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XANTHATE Xanthate, n. [See Xanthic.] (Chem.) Defn: A salt of xanthic; a xanthogenate.


XANTHELASMA Xan`the*lasma, n. [NL.; Gr. xanqo`s yellow + 'e`lasma a metal plate.] (Med.) Defn: See Xanthoma.


XANTHIAN Xanthi*an, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to Xanthus, an ancient town on Asia Minor; -- applied especially to certain marbles found near that place, and now in the British Museum.


XANTHIC Xanthic, a. [Gr. xanqo`s yellow: cf. F. xanthique.] 1. Tending toward a yellow color, or to one of those colors, green being excepted, in which yellow is a constituent, as scarlet, orange, etc. 2. (Chem.) (a) Possessing, imparting, or producing a yellow color; as, xanthic acid. (b) Of or pertaining to xanthic acid, or its compounds; xanthogenic. (c) Of or pertaining to xanthin. Xanthic acid (Chem.), a heavy, astringent, colorless oil, C2H5O.CS.SH, having a pungent odor. It is produced by leading carbon disulphide into a hot alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide. So called from the yellow color of many of its salts. Called also xanthogenic acid. -- Xanthic colors (Bot.), those colors (of flowers) having some tinge of yellow; -- opposed to cyanic colors. See under Cyanic.


XANTHIDE Xanthide, n. [See Xantho-.] (Chem.) Defn: A compound or derivative of xanthogen. [Archaic]


XANTHIDIUM Xan*thidi*um, n.; pl. Xanthidia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. xanqo`s yellow.] (Bot.) Defn: A genus of minute unicellular alg? of the desmids. These alg? have a rounded shape and are armed with glochidiate or branched aculei. Several species occur in ditches, and others are found fossil in flint or hornstone.


XANTHIN Xanthin, n. [Gr. xanqo`s yellow.] 1. (Physiol. Chem.) A crystalline nitrogenous body closely related to both uric acid and hypoxanthin, present in muscle tissue, and occasionally found in the urine and in some urinary calculi. It is also present in guano. So called from the yellow color of certain of its salts (nitrates). 2. (Chem.) A yellow insoluble coloring matter extracted from yellow flowers; specifically, the coloring matter of madder. [Formerly written also xanthein.] 3. (Chem.) One of the gaseous or volatile decomposition products of the xanthates, and probably identical with carbon disulphide. [Obs.]


XANTHINE; XANTHIN Xanthine, n. Also Xanthin . [Gr. xanqo`s yellow.] (Physiol. Chem.) Defn: A white microcrystalline nitrogenous compound, C5H4O2N4, present in muscle tissue, in the liver, spleen, pancreas, and other organs, and also in urine (in small quantities) and some urinary calculi, and in the juices of certain plants; -- so called because it leaves a yellow residue when evaporated to dryness with nitric acid. Xanthine is closely related to uric acid.


XANTHININE Xanthi*nine, n. [Gr. xanqo`s yellow + quinine.] (Chem.) Defn: A complex nitrogenous substance related to urea and uric acid, produced as a white powder; -- so called because it forms yellow salts, and because its solution forms a blue fluorescence like quinine.


XANTHIUM Xanthi*um, n. [NL., fr. Gr. xa`nqion a plant used for dyeing the hair yellow, said to be the Xanthium strumarium, from xanqo`s yellow.] (Bot.) Defn: A genus of composite plants in which the scales of the involucre are united so as to form a kind of bur; cocklebur; clotbur.


XANTHO- Xantho-. Defn: A combining form from Gr. xanqo`s yellow; as in xanthocobaltic salts. Used also adjectively in chemistry.


XANTHOCARPOUS Xan`tho*carpous, a. [Xantho-+ Gr. karpo`s fruit.] (Bot.) Defn: Having yellow fruit.


XANTHOCHROI Xan*thochro*i, n. pl. [NL. See Xanthochroic.] (Ethnol.) Defn: A division of the Caucasian races, comprising the lighter- colored members. The Xanthochroi, or fair whites, . . . are the prevalent inhabitants of Northern Europe, and the type may be traced into North Africa, and eastward as far as Hindostan. Tylor.


XANTHOCHROIC Xan`tho*chroic, a. [Xantho-+ Gr. chro`a color.] (Ethnol.) Defn: Having a yellowish or fair complexion; of or pertaining to the Xanthochroi.


XANTHOCHROID Xantho*chroid, a. [See under Xanthrochroic, -oid.] (Ethnol.) Defn: Having a yellowish or fair complexion. -- n. Defn: A person having xanthochroid traits.


XANTHOCHROISM Xan*thochro*ism, n. Defn: Abnormal coloration of feathers in which yellow replaces the normal color, as in certain parrots. It is commonly due to lack of the dark pigment which with yellow forms green.


XANTHODONTOUS Xan`tho*dontous, a. [Xantho-+ Gr. 'odoy`s, 'odo`ntos, tooth.] Defn: Having yellow teeth.


XANTHOGEN Xantho*gen, n. [Xantho- + -gen.] (Chem.) (a) The hypothetical radical supposed to be characteristic of xanthic acid. [Archaic] (b) Persulphocyanogen. [R.]


XANTHOGENATE Xantho*gen*ate, n. (Chem.) Defn: A salt of xanthic acid.


XANTHOGENIC Xan`tho*genic, a. [See Xantho-, and -gen.] (Chem.) Defn: Producing a yellow color or compound; xanthic. See Xanthic acid, under Xanthic.


XANTHOMA Xan*thoma, n. [NL. See Xantho-, and -oma.] (Med.) Defn: A skin disease marked by the development or irregular yellowish patches upon the skin, especially upon the eyelids; -- called also xanthelasma.


XANTHOMATOUS Xan*thoma*tous, a. (Med.) Defn: Of or pertaining to xanthoma.


XANTHOMELANOUS Xan`tho*mela*nous, a. [Pref. xantho- + Gr. , , black.] (Ethnol.) Defn: Of or pertaining to the lighter division of the Melanochroi, or those races having an olive or yellow complexion and black hair.


XANTHOPHANE Xantho*phane, n. [Xantho- + Gr. fai`nein to show.] (Physiol.) Defn: The yellow pigment present in the inner segments of the retina in animals. See Chromophane.


XANTHOPHYLL Xantho*phyll, n. [Xantho- + Gr. fy`llon leaf.] (Bot.) Defn: A yellow coloring matter found in yellow autumn leaves, and also produced artificially from chlorophyll; -- formerly called also phylloxanthin.


XANTHOPOUS Xantho*pous, a. [Xantho- + Gr. poy`s, podo`s, foot.] (Bot.) Defn: Having a yellow stipe, or stem.


XANTHOPROTEIC Xan`tho*pro*teic, a. (Physiol. Chem.) Defn: Pertaining to, or derived from, xanthoprotein; showing the characters of xanthoprotein; as, xanthoproteic acid; the xanthoproteic reaction for albumin.


XANTHOPROTEIN Xan`tho*prote*in, n. [Xantho-+ protein.] (Physiol. Chem.) Defn: A yellow acid substance formed by the action of hot nitric acid on albuminous or proteid matter. It is changed to a deep orange- yellow color by the addition of ammonia.


XANTHOPUCCINE Xan`tho*puccine, n. [Xantho-+ puccoon + -ine.] (Chem.) Defn: One of three alkaloids found in the root of the yellow puccoon (Hydrastis Canadensis). It is a yellow crystalline substance, and resembles berberine.


XANTHORHAMNIN Xan`tho*rhamnin, n. [Xantho-+ NL. Rhamnus, the generic name of the plant bearing Persian berries.] (Chem.) Defn: A glucoside extracted from Persian berries as a yellow crystalline powder, used as a dyestuff.


XANTHORHIZA Xan`tho*rhiza, n. [NL., fr. Gr. xanqo`s yellow + ri`za root.] (Bot.) Defn: A genus of shrubby ranunculaceous plants of North America, including only the species Xanthorhiza apiifolia, which has roots of a deep yellow color; yellowroot. The bark is intensely bitter, and is sometimes used as a tonic.


XANTHORHOEA Xan`tho*rhoea, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. xanqo`s yellow + (Bot.) Defn: A genus of endogenous plants, native to Australia, having a thick, sometimes arborescent, stem, and long grasslike leaves. See Grass tree.


XANTHOSE Xanthose, n. (Chem.) Defn: An orange-yellow substance found in pigment spots of certain crabs.


XANTHOSIS Xan*thosis, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. xanqo`s yellow.] (Med.) Defn: The yellow discoloration often observed in cancerous tumors.


XANTHOSPERMOUS Xan`tho*spermous, a. Etym: [Xantho- + Gr. (Bot.) Defn: Having yellow seeds.


XANTHOUS Xanthous, a. Etym: [Gr. Defn: Yellow; specifically (Ethnol.), of or pertaining to those races of man which have yellowish, red, auburn, or brown hair.


XANTHOXYLENE Xan*thoxy*lene, n. Etym: [See Xanthoxylum.] (Chem.) Defn: A liquid hydrocarbon of the terpene series extracted from the seeds of a Japanese prickly ash (Xanthoxylum pipertium) as an aromatic oil.


XANTHOXYLUM Xan*thoxy*lum, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. xanqo`s yellow + xy`lon wood.] (Bot.) Defn: A genus of prickly shrubs or small trees, the bark and rots of which are of a deep yellow color; prickly ash. Note: The commonest species in the Northern United States is Xanthoxylum Americanum. See Prickly ash, under Prickly.


XEBEC Xebec, n. Etym: [Sp. jabegue, formerly spelt xabeque, or Pg. xabeco; both from Turk. sumbeki a kind of Asiatic ship; cf. Per. sumbuk, Ar. sumb a small ship.] (Naut.) Defn: A small three-masted vessel, with projecting bow stern and convex decks, used in the Mediterranean for transporting merchandise, etc. It carries large square sails, or both. Xebecs were formerly armed and used by corsairs.


XEME Xeme (zem), n. (Zo?l.) Defn: An Arctic fork-tailed gull (Xema Sabinii).


XENELASIA Xen`e*lasi*a, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Gr. Antiq.) Defn: A Spartan institution which prohibited strangers from residing in Sparta without permission, its object probably being to preserve the national simplicity of manners.


XENIUM Xeni*um, n.; pl. Xenia. Etym: [L., from Gr. (Class. Antiq.) Defn: A present given to a guest or stranger, or to a foreign ambassador.


XENODOCHIUM Xen`o*do*chium, n. Etym: [LL., fr. L. xenodochium a building for the reception of strangers, Gr. (a) (Class. Antiq.) Defn: A house for the reception of strangers. (b) In the Middle Ages, a room in a monastery for the reception and entertainment of strangers and pilgrims, and for the relief of paupers. [Called also Xenodocheion.]


XENODOCHY Xe*nodo*chy, n. Etym: [Gr. Defn: Reception of strangers; hospitality. [R.]


XENOGAMY Xe*noga*my, n. Etym: [Gr. xe`nos strange, foreign + (Bot.) Defn: Cross fertilization.


XENOGENESIS Xen`o*gene*sis, n. Etym: [Gr. xe`nos a stranger + E. genesis.] (Biol.) (a) Same as Heterogenesis. (b) The fancied production of an organism of one kind by an organism of another. Huxley.


XENOGENETIC Xen`o*ge*netic, a. (Biol.) Defn: Of or pertaining to xenogenesis; as, the xenogenetic origin of microzymes. Huxley.


XENOMANIA Xen`o*mani*a, n. Etym: [Gr. xe`nos strange + E. mania.] Defn: A mania for, or an inordinate attachment to, foreign customs, institutions, manners, fashions, etc. [R.] Saintsbury.


XENOMI Xeno*mi, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr. xe`nos strange.] (Zo?l.) Defn: A suborder of soft-rayed fresh-water fishes of which the blackfish of Alaska (Dallia pectoralis) is the type.


XENON Xenon, n. [Gr. , neut. of strange.] (Chem.) Defn: A very heavy, inert gaseous element occurring in the atmosphere in the proportion of one volume is about 20 millions. It was discovered by Ramsay and Travers in 1898. It can be condensed to a liquid boiling at -109? C., and to a solid which volatilizes without melting. Symbol Xe or X; atomic weight 130.2.


XENOPTERYGII Xe*nop`te*rygi*i, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr. xe`nos strange + (Zo?l.) Defn: A suborder of fishes including Gobiesox and allied genera. These fishes have soft-rayed fins, and a ventral sucker supported in front by the pectoral fins. They are destitute of scales.


XENOTIME Xeno*time, n. Etym: [Gr. xe`nos guest, stranger + xenotim.] (Min.) Defn: A native phosphate of yttrium occurring in yellowish-brown tetragonal crystals.


XENURINE Xe*nurine, n. Etym: [Gr. xe`nos strange + (Zo?l.) Defn: A cabassou.


XENYL Xenyl, n. Etym: [Gr. xe`nos strange + -yl.] (Chem.) Defn: The radical characteristic of xenylic compounds.


XENYLIC Xe*nylic, a. (Chem.) Defn: Pertaining to, derived from, designating, certain amido compounds obtained by reducing certain nitro derivatives of diphenyl.


XERAPHIM Xera*phim, n. Etym: [Pg. xarafin, xerafin, fr. Ar. ashrafi noble, the name of a gold coin.] Defn: An old money of account in Bombay, equal to three fifths of a rupee.


XERES Xeres, n. Defn: Sherry. See Sherry.


XERIF Xerif, n. Defn: A shereef.


XERIFF Xeriff, n. Etym: [See Shereef.] Defn: A gold coin formerly current in Egypt and Turkey, of the value of about 9s. 6d., or about $2.30; -- also, in Morocco, a ducat.


XERODERMA Xe`ro*derma, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) (a) Ichthyosis. (b) A skin disease characterized by the presence of numerous small pigmented spots resembling freckles, with which are subsequently mingled spots of atrophied skin.


XERONATE Xero*nate, n. (Chem.) Defn: A salt of xeronic acid.


XERONIC Xe*ronic, a. Etym: [Gr. conic.] (Chem.) Defn: Pertaining to, or designating, an acid, C8H12O4, related to fumaric acid, and obtained from citraconic acid as an oily substance having a bittersweet taste; -- so called from its tendency to form its anhydride.


XEROPHAGY Xe*ropha*gy, n. Etym: [L. xerophagia, Gr. Defn: Among the primitive Christians, the living on a diet of dry food in Lent and on other fasts.


XEROPHILOUS Xe*rophi*lous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.) Defn: Drought-loving; able withstand the absence or lack of moisture. Plants which are peculiarly adapted to dry climates are termed by De Candolle xerophilous. Goodale.


XEROPHTHALMIA Xe`roph*thalmi*a, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. Ophthalmia.] (Med.) Defn: An abnormal dryness of the eyeball produced usually by long- continued inflammation and subsequent atrophy of the conjunctiva.


XEROPHTHALMY Xe`roph*thalmy, n. (Med.) Defn: Xerophthalmia.


XIPHIAS Xiphi*as, n. Etym: [L., a swordfish, a sword-shaped comet, fr. Gr. 1. (Zo?l.) Defn: A genus of fishes comprising the common swordfish. 2. (Anat.) (a) The constellation Dorado. (b) A comet shaped like a sword


XIPHIDIUM Xi*phidi*um, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. xi`fos sword.] (Bot.) Defn: A genus of plants of the order H?modrace?, having two-ranked, sword-shaped leaves.


XIPHIOID Xiphi*oid, a. Etym: [Xiphius + -oid.] (Zo?l.) Defn: Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a cetacean of the genus Xiphius or family Xiphiid?.


XIPHIPLASTRON Xiphi*plastron, n.; pl. Xiphiplastra. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. xi`fos a sword + plastron.] (Anat.) Defn: The posterior, or fourth, lateral plate in the plastron of turtles; -- called also xiphisternum.


XIPHISTERNUM Xiphi*sternum, n.; pl. Xiphisterna. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. xi`fos a sword + sternum.] (Anat.) (a) The posterior segment, or extremity, of the sternum; -- sometimes called metasternum, ensiform cartilage, ensiform process, or xiphoid process. (b) The xiphiplastron. -- Xiphi*sternal a.


XIPHIUS Xiphi*us, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. xi`fos a sword.] (Zo?l.) Defn: A genus of cetaceans having a long, pointed, bony beak, usually two tusklike teeth in the lower jaw, but no teeth in the upper jaw.


XIPHODON Xipho*don, n. Etym: [Gr. xi`fos a sword + (Paleon.) Defn: An extinct genus of artiodactylous mammals found in the European Tertiary formations. It had slender legs, didactylous feet, and small canine teeth.


XIPHOID Xiphoid, a. Etym: [Gr. xi`fos a sword + xiphoide.] (Anat.) (a) Like a sword; ensiform. (b) Of or pertaining to the xiphoid process; xiphoidian.


XIPHOIDIAN Xiph*oidi*an, a. (Anat.) Defn: Xiphoid.


XIPHOPHYLLOUS Xi*phophyl*lous, a. Etym: [Gr. xi`fos sword + (Bot.) Defn: Having sword-shaped leaves.


XIPHOSURA Xiph`o*sura, n. pl. Defn: See Xiphura.


XIPHURA Xi*phura, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr. xi`fos sword + (Zo?l.) Defn: Same as Limuloidea. Called also Xiphosura. X ray. See under Ray.


XIV., for the use of the dauphin (in usum Delphini).




XP. [Belongs here in appearance only.] Defn: The first two letters of the Greek word XRISTOS, Christ; -- an abbreviation used with the letters separate or, oftener, in a monogram, often inclosed in a circle, as a symbol or emblem of Christ. It use as an emblem was introduced by Constantine the Great, whence it is known as the Constantinian symbol, or monogram. See Labarum. X RAYS; X-RAYS X rays, or X-rays`, n. pl. Defn: The R?ntgen rays; -- so called by their discoverer because of their enigmatical character. X-RAY TUBE X-ray tube. (Physics) Defn: A vacuum tube suitable for producing R?ntgen rays.


XYLAMIDE Xy*lamide, n. Etym: [Xylic + amide.] (Chem.) Defn: An acid amide derivative of xylic acid, obtained as a white crystalline substance.


XYLAN Xylan, n. (Chem.) Defn: A gummy substance of the pentosan class, present in woody tissue, and yielding xylose on hydrolysis; wood gum.


XYLANTHRAX Xy*lanthrax, n. Etym: [Gr. xy`lon wood + Defn: Wood coal, or charcoal; -- so called in distinction from mineral coal.


XYLATE Xylate, n. (Chem.) Defn: A salt of xylic acid.


XYLEM Xylem, n. Etym: [Gr. xy`lon wood.] (Bot.) Defn: That portion of a fibrovascular bundle which has developed, or will develop, into wood cells; -- distinguished from phlo?m.


XYLENE Xylene, n. Etym: [Gr. xy`lon wood.] (Chem.) Defn: Any of a group of three metameric hydrocarbons of the aromatic series, found in coal and wood tar, and so named because found in crude wood spirit. They are colorless, oily, inflammable liquids, C6H4.(CH3)2, being dimethyl benzenes, and are called respectively orthoxylene, metaxylene, and paraxylene. Called also xylol. Note: Each of these xylenes is the nucleus and prototype of a distinct series of compounds.


XYLENOL Xyle*nol, n. Etym: [Xylene + -ol.] (Chem.) Defn: Any one of six metameric phenol derivatives of xylene, obtained as crystalline substances, (CH3)2.C6H3.OH.


XYLETIC Xy*letic, a. (Chem.) Defn: Pertaining to, or designating, a complex acid related to mesitylenic acid, obtained as a white crystalline substance by the action of sodium and carbon dioxide on crude xylenol.


XYLIC Xylic, a. (Chem.) Defn: Pertaining to, derived from, or related to, xylene; specifically, designating any one of several metameric acids produced by the partial oxidation of mesitylene and pseudo-cumene.


XYLIDIC Xy*lidic, a. (Chem.) Defn: Pertaining to, or designating, either one of two distinct acids which are derived from xylic acid and related compounds, and are metameric with uvitic acid.


XYLIDINE Xyli*dine, n. (Chem.) Defn: Any one of six metameric hydrocarbons, (CH3)2.C6H3.NH2, resembling aniline, and related to xylene. They are liquids, or easily fusible crystalline substances, of which three are derived from metaxylene, two from orthoxylene, and one from paraxylene. They are called the amido xylenes. Note: The xylidine of commerce, used in making certain dyes, consists chiefly of the derivatives of paraxylene and metaxylene.


XYLINDEIN Xy*linde*in, n. (Chem.) Defn: A green or blue pigment produced by Peziza in certain kinds of decayed wood, as the beech, oak, birch, etc., and extracted as an amorphous powder resembling indigo.


XYLITE Xylite, n. Etym: [Gr. xy`lon wood.] (Chem.) Defn: A liquid hydrocarbon found in crude wood spirits.


XYLITONE Xyli*tone, n. (Chem.) Defn: A yellow oil having a geraniumlike odor, produced as a side product in making phorone; -- called also xylite oil.


XYLO- Xylo-. Defn: A combining form from Gr. xy`lon wood; as in xylogen, xylograph.


XYLOBALSAMUM Xy`lo*balsa*mum, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. xy`lon wood + xylobalsamum balsam wood, Gr. (Med.) Defn: The dried twigs of a Syrian tree (Balsamodendron Gileadense). U. S. Disp.


XYLOCARPOUS Xy`lo*carpous, a. Etym: [Xylo- + Gr. (Bot.) Defn: Bearing fruit which becomes hard or woody.


XYLOCOPA Xy*loco*pa, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. xy`lon wood + (Zo?l.) Defn: A genus of hymenopterous insects including the carpenter. See Carpenter bee, under Carpenter. -- Xy*loco*pine, a.


XYLOGEN Xylo*gen, n. Etym: [Xylo- + -gen.] (a) (Bot.) Nascent wood; wood cells in a forming state. (b) Lignin.

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