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OA, and EB and CG parallel to OA, and let OB be produced to G and F. E Then BD is the sine of the arc AB; OD or EB is the cosine, AF is the tangent, CG is the cotangent, OF is the secant OG is the cosecant, AD is the versed sine, and CE is the coversed sine of the are AB. If the length of AB be represented by x (OA being unity) then the lengths of Functions. these lines (OA being unity) are the trigonometrical functions of x, and are written sin x, cos x, tan x (or tang x), cot x, sec x, cosec x, versin x, coversin x. These quantities are also considered as functions of the angle BOA.


OAF Oaf, n. Etym: [See Auf.] Defn: Originally, an elf's child; a changeling left by fairies or goblins; hence, a deformed or foolish child; a simpleton; an idiot.


OAFISH Oafish, a. Defn: Like an oaf; simple. -- Oafish*ness, n.


OAK Oak, n. Etym: [OE. oke, ok, ak, AS. ac; akin to D. eik, G. eiche,


OAKEN Oaken, a. Etym: [AS. acen.] Defn: Made or consisting of oaks or of the wood of oaks. In oaken bower. Milton. Oaken timber, wherewith to build ships. Bacon.


OAKER Oaker, n. Defn: See Ocher. [Obs.] Spenser.


OAKLING Oakling, n. Defn: A young oak. Evelyn.


OAKUM Oakum, n. Etym: [AS. acumba; pref. er-, Goth. us-, orig. meaning, out) + cemban to comb, camb comb. See Comb.] 1. The material obtained by untwisting and picking into loose fiber old hemp ropes; -- used for calking the seams of ships, stopping leaks, etc. 2. The coarse portion separated from flax or hemp in nackling. Knight. White oakum, that made from untarred rope.


OAKY Oaky, n. Defn: Resembling oak; strong. Bp. Hall.


OAR Oar, n Etym: [AS. ar; akin to Icel. ar, Dan. aare, Sw. ?ra; perh. akin to E. row, v. Cf. Rowlock.] 1. An implement for impelling a boat, being a slender piece of timber, usually ash or spruce, with a grip or handle at one end and a broad blade at the other. The part which rests in the rowlock is called the loom. Note: An oar is a kind of long paddle, which swings about a kind of fulcrum, called a rowlock, fixed to the side of the boat. 2. An oarsman; a rower; as, he is a good car. 3. (Zo?l.) Defn: An oarlike swimming organ of various invertebrates. Oar cock (Zo?l), the water rail. [Prov. Eng.] -- Spoon oar, an oar having the blade so curved as to afford a better hold upon the water in rowing. -- To boat the oars, to cease rowing, and lay the oars in the boat. -- To feather the oars. See under Feather., v. t. -- To lie on the oars, to cease pulling, raising the oars out of water, but not boating them; to cease from work of any kind; to be idle; to rest. -- To muffle the oars, to put something round that part which rests in the rowlock, to prevent noise in rowing. -- To put in one's oar, to give aid or advice; -- commonly used of a person who obtrudes aid or counsel not invited. -- To ship the oars, to place them in the rowlocks. -- To toss the oars, To peak the oars, to lift them from the rowlocks and hold them perpendicularly, the handle resting on the bottom of the boat. -- To trail oars, to allow them to trail in the water alongside of the boat. -- To unship the oars, to take them out of the rowlocks.


OAR Oar, v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Oared; p. pr. & vb. n. Oaring.] Defn: To row. Oared himself. Shak. Oared with laboring arms. Pope.


OAR-FOOTED Oar-foot`ed a. Defn: Having feet adapted for swimming.


OARED Oared, a. 1. Furnished with oars; -- chiefly used in composition; as, a four- oared boat. 2. (Zo?l.) (a) Having feet adapted for swimming. (b) Totipalmate; -- said of the feet of certain birds. See Illust. of Aves. Oared shrew (Zo?l.), an aquatic European shrew (Crossopus ciliatus); -- called also black water shrew.


OARFISH Oarfish` (orfish`), n. (Zo?l.) Defn: The ribbon fish.


OARFOOT Oarfoot` (-foot`), n. (Zo?l.) Defn: Any crustacean of the genus Remipes.


OARLESS Oarless, a. Defn: Without oars. Sylvester.


OARLOCK Oarlock` (orlok`), n. (Naut.), Defn: The notch, fork, or other device on the gunwale of a boat, in which the oar rests in rowing. See Rowlock.


OARSMAN Oarsman (orzman), n.; pl. Oarsmen (-men). Defn: One who uses, or is skilled in the use of, an oar; a rower. At the prow of the boat, rose one of the oarsmen. Longfellow.


OARSWEED Oarsweed` (orwed`), n. (Bot.) Defn: Any large seaweed of the genus Laminaria; tangle; kelp. See Kelp.


OARY Oary (ory), a. Defn: Having the form or the use of an oar; as, the swan's oary feet. Milton. Addison.


OASIS Oas*is (oa*sis or o*asis; 277), n.; pl. Oases (-sez). [L., fr. Gr. 'o`asis; cf. Copt. ouahe.] Defn: A fertile or green spot in a waste or desert, esp. in a sandy desert. My one oasis in the dust and drouth Of city life. Tennyson.


OAST Oast (ost), n. [OE. ost, AS. ast; cf. Gr. a'i^qos burning heat.] Defn: A kiln to dry hops or malt; a cockle. Mortimer.


OATCAKE Oatcake, n. Defn: A cake made of oatmeal.


OATEN Oaten, a. 1. Consisting of an oat straw or stem; as, an oaten pipe. Milton. 2. Made of oatmeal; as, oaten cakes.


OATH Oath, n.; pl. Oaths. Etym: [OE. othe, oth, ath, AS. a; akin to D. eed, OS. e, G. eid, Icel. ei, Sw. ed, Dan. eed, Goth. ai; cf. OIr. oeth.] 1. A solemn affirmation or declaration, made with a reverent appeal to God for the truth of what is affirmed. I have an oath in heaven Shak. An oath of secrecy for the concealing of those [inventions] which we think fit to keep secret. Bacon. 2. A solemn affirmation, connected with a sacred object, or one regarded as sacred, as the temple, the altar, the blood of Abel, the Bible, the Koran, etc. 3. (Law) Defn: An appeal (in verification of a statement made) to a superior sanction, in such a form as exposes the party making the appeal to an indictment for perjury if the statement be false. 4. A careless and blasphemous use of the name of the divine Being, or anything divine or sacred, by way of appeal or as a profane exclamation or ejaculation; an expression of profane swearing. A terrible oath Shak.


OATHABLE Oatha*ble, a. Defn: Capable of having an oath administered to. [Obs.] Shak.


OATHBREAKING Oathbreak`ing, n. Defn: The violation of an oath; perjury. Shak


OATMEAL Oatmeal`, n. 1. Meal made of oats. Gay. 2. (Bot.) Defn: A plant of the genus Panicum; panic grass.


OB- Ob-. Etym: [L. ob, prep. Cf. Epi-.] Defn: A prefix signifying to, toward, before, against, reversely, etc.; also, as a simple intensive; as in oblige, to bind to; obstacle, something standing before; object, lit., to throw against; obovate, reversely, ovate. Ob- is commonly assimilated before c, f, g, and p, to oc-, of-, og-, and op-.


OBBE Obbe, n. Defn: See Obi.


OBCOMPRESSED Obcom*pressed. a. Etym: [Pref. ob- + compressed.] Defn: Compressed or flattened antero-posteriorly, or in a way opposite to the usual one.


OBCONIC; OBCONICAL Ob*conic, Ob*conic*al, a. Etym: [Pref. ob- + conic, conical.] Defn: Conical, but having the apex downward; inversely conical.


OBCORDATE Ob*cordate, a. Etym: [Pref. ob- + cordate.] Defn: Heart-shaped, with the attachment at the pointed end; inversely cordate: as, an obcordate petal or leaf.


OBDIPLOSTEMONOUS Ob*dip`lo*stemo*nous, a. Etym: [Pref. ob- + diplostemonous.] (Bot.) Defn: Having twice as many stamens as petals, those of the outer set being opposite the petals; -- said of flowers. Gray.


OBDIPLOSTEMONY Ob*diplo*stemo*ny, n. (Bot.) Defn: The condition of being obdiplostemonous.


OBDORMITION Obdor*mition, n. Etym: [L. obdormire to fall asleep.] Defn: Sleep. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


OBDUCE Ob*duce, v. t. Etym: [L. obducere, obductum; ob (see Ob-) + ducere to lead.] Defn: To draw over, as a covering. [Obs.] Sir M. Hale.


OBDUCT Ob*duct (, v. t. Etym: [See Obduce.] Defn: To draw over; to cover. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


OBDUCTION Ob*duction, n. Etym: [L.obductio.] Defn: .The act of drawing or laying over, as a covering. [Obs.]


OBDURACY Obdu*ra*cy, n. Defn: The duality or state of being obdurate; invincible hardness of heart; obstinacy. Obduracy and persistency. Shak. The absolute completion of sin in final obduracy. South.


OBDURATE Obdu*rate, a. Etym: [L. obduratus, p. p. of obdurare to harden; ob (see Ob-)+ durare to harden, durus hard. See Dure.] 1. Hardened in feelings, esp. against moral or mollifying influences; unyielding; hard-hearted; stubbornly wicked. The very custom of evil makes the heart obdurate against whatsoever instructions to the contrary. Hooker. Art thou obdurate, flinty, hard as steel, Nay, more than flint, for stone at rain relenteth Shak. 2. Hard; harsh; rugged; rough; intractable. Obdurate consonants. Swift. Note: Sometimes accented on the second syllable, especially by the older poets. There is no flesh in man's obdurate heart. Cowper. Syn. -- Hard; firm; unbending; inflexible; unyielding; stubborn; obstinate; impenitent; callous; unfeeling; insensible; unsusceptible. -- Obdurate, Callous, Hardened. Callous denotes a deadening of the sensibilities; as. a callous conscience. Hardened implies a general and settled disregard for the claims of interest, duty, and sympathy; as, hardened in vice. Obdurate implies an active resistance of the heart and will aganst the pleadings of compassion and humanity. -- Obdu*rate*ly, adv. -- Obdu*rate*ness, n.


OBDURATE Obdu*rate, v. t. Defn: To harden. [Obs.]


OBDURATION Obdu*ration, n. Etym: [L. obduratio.] Defn: A hardening of the heart; hardness of heart. [Obs.]


OBDURE Ob*dure, v. t. Defn: To harden. [Obs.] Milton.


OBDURE; OBDURED Ob*dure, Ob*dured, a. Defn: Obdurate; hard. [Obs.] This saw his hapless foes, but stood obdured. Milton.


OBDURENESS; OBDUREDNESS Ob*dureness, n., Ob*dured*ness, n. Defn: Hardness. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


OBE Obe (obe), n. Defn: See Obi.


OBEAH O*beah. n. Defn: Same as Obi. -- a. Defn: Of or pertaining to obi; as, the obeah man. B. Edwards.


OBEDIBLE O*bedi*ble, a. Defn: Obedient. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


OBEDIENCE O*bedi*ence, n. Etym: [F. ob?dience, L. obedientia, oboedientia. See Obedient, and cf.Obeisance.] 1. The act of obeying, or the state of being obedient; compliance with that which is required by authority; subjection to rightful restraint or control. Government must compel the obedience of individuals. Ames. 2. Words or actions denoting submission to authority; dutifulness. Shak. 3. (Eccl.) (a) A following; a body of adherents; as, the Roman Catholic obedience, or the whole body of persons who submit to the authority of the pope. (b) A cell (or offshoot of a larger monastery) governed by a prior. (c) One of the three monastic vows. Shipley. (d) The written precept of a superior in a religious order or congregation to a subject. Canonical obedience. See under Canonical. -- Passive obedience. See under Passive.


OBEDIENCIARY O*be`di*enci*a*ry, n. Defn: One yielding obedience. [Obs.] Foxe.


OBEDIENT O*bedi*ent, a. Etym: [OF. obedient, L. obediens, oboediens, -entis. p.pr. of obedire, oboedire, to obey. See Obey.] Defn: Subject in will or act to authority; willing to obey; submissive to restraint, control, or command. And floating straight, obedient to the stream. Shak. The chief his orders gives; the obedient band, With due observance, wait the chief's command. Pope. Syn. -- Dutiful; respectful; compliant; submissive.


OBEDIENTIAL O*be`di*ential, a. Etym: [Cf. F. ob?dientiel.] Defn: According to the rule of obedience. [R.] An obediental subjection to the Lord of Nature. Sir M. Hale.


OBEDIENTLY O*bedi*ent*ly, adv. Defn: In an obedient manner; with obedience.


OBEISANCE O*beisance, n. Etym: [F. ob?issance obedience, fr. ob?issant. See Obey, and cf. Obedience, Abaisance.] 1. Obedience. [Obs.] Chaucer. 2. A manifestation of obedience; an expression of difference or respect; homage; a bow; a courtesy. Bathsheba bowed and did obeisance unto the king. 1 Kings i. 16.


OBEISANCY O*beisan*cy, n. Defn: See Obeisance. [Obs.]


OBEISANT O*beisant, a. Etym: [F. ob?issant, p.pr. of ob?ir to obey.] Defn: Ready to obey; reverent; differential; also, servilely submissive.


OBELION O*beli*on, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Anat.) Defn: The region of the skull between the two parietal foramina where the closure of the sagittal suture usually begins.


OBELISCAL Ob`e*liscal, a. Defn: Formed like an obelisk.


OBELISK Obe*lisk, n. Etym: [L. obeliscus, Gr. ob?lisque.] 1. An upright, four-sided pillar, gradually tapering as it rises, and terminating in a pyramid called pyramidion. It is ordinarily monolithic. Egyptian obelisks are commonly covered with hieroglyphic writing from top to bottom. 2. (Print.) Defn: A mark of reference; -- called also dagger [&dag;]. See Dagger, n., 2.


OBELISK Obe*lisk, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Obelisked; p. pr. & vb. n. Obelisking.] Defn: To mark or designate with an obelisk.


OBELIZE Obe*lize, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Obelized; p. pr. & vb. n. Obelizing.] Etym: [Gr. Obelus.] Defn: To designate with an obelus; to mark as doubtful or spirituous. [R.]


OBELUS Obe*lus, n.; pl. Obeli. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. (Print.) Defn: A mark [thus ---, or ?]; -- so called as resembling a needle. In old MSS. or editions of the classics, it marks suspected passages or readings.


OBEQUITATE Ob*equi*tate, v. i. Etym: [L. obequitatus, p.p. of obequitare to ride about.] Defn: To ride about. [Obs.] -- Ob*eq`ui*tation, n. [Obs.] Cockerman.


OBERON Ober*on, n. Etym: [F., fr. OF. Auberon; prob. of Frankish origin.] (Medi?val Mythol.) Defn: The king of the fairies, and husband of Titania or Queen Mab. Shak.


OBERRATION Ob`er*ration, n. Etym: [L. oberrate to wander about.] Defn: A wandering about. [Obs.] Jonhson.


OBESE O*bese. a. Etym: [L. obesus eaten away, lean; also, that has eaten itself fat, fat, stout, p.p. of obedere to devour; ob (see Ob-) + edere to eat. See Eat.] Defn: Excessively corpulent; fat; fleshy.


OBESENESS O*beseness, n. Defn: Quality of being obese; obesity.


OBESITY O*besi*ty, n.Etym: [L. obesitas: cf.F. ob?sit?.] Defn: The state or quality of being obese; incumbrance of flesh.


OBEY O*bey, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Obeyed; p. pr. & vb. n. Obeying.] Etym: [OE. obeyen, F. ob?ir, fr. L. obedire, oboedire; ob (see Ob-) + audire to hear. See Audible, and cf. Obeisance.] 1. To give ear to; to execute the commands of; to yield submission to; to comply with the orders of. Children, obey your parents in the Lord. Eph. vi. 1. Was she the God, that her thou didst obey Milton. 2. To submit to the authority of; to be ruled by. My will obeyed his will. Chaucer. Afric and India shall his power obey. Dryden. 3. To yield to the impulse, power, or operation of; as, a ship obeys her helm.


OBEY O*bey, v. i. Defn: To give obedience. Will he obey when one commands Tennyson. Note: By some old writers obey was used, as in the French idiom, with the preposition to. His servants ye are, to whom ye obey. Rom. vi. 16. He commanded the trumpets to sound: to which the two brave knights obeying, they performed their courses. Sir. P. Sidney.


OBEYER O*beyer, n. Defn: One who yields obedience. Holland.


OBEYINGLY O*beying*ly, adv. Defn: Obediently; submissively.


OBFIRM; OBFIRMATE Ob*firm, Ob*firmate, v. t. Etym: [L. obfirmatus, p.p. of obfirmare to make steadfast. See Ob-, and Firm, v. t.] Defn: To make firm; to harden in resolution. [Obs.] Bp. Hall. Sheldon.


OBFIRMATION Obfir*mation, n. Etym: [LL. obfirmatio.] Defn: Hardness of heart; obduracy. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.


OBFUSCATE Ob*fuscate, a. Etym: [L. obfuscatus, p.p. of obfuscare to darken; ob (see Ob-) + fuscare, fuscatum, to darken, from fuscus dark.] Defn: Obfuscated; darkened; obscured. [Obs.] [Written also offuscate.] Sir. T. Elyot.


OBFUSCATE Ob*fuscate, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Obfuscated; p. pr. & vb. n. Obfuscating.] Defn: To darken; to obscure; to becloud; hence, to confuse; to bewilder. His head, like a smokejack, the funnel unswept, and the ideas whirling round and round about in it, all obfuscated and darkened over with fuliginous matter. Sterne. Clouds of passion which might obfuscate the intellects of meaner females. Sir. W. Scott.


OBFUSCATION Ob`fus*cation, n. Etym: [L. obfuscatio.] Defn: The act of darkening or bewildering; the state of being darkened. Obfuscation of the cornea. E. Darwin.


OBI Obi, n. Etym: [Prob. of African origin.] 1. A species of sorcery, probably of African origin, practiced among the negroes of the West Indies. [Written also obe and obeah.] De Quincey. B. Edwards. 2. A charm or fetich. [West Indies] B. Edwards.


OBIISM Obi*ism, n. Defn: Belief in, or the practice of, the obi superstitions and rites.


OBIMBRICATE Ob*imbri*cate, a. Etym: [Pref. ob- + imbricate.] (Bot.) Defn: Imbricated, with the overlapping ends directed downward.


OBIT Obit, n. Etym: [OF. obit, L. obitus, fr. obire to go against, to go to meet, (sc.mortem) to die; ob (see Ob-) + ire to go. See Issue.] 1. Death; decease; the date of one's death. Wood. 2. A funeral solemnity or office; obsequies. 3. A service for the soul of a deceased person on the anniversary of the day of his death. The emoluments and advantages from oblations, obits, and other sources, increased in value. Milman. Post obit Etym: [L. post obitum]. See Post-obit.


OBITER Obi*ter, adv. Etym: [L., on the way; ob (see Ob-) + iter a going, a walk, way.] Defn: In passing; incidentally; by the way. Obiter dictum (Law), an incidental and collateral opinion uttered by a judge. See Dictum, n., 2(a).


OBITUAL O*bitu*al, a. Etym: [L. obitus death. See Obit.] Defn: Of or pertaining to obits, or days when obits are celebrated; as, obitual days. Smart.


OBITUARILY O*bitu*a*ri*ly, adv. Defn: In the manner of an obituary.


OBITUARY O*bitu*a*ry, a. Etym: [See Obit.] Defn: Of or pertaining to the death of a person or persons; as, an obituary notice; obituary poetry.


OBITUARY O*bitu*a*ry, n.; pl. Obituaries. Etym: [Cf. F. obituaire. See Obit.] 1. That which pertains to, or is called forth by, the obit or death of a person; esp., an account of a deceased person; a notice of the death of a person, accompanied by a biographical sketch. 2. (R.C.Ch.) Defn: A list of the dead, or a register of anniversary days when service is performed for the dead.


OBJECT Ob*ject, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Objected; p. pr. & vb. n. Objecting.] Etym: [L. objectus, p.p. of objicere, obicere, to throw or put before, to oppose; ob (see Ob-) + jacere to throw: cf. objecter. See Jet a shooting forth.] 1. To set before or against; to bring into opposition; to oppose. [Obs.] Of less account some knight thereto object, Whose loss so great and harmful can not prove. Fairfax. Some strong impediment or other objecting itself. Hooker. Pallas to their eyes The mist objected, and condensed the skies. Pope. 2. To offer in opposition as a criminal charge or by way of accusation or reproach; to adduce as an objection or adverse reason. He gave to him to object his heinous crime. Spencer. Others object the poverty of the nation. Addison. The book ... giveth liberty to object any crime against such as are to be ordered. Whitgift.


OBJECT Ob*ject, v. i. Defn: To make opposition in words or argument; -- usually followed by to. Sir. T. More.


OBJECT Object, n. Etym: [L. objectus. See Object, v. t.] 1. That which is put, or which may be regarded as put, in the way of some of the senses; something visible or tangible; as, he observed an object in the distance; all the objects in sight; he touched a strange object in the dark. 2. That which is set, or which may be regarded as set, before the mind so as to be apprehended or known; that of which the mind by any of its activities takes cognizance, whether a thing external in space or a conception formed by the mind itself; as, an object of knowledge, wonder, fear, thought, study, etc. Object is a term for that about which the knowing subject is conversant; what the schoolmen have styled the materia circa quam. Sir. W. Hamilton. The object of their bitterest hatred. Macaulay. 3. That by which the mind, or any of its activities, is directed; that on which the purpose are fixed as the end of action or effort; that which is sought for; end; aim; motive; final cause. Object, beside its proper signification, came to be abusively applied to denote motive, end, final cause.... This innovation was probably borrowed from the French. Sir. W. Hamilton. Let our object be, our country, our whole country, and nothing but our country. D. Webster. 4. Sight; show; appearance; aspect. [Obs.] Shak. He, advancing close Up to the lake, past all the rest, arose In glorious object. Chapman. 5. (Gram.) Defn: A word, phrase, or clause toward which an action is directed, or is considered to be directed; as, the object of a transitive verb. Object glass, the lens, or system of lenses, placed at the end of a telescope, microscope, etc., which is toward the object. Its office is to form an image of the object, which is then viewed by the eyepiece. Called also objective. See Illust. of Microscope. -- Object lesson, a lesson in which object teaching is made use of. -- Object staff. (Leveling) Same as Leveling staff. -- Object teaching, a method of instruction, in which illustrative objects are employed, each new word or idea being accompanied by a representation of that which it signifies; -- used especially in the kindergarten, for young children.


OBJECT Ob*ject, a. Etym: [L. objectus, p. p.] Defn: Opposed; presented in opposition; also, exposed. [Obs.]


OBJECTABLE Ob*jecta*ble, a. Defn: Such as can be presented in opposition; that may be put forward as an objection. [R.]


OBJECTIFY Ob*jecti*fy, v. t. Etym: [Object + -fy.] Defn: To cause to become an object; to cause to assume the character of an object; to render objective. J. D. Morell.


OBJECTION Ob*jection, n. Etym: [L. objectio: cf. F. objection.] 1. The act of objecting; as, to prevent agreement, or action, by objection. Johnson. 2. That which is, or may be, presented in opposition; an adverse reason or argument; a reason for objecting; obstacle; impediment; as, I have no objection to going; unreasonable objections. Objections against every truth. Tyndale. 3. Cause of trouble; sorrow. [Obs. or R.] He remembers the objection that lies in his bosom, and he sighs deeply. Jer. Taylor. Syn. -- Exception; difficulty; doubt; scruple.


OBJECTIONABLE Ob*jection*a*ble, a. Defn: Liable to objection; likely to be objected to or disapproved of; offensive; as, objectionable words. -- Ob*jection*a*bly, adv.


OBJECTIST Object*ist, n. Defn: One who adheres to, or is skilled in, the objective philosophy. Ed. Rev.


OBJECTIVATE Ob*jecti*vate, v. t. Defn: To objectify.


OBJECTIVATION Ob*jec`ti*vation, n. Defn: Converting into an object.


OBJECTIVE Ob*jective, a. Etym: [Cf.F. objectif.] 1. Of or pertaining to an object. 2. (Metaph.) Defn: Of or pertaining to an object; contained in, or having the nature or position of, an object; outward; external; extrinsic; -- an epithet applied to whatever ir exterior to the mind, or which is simply an object of thought or feeling, and opposed to subjective. In the Middle Ages, subject meant substance, and has this sense in Descartes and Spinoza: sometimes, also, in Reid. Subjective is used by William of Occam to denote that which exists independent of mind; objective, what is formed by the mind. This shows what is meant by realitas objectiva in Descartes. Kant and Fichte have inverted the meanings. Subject, with them, is the mind which knows; object, that which is known; subjective, the varying conditions of the knowing mind; objective, that which is in the constant nature of the thing known. Trendelenburg. Objective means that which belongs to, or proceeds from, the object known, and not from the subject knowing, and thus denotes what is real, in opposition to that which is ideal -- what exists in nature, in contrast to what exists merely in the thought of the individual. Sir. W. Hamilton. Objective has come to mean that which has independent exostence or authority, apart from our experience or thought. Thus, moral law is said to have objective authority, that is, authority belonging to itself, and not drawn from anything in our nature. Calderwood (Fleming's Vocabulary). 3. (Gram.) Defn: Pertaining to, or designating, the case which follows a transitive verb or a preposition, being that case in which the direct object of the verb is placed. See Accusative, n. Note: The objective case is frequently used without a governing word, esp. in designations of time or space, where a preposition, as at, in, on, etc., may be supplied. My troublous dream [on] this night make me sad. Shak. To write of victories [in or for] next year. Hudibras. Objective line (Perspective), a line drawn on the geometrical plane which is represented or sought to be represented. -- Objective plane (Perspective), any plane in the horizontal plane that is represented. -- Objective point, the point or result to which the operations of an army are directed. By extension, the point or purpose to which anything, as a journey or an argument, is directed. Syn. -- Objective, Subjective. Objective is applied to things exterior to the mind, and objects of its attention; subjective, to the operations of the mind itself. Hence, an objective motive is some outward thing awakening desire; a subjective motive is some internal feeling or propensity. Objective views are those governed by outward things; subjective views are produced or modified by internal feeling. Sir Walter Scott's poetry is chiefly objective; that of Wordsworth is eminently subjective. In the philosophy of mind, subjective denotes what is to be referred to the thinking subject, the ego; objective what belongs to the object of thought, the non-ego. Sir. W. Hamilton


OBJECTIVE Ob*jective, n. 1. (Gram.) Defn: The objective case. 2. An object glass. See under Object, n. 3. Same as Objective point, under Objective, a.

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