buffet, or sideboard. Abacus harmonicus (Mus.), an ancient diagram showing the structure and disposition of the keys of an instrument. Crabb.


ABADA Aba*da, n. Etym: [Pg., the female rhinoceros.] Defn: The rhinoceros. [Obs.] Purchas.


ABADDON A*baddon, n. Etym: [Heb. abaddon destruction, abyss, fr. abad to be lost, to perish.] 1. The destroyer, or angel of the bottomless pit; -- the same as Apollyon and Asmodeus. 2. Hell; the bottomless pit. [Poetic] In all her gates, Abaddon rues Thy bold attempt. Milton.


ABAFT A*baft, prep. Etym: [Pref. a-on + OE. baft, baften, biaften, AS. be?ftan; be by + ?ftan behind. See After, Aft, By.] (Naut.) Defn: Behind; toward the stern from; as, abaft the wheelhouse. Abaft the beam. See under Beam.


ABAFT A*baft, adv. (Naut.) Defn: Toward the stern; aft; as, to go abaft.


ABAISANCE A*baisance, n. Etym: [For obeisance; confused with F. abaisser, E. abase] Defn: Obeisance. [Obs.] Jonson.


ABAISER A*baiser, n. Defn: Ivory black or animal charcoal. Weale.


ABAIST A*baist, p.p. Defn: Abashed; confounded; discomfited. [Obs.] Chaucer.


ABALIENATE Ab*alien*ate, v.t. Etym: [L. abalienatus, p.p. of abalienare; ab + alienus foreign, alien. See Alien.] 1. (Civil Law) Defn: To transfer the title of from one to another; to alienate. 2. To estrange; to withdraw. [Obs.] 3. To cause alienation of (mind). Sandys.


ABALIENATION Ab*al`ien*ation, n. Etym: [L. abalienatio: cf. F. abalianation.] Defn: The act of abalienating; alienation; estrangement. [Obs.]


ABALONE Ab`a*lone, n. (Zo?l.) Defn: A univalve mollusk of the genus Haliotis. The shell is lined with mother-of-pearl, and used for ornamental purposes; the sea-ear. Several large species are found on the coast of California, clinging closely to the rocks.


ABAND A*band, v.t. Etym: [Contracted from abandon.] 1. To abandon. [Obs.] Enforced the kingdom to aband. Spenser. 2. To banish; to expel. [Obs.] Mir. for Mag.


ABANDON A*bandon, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abandoned; p.pr. & vb.n. Abandoning.] Etym: [OF. abandoner, F.abandonner; a (L. ad)+bandon permission, authority, LL. bandum, bannum, public proclamation, interdiction, bannire to proclaim, summon: of Germanic origin; cf. Goth. bandwjan to show by signs, to designate OHG. banproclamation. The word meant to proclaim, put under a ban, put under control; hence, as in OE., to compel, subject, or to leave in the control of another, and hence, to give up. See Ban.] 1. To cast or drive out; to banish; to expel; to reject. [Obs.] That he might . . . abandon them from him. Udall. Being all this time abandoned from your bed. Shak. 2. To give up absolutely; to forsake entirely ; to renounce utterly; to relinquish all connection with or concern on; to desert, as a person to whom one owes allegiance or fidelity; to quit; to surrender. Hope was overthrown, yet could not be abandoned. I. Taylor. 3. Reflexively : To give (one's self) up without attempt at self- control ; to yield (one's self) unrestrainedly ; -- often in a bad sense. He abandoned himself . . . to his favorite vice. Macaulay. 4. (Mar. Law) Defn: To relinquish all claim to; -- used when an insured person gives up to underwriters all claim to the property covered by a policy, which may remain after loss or damage by a peril insured against. Syn. -- To give up; yield; forego; cede; surrender; resign; abdicate; quit; relinquish; renounce; desert; forsake; leave; retire; withdraw from. -- To Abandon, Desert, Forsake. These words agree in representing a person as giving up or leaving some object, but differ as to the mode of doing it. The distinctive sense of abandon is that of giving up a thing absolutely and finally; as, to abandon one's friends, places, opinions, good or evil habits, a hopeless enterprise, a shipwrecked vessel. Abandon is more widely applicable than forsake or desert. The Latin original of desert appears to have been originally applied to the case of deserters from military service. Hence, the verb, when used of persons in the active voice, has usually or always a bad sense, implying some breach of fidelity, honor, etc., the leaving of something which the person should rightfully stand by and support; as, to desert one's colors, to desert one's post, to desert one's principles or duty. When used in the passive, the sense is not necessarily bad; as, the fields were deserted, a deserted village, deserted halls. Forsake implies the breaking off of previous habit, association, personal connection, or that the thing left had been familiar or frequented; as, to forsake old friends, to forsake the paths of rectitude, the blood forsook his cheeks. It may be used either in a good or in a bad sense.


ABANDON A*bandon, n. Etym: [F. abandon. fr. abandonner. See Abandon, v.] Defn: Abandonment; relinquishment. [Obs.]


ABANDON A`ban`don, n. Etym: [F. See Abandon.] Defn: A complete giving up to natural impulses; freedom from artificial constraint; careless freedom or ease.


ABANDONED A*bandoned, a. 1. Forsaken, deserted. Your abandoned streams. Thomson. 2. Self-abandoned, or given up to vice; extremely wicked, or sinning without restraint; irreclaimably wicked ; as, an abandoned villain. Syn. -- Profligate; dissolute; corrupt; vicious; depraved; reprobate; wicked; unprincipled; graceless; vile. -- Abandoned, Profligate, Reprobate. These adjectives agree in expressing the idea of great personal depravity. Profligate has reference to open and shameless immoralities, either in private life or political conduct; as, a profligate court, a profligate ministry. Abandoned is stronger, and has reference to the searing of conscience and hardening of heart produced by a man's giving himself wholly up to iniquity; as, a man of abandoned character. Reprobate describes the condition of one who has become insensible to reproof, and who is morally abandoned and lost beyond hope of recovery. God gave them over to a reprobate mind. Rom. i. 28.


ABANDONEDLY A*bandoned*ly, adv. Defn: Unrestrainedly.


ABANDONEE A*ban`don*ee, n. (Law) Defn: One to whom anything is legally abandoned.


ABANDONER A*bandon*er, n. Defn: One who abandons. Beau. & Fl.


ABANDONMENT A*bandon*ment, n. Etym: [Cf. F. abandonnement.] 1. The act of abandoning, or the state of being abandoned; total desertion; relinquishment. The abandonment of the independence of Europe. Burke. 2. (Mar. Law) Defn: The relinquishment by the insured to the underwriters of what may remain of the property insured after a loss or damage by a peril insured against. 3. (Com. Law) Defn: (a) The relinquishment of a right, claim, or privilege, as to mill site, etc. (b) The voluntary leaving of a person to whom one is bound by a special relation, as a wife, husband, or child; desertion. 4. Careless freedom or ease; abandon. [R.] Carlyle.


ABANDUM A*ban*dum, n. Etym: [LL. See Abandon.] (Law) Defn: Anything forfeited or confiscated.


ABANET Aba*net, n. Defn: See Abnet.


ABANGA A*banga, n. Etym: [Name given by the negroes in the island of St. Thomas.] Defn: A West Indian palm; also the fruit of this palm, the seeds of which are used as a remedy for diseases of the chest.


ABANNATION; ABANNITION Ab`an*nation, Ab`an*nition, n. Etym: [LL. abannatio; ad + LL. bannire to banish.] (Old Law) Defn: Banishment. [Obs.] Bailey.


ABARTICULATION Ab`ar*tic`u*lation, n. Etym: [L. ab + E. articulation : cf. F. abarticulation. See Article.] (Anat.) Defn: Articulation, usually that kind of articulation which admits of free motion in the joint; diarthrosis. Coxe.


ABASE A*base, v.t. [imp.&p.p. Abased; p.pr. & vb. n. Abasing.] Etym: [F. abaisser, LL. abassare, abbassare ; ad + bassare, fr. bassus low. See Base, a.] 1. To lower or depress; to throw or cast down; as, to abase the eye. [Archaic] Bacon. Saying so, he abased his lance. Shelton. 2. To cast down or reduce low or lower, as in rank, office, condition in life, or estimation of worthiness; to depress; to humble; to degrade. Whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased. Luke xiv. ll. Syn. -- To Abase, Debase, Degrade. These words agree in the idea of bringing down from a higher to a lower state. Abase has reference to a bringing down in condition or feelings; as to abase one's self before God. Debase has reference to the bringing down of a thing in purity, or making it base. It is, therefore, always used in a bad sense, as, to debase the coin of the kingdom, to debase the mind by vicious indulgence, to debase one's style by coarse or vulgar expressions. Degrade has reference to a bringing down from some higher grade or from some standard. Thus, a priest is degraded from the clerical office. When used in a moral sense, it denotes a bringing down in character and just estimation; as, degraded by intemperance, a degrading employment, etc. Art is degraded when it is regarded only as a trade.


ABASED A*based, a. 1. Lowered; humbled. 2. (Her.) Etym: [F. abaiss?.] Defn: Borne lower than usual, as a fess; also, having the ends of the wings turned downward towards the point of the shield.


ABASEDLY A*based*ly, adv. Defn: Abjectly; downcastly.


ABASEMENT A*basement, n. Etym: [Cf. F. abaissement.] Defn: The act of abasing, humbling, or bringing low; the state of being abased or humbled; humiliation.


ABASER A*baser, n. Defn: He who, or that which, abases.


ABASH A*bash, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abashed; p.pr. & vb. n. Abashing.] Etym: [OE. abaissen, abaisshen, abashen, OF.esbahir, F. ?bahir, to astonish, fr. L. ex + the interjection bah, expressing astonishment. In OE. somewhat confused with abase. Cf. Finish.] Defn: To destroy the self-possession of; to confuse or confound, as by exciting suddenly a consciousness of guilt, mistake, or inferiority; to put to shame; to disconcert; to discomfit. Abashed, the devil stood, And felt how awful goodness is. Milton. He was a man whom no check could abash. Macaulay. Syn. -- To confuse; confound; disconcert; shame. -- To Abash, Confuse, Confound. Abash is a stronger word than confuse, but not so strong as confound. We are abashed when struck either with sudden shame or with a humbling sense of inferiority; as, Peter was abashed in the presence of those who are greatly his superiors. We are confused when, from some unexpected or startling occurrence, we lose clearness of thought and self-possession. Thus, a witness is often confused by a severe cross-examination; a timid person is apt to be confused in entering a room full of strangers. We are confounded when our minds are overwhelmed, as it were, by something wholly unexpected, amazing, dreadful, etc., so that we have nothing to say. Thus, a criminal is usually confounded at the discovery of his guilt. Satan stood Awhile as mute, confounded what to say. Milton.


ABASHEDLY A*bashed*ly, adv. Defn: In an abashed manner.


ABASHMENT A*bashment, n. Etym: [Cf. F. ?bahissement.] Defn: The state of being abashed; confusion from shame.


ABASIA A*basi*a, n. [NL.; Gr. - not + a step.] (Med.) Defn: Inability to co?rdinate muscular actions properly in walking. - - A*basic (#), a.


ABASSI; ABASSIS A*bassi, A*bassis, n. Etym: [Ar.& Per. abasi, belonging to Abas (a king of Persia).] Defn: A silver coin of Persia, worth about twenty cents.


ABATABLE A*bata*ble, a. Defn: Capable of being abated; as, an abatable writ or nuisance.


ABATE A*bate, v.t. [imp.& p.p. Abated, p.pr. & vb.n. Abating.] Etym: [OF. abatre to beat down, F. abattre, LL. abatere; ab or ad + batere, battere (popular form for L. batuere to beat). Cf. Bate, Batter.] 1. To beat down; to overthrow. [Obs.] The King of Scots . . . sore abated the walls. Edw. Hall. 2. To bring down or reduce from a higher to a lower state, number, or degree; to lessen; to diminish; to contract; to moderate; toto cut short; as, to abate a demand; to abate pride, zeal, hope. His eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated. Deut. xxxiv. 7. 3. To deduct; to omit; as, to abate something from a price. Nine thousand parishes, abating the odd hundreds. Fuller. 4. To blunt. [Obs.] To abate the edge of envy. Bacon. 5. To reduce in estimation; to deprive. [Obs.] She hath abated me of half my train. Shak. 6. (Law) Defn: (a) To bring entirely down or put an end to; to do away with; as, to abate a nuisance, to abate a writ. (b) (Eng. Law) To diminish; to reduce. Legacies are liable to be abated entirely or in proportion, upon a deficiency of assets. To abate a tax, to remit it either wholly or in part.


ABATE A*bate, v.i. Etym: [See Abate, v.t.] 1. To decrease, or become less in strength or violence; as, pain abates, a storm abates. The fury of Glengarry . . . rapidly abated. Macaulay. 2. To be defeated, or come to naught; to fall through; to fail; as, a writ abates. To abate into a freehold, To abate in lands (Law), to enter into a freehold after the death of the last possessor, and before the heir takes possession. See Abatement, 4. Syn. -- To subside; decrease; intermit; decline; diminish; lessen. -- To Abate, Subside. These words, as here compared, imply a coming down from some previously raised or exited state. Abate expresses this in respect to degrees, and implies a diminution of force or of intensity; as, the storm abates, the cold abates, the force of the wind abates; or, the wind abates, a fever abates. Subside (to settle down) has reference to a previous state of agitation or commotion; as, the waves subside after a storm, the wind subsides into a calm. When the words are used figuratively, the same distinction should be observed. If we conceive of a thing as having different degrees of intensity or strength, the word to be used is abate. Thus we say, a man's anger abates, the ardor of one's love abates, Winter rage abates. But if the image be that of a sinking down into quiet from preceding excitement or commotion, the word to be used is subside; as, the tumult of the people subsides, the public mind subsided into a calm. The same is the case with those emotions which are tumultuous in their nature; as, his passion subsides, his joy quickly subsided, his grief subsided into a pleasing melancholy. Yet if, in such cases, we were thinking of the degree of violence of the emotion, we might use abate; as, his joy will abate in the progress of time; and so in other instances.


ABATE A*bate, n. Defn: Abatement. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


ABATEMENT A*batement, n. Etym: [OF. abatement, F. abattement.] 1. The act of abating, or the state of being abated; a lessening, diminution, or reduction; removal or putting an end to; as, the abatement of a nuisance is the suppression thereof. 2. The amount abated; that which is taken away by way of reduction; deduction; decrease; a rebate or discount allowed. 3. (Her.) Defn: A mark of dishonor on an escutcheon. 4. (Law) Defn: The entry of a stranger, without right, into a freehold after the death of the last possessor, before the heir or devisee. Blackstone. Defense in abatement, Plea in abatement, (Law), plea to the effect that from some formal defect (e.g. misnomer, want of jurisdiction) the proceedings should be abated.


ABATER A*bater, n. Defn: One who, or that which, abates.


ABATIS; ABATTIS Aba*tis, Abat*tis, n. Etym: [F. abatis, abattis, mass of things beaten or cut down, fr. abattre. See Abate.] (Fort.) Defn: A means of defense formed by felled trees, the ends of whose branches are sharpened and directed outwards, or against the enemy.


ABATISED Aba*tised, a. Defn: Provided with an abatis.


ABATOR A*bator, n. (Law) Defn: (a) One who abates a nuisance. (b) A person who, without right, enters into a freehold on the death of the last possessor, before the heir or devisee. Blackstone.


ABATTOIR A`bat`toir, n.; pl. Abattoirs. Etym: [F., fr. abattre to beat down. See Abate.] Defn: A public slaughterhouse for cattle, sheep, etc.


ABATURE Aba*ture, n. Etym: [F. abatture, fr. abattre. See Abate.] Defn: Grass and sprigs beaten or trampled down by a stag passing through them. Crabb.


ABATVOIX A`bat`voix, n. Etym: [F. abattre to beat down + voix voice.] Defn: The sounding-board over a pulpit or rostrum.


ABAWED Ab*awed, p.p. Etym: [Perh. p.p. of a verb fr. OF. abaubir to frighten, disconcert, fr. L. ad + balbus stammering.] Defn: Astonished; abashed. [Obs.] Chaucer.


ABAXIAL; ABAXILE Ab*axi*al, Ab*axile, a. Etym: [L. ab + axis axle.] (Bot.) Defn: Away from the axis or central line; eccentric. Balfour.


ABAY A*bay, n. Etym: [OF. abay barking.] Defn: Barking; baying of dogs upon their prey. See Bay. [Obs.]


ABB Abb, n. Etym: [AS. aweb, ab; pref. a- + web. See Web.] Defn: Among weaves, yarn for the warp. Hence, abb wool is wool for the abb.


ABB WOOL Abb wool. Defn: See Abb. A B C A B C. 1. The first three letters of the alphabet, used for the whole alphabet. 2. A primer for teaching the alphabet and first elements of reading. [Obs.] 3. The simplest rudiments of any subject; as, the A B C of finance. A B C book, a primer. Shak.


ABBA Abba, n. Etym: [Syriac abba father. See Abbot.] Defn: Father; religious superior; -- in the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic churches, a title given to the bishops, and by the bishops to the patriarch.


ABBACY Abba*cy, n.; pl. Abbacies. Etym: [L. abbatia, fr. abbas, abbatis, abbot. See Abbey.] Defn: The dignity, estate, or jurisdiction of an abbot.


ABBATIAL Ab*batial, a. Etym: [LL. abbatialis : cf. F. abbatial.] Defn: Belonging to an abbey; as, abbatial rights.


ABBATICAL Ab*batic*al, a. Defn: Abbatial. [Obs.]


ABBE Abb?`, n.Etym: [F. abb?. See Abbot.] Defn: The French word answering to the English abbot, the head of an abbey; but commonly a title of respect given in France to every one vested with the ecclesiastical habit or dress. Note: * After the 16th century, the name was given, in social parlance, to candidates for some priory or abbey in the gift of the crown. Many of these aspirants became well known in literary and fashionable life. By further extension, the name came to be applied to unbeneficed secular ecclesiastics generally. Littr?.


ABBESS Abbess, n. Etym: [OF.abaesse, abeesse, F. abbesse, L. abbatissa, fem. of abbas, abbatis, abbot. See Abbot.] Defn: A female superior or governess of a nunnery, or convent of nuns, having the same authority over the nuns which the abbots have over the monks. See Abbey.


ABBEY Abbey, n.; pl. Abbeys. Etym: [OF. aba?e, F. abbaye, L. abbatia, fr. abbas abbot. See Abbot.] 1. A monastery or society of persons of either sex, secluded from the world and devoted to religion and celibacy; also, the monastic building or buildings. Note: The men are called monks, and governed by an abbot; the women are called nuns, and governed by an abbess. 2. The church of a monastery. Note: In London, the Abbey means Westminster Abbey, and in Scotland, the precincts of the Abbey of Holyrood. The name is also retained for a private residence on the site of an abbey; as, Newstead Abbey, the residence of Lord Byron. Syn. -- Monastery; convent; nunnery; priory; cloister. See Cloister.


ABBOT Abbot, n. Etym: [AS. abbod, abbad, L. abbas, abbatis, Gr. abba father. Cf. Abba, Abb?.] 1. The superior or head of an abbey. 2. One of a class of bishops whose sees were formerly abbeys. Encyc. Brit. Abbot of the people. a title formerly given to one of the chief magistrates in Genoa. -- Abbot of Misrule (or Lord of Misrule), in medi?val times, the master of revels, as at Christmas; in Scotland called the Abbot of Unreason. Encyc. Brit.


ABBOTSHIP Abbot*ship, n. Etym: [Abbot + -ship.] Defn: The state or office of an abbot.


ABBREVIATE Ab*brevi*ate, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abbreviated; p.pr. & vb.n. Abbreviating.] Etym: [L. abbreviatus, p.p. of abbreviare; ad + breviare to shorten, fr. brevis short. See Abridge.] 1. To make briefer; to shorten; to abridge; to reduce by contraction or omission, especially of words written or spoken. It is one thing to abbreviate by contracting, another by cutting off. Bacon. 2. (Math.) Defn: To reduce to lower terms, as a fraction.


ABBREVIATE Ab*brevi*ate, a. Etym: [L. abbreviatus, p.p.] 1. Abbreviated; abridged; shortened. [R.] The abbreviate form. Earle. 2. (Biol.) Defn: Having one part relatively shorter than another or than the ordinary type.


ABBREVIATE Ab*brevi*ate, n. Defn: An abridgment. [Obs.] Elyot.


ABBREVIATED Ab*brevi*a`ted, a. Defn: Shortened; relatively short; abbreviate.


ABBREVIATION Ab*bre`vi*ation, n. Etym: [LL. abbreviatio: cf. F. abbr?viation.] 1. The act of shortening, or reducing. 2. The result of abbreviating; an abridgment. Tylor. 3. The form to which a word or phrase is reduced by contraction and omission; a letter or letters, standing for a word or phrase of which they are a part; as, Gen. for Genesis; U.S.A. for United States of America. 4. (Mus.) Defn: One dash, or more, through the stem of a note, dividing it respectively into quavers, semiquavers, or demi-semiquavers. Moore.


ABBREVIATOR Ab*brevi*a`tor, n. Etym: [LL.: cf. F. abbr?viateur.] 1. One who abbreviates or shortens. 2. One of a college of seventy-two officers of the papal court whose duty is to make a short minute of a decision on a petition, or reply of the pope to a letter, and afterwards expand the minute into official form.


ABBREVIATORY Ab*brevi*a*to*ry, a. Defn: Serving or tending to abbreviate; shortening; abridging.


ABBREVIATURE Ab*brevi*a*ture, n. 1. An abbreviation; an abbreviated state or form. [Obs.] 2. An abridgment; a compendium or abstract. This is an excellent abbreviature of the whole duty of a Christian. Jer. Taylor.


ABDAL Abdal, n. Etym: [Ar. badil, pl. abdal, a substitute, a good, religious man, saint, fr. badala to change, substitute.] Defn: A religious devotee or dervish in Persia.


ABDERIAN Ab*deri*an, a. Etym: [From Abdera, a town in Thrace, of which place Democritus, the Laughing Philosopher, was a native.] Defn: Given to laughter; inclined to foolish or incessant merriment.


ABDERITE Ab*derite, n. Etym: [L. Abderita, Abderites, fr. Gr. ' Defn: An inhabitant of Abdera, in Thrace. The Abderite, Democritus, the Laughing Philosopher.


ABDEST Abdest, n. Etym: [Per. abdast; ab water + dast hand.] Defn: Purification by washing the hands before prayer; -- a Mohammedan rite. Heyse.


ABDICABLE Abdi*ca*ble, a. Defn: Capable of being abdicated.


ABDICANT Abdi*cant, a. Etym: [L. abdicans, p.pr. of abdicare.] Defn: Abdicating; renouncing; -- followed by of. Monks abdicant of their orders. Whitlock.


ABDICANT Abdi*cant, n. Defn: One who abdicates. Smart.


ABDICATE Abdi*cate, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Abdicated; p.pr. & vb.n. Abdicating.] Etym: [L. abdicatus, p.p. of abdicare; ab + dicare to proclaim, akin to dicere to say. See Diction.] 1. To surrender or relinquish, as sovereign power; to withdraw definitely from filling or exercising, as a high office, station, dignity; as, to abdicate the throne, the crown, the papacy. Note: The word abdicate was held to mean, in the case of James II., to abandon without a formal surrender. The cross-bearers abdicated their service. Gibbon. 2. To renounce; to relinquish; -- said of authority, a trust, duty, right, etc. He abdicates all right to be his own governor. Burke. The understanding abdicates its functions. Froude. 3. To reject; to cast off. [Obs.] Bp. Hall. 4. (Civil Law) Defn: To disclaim and expel from the family, as a father his child; to disown; to disinherit. Syn. -- To give up; quit; vacate; relinquish; forsake; abandon; resign; renounce; desert. -- To Abdicate, Resign. Abdicate commonly expresses the act of a monarch in voluntary and formally yielding up sovereign authority; as, to abdicate the government. Resign is applied to the act of any person, high or low, who gives back an office or trust into the hands of him who conferred it. Thus, a minister resigns, a military officer resigns, a clerk resigns. The expression, The king resigned his crown, sometimes occurs in our later literature, implying that he held it from his people. -- There are other senses of resign which are not here brought into view.


ABDICATE Abdi*cate, v.i. Defn: To relinquish or renounce a throne, or other high office or dignity. Though a king may abdicate for his own person, he cannot abdicate for the monarchy. Burke.


ABDICATION Ab`di*cation, n. Etym: [L. abdicatio: cf. F. abdication.] Defn: The act of abdicating; the renunciation of a high office, dignity, or trust, by its holder; commonly the voluntary renunciation of sovereign power; as, abdication of the throne, government, power, authority.


ABDICATIVE Abdi*ca*tive, a. Etym: [L. abdicativus.] Defn: Causing, or implying, abdication. [R.] Bailey.


ABDICATOR Abdi*ca`tor, n. Defn: One who abdicates.

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