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THE GUTENBERG WEBSTER'S UNABRIDGED DICTIONARY BY PROJECT GUTENBERG

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JAB

JAB Jab, v. t. Etym: [Cf. Job.] Defn: To thrust; to stab; to punch. See Job, v. t. [Scot. & Colloq. U. S.]

JAB

JAB Jab, n. Defn: A thrust or stab. [Scot. & Colloq. U. S.]

JABBER

JABBER Jabber, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Jabbered; p. pr. & vb. n. Jabbering.] Etym: [Cf. Gibber, Gabble.] Defn: To talk rapidly, indistinctly, or unintelligibly; to utter gibberish or nonsense; to chatter. Swift.

JABBER

JABBER Jabber, v. t. Defn: To utter rapidly or indistinctly; to gabble; as, to jabber French. Addison.

JABBER

JABBER Jabber, n. Defn: Rapid or incoherent talk, with indistinct utterance; gibberish. Swift.

JABBER

JABBER Jabber, n. Defn: One who jabbers.

JABBERER

JABBERER Jabber*er, n. Defn: One who jabbers.

JABBERINGLY

JABBERINGLY Jabber*ing*ly, adv. Defn: In a jabbering manner.

JABBERMENT

JABBERMENT Jabber*ment, n. Defn: Jabber. [R.] Milton.

JABBERNOWL

JABBERNOWL Jabber*nowl`, n. Defn: Same as Jobbernowl.

JABIRU

JABIRU Jabi*ru, n. Etym: [Braz. jabir?, jabur?.] (Zo?l.) Defn: One of several large wading birds of the genera Mycteria and Xenorhynchus, allied to the storks in form and habits. Note: The American jabiru (Mycteria Americana) is white, with the head and neck black and nearly bare of feathers. The East Indian and Australian (Xenorhynchus Australis) has the neck, head, and back covered with glossy, dark green feathers, changing on the head to purple. The African jabiru (Mycteria, or Ephippiorhynchus, Senegalensis) has the neck, head, wing coverts, and tail, black, and is called also saddle-billed stork.

JABORANDI

JABORANDI Jab`o*randi, n. (Bot.) Defn: The native name of a South American rutaceous shrub (Pilocarpus pennatifolius). The leaves are used in medicine as an diaphoretic and sialogogue.

JABORINE

JABORINE Jabo*rine, n. Etym: [From Jaborandi.] (Chem.) Defn: An alkaloid found in jaborandi leaves, from which it is extracted as a white amorphous substance. In its action it resembles atropine.

JABOT

JABOT Jabot, n. Etym: [F.] 1. Originally, a kind of ruffle worn by men on the bosom of the shirt. 2. An arrangement of lace or tulle, looped ornamentally, and worn by women on the front of the dress.

JACAL

JACAL Ja*cal (h?*k?l; 239), n. [Amer. Sp., fr. Mex. xacalli.] Defn: In Mexico and the southwestern United States, a kind of plastered house or hut, usually made by planting poles or timber in the ground, filling in between them with screen work or wickerwork, and daubing one or both sides with mud or adobe mortar; also, this method of construction.

JACAMAR

JACAMAR Jaca*mar`, n. Etym: [F. jacamar, Braz. jacamarica; cf. Sp. jacamar.] (Zo?l.) Defn: Any one of numerous species of tropical American birds of the genus Galbula and allied genera. They are allied to the kingfishers, but climb on tree trunks like nuthatches, and feed upon insects. Their colors are often brilliant.

JACANA

JACANA Jaca*na`, n. Etym: [Cf. Sp. jacania.] (Zo?l.) Defn: Any of several wading birds belonging to the genus Jacana and several allied genera, all of which have spurs on the wings. They are able to run about over floating water weeds by means of their very long, spreading toes. Called also surgeon bird. Note: The most common South American species is Jacana spinosa. The East Indian or pheasant jacana (Hydrophasianus chirurgus) is remarkable for having four very long, curved, middle tail feathers.

JACARANDA

JACARANDA Jac`a*randa, n. Etym: [Braz.; cf. Sp. & Pg. jacaranda.] (Bot.) (a) The native Brazilian name for certain leguminous trees, which produce the beautiful woods called king wood, tiger wood, and violet wood. (b) A genus of bignoniaceous Brazilian trees with showy trumpet- shaped flowers.

JACARE

JACARE Jaca*re`, n. Etym: [Pg. jacar?; of Brazilian origin.] (Zo?l.) Defn: A cayman. See Yacare.

JACCHUS

JACCHUS Jacchus, n. Etym: [NL., fr. L. Jacchus a mystic name of Bacchus, Gr. (Zo?l.) Defn: The common marmoset (Hapale vulgaris). Formerly, the name was also applied to other species of the same genus.

JACCONET

JACCONET Jacco*net, n. Defn: See Jaconet.

JACENT

JACENT Jacent, a. Etym: [L. jacens, p. pr. of jacere to lie: cf. F. jacent.] Defn: Lying at length; as, the jacent posture. [R.] Sir H. Wotton.

JACINTH

JACINTH Jacinth, n. Etym: [F. jacinthe, L. hyacinthus. See Hyacinth.] Defn: See Hyacinth. Tennyson.

JACK

JACK Jack, n. Etym: [Pg. jaca, Malayalam, tsjaka.] (Bot.) Defn: A large tree, the Artocarpus integrifolia, common in the East Indies, closely allied to the breadfruit, from which it differs in having its leaves entire. The fruit is of great size, weighing from thirty to forty pounds, and through its soft fibrous matter are scattered the seeds, which are roasted and eaten. The wood is of a yellow color, fine grain, and rather heavy, and is much used in cabinetwork. It is also used for dyeing a brilliant yellow. [Written also jak.]

JACK

JACK Jack, n. Etym: [F. Jacques James, L. Jacobus, Gr. Ya 'aq Jacob; prop., seizing by the heel; hence, a supplanter. Cf. Jacobite, Jockey.] 1. A familiar nickname of, or substitute for, John. You are John Rugby, and you are Jack Rugby. Shak. 2. An impertinent or silly fellow; a simpleton; a boor; a clown; also, a servant; a rustic. Jack fool. Chaucer. Since every Jack became a gentleman, There 's many a gentle person made a Jack. Shak. 3. A popular colloquial name for a sailor; -- called also Jack tar, and Jack afloat. 4. A mechanical contrivance, an auxiliary machine, or a subordinate part of a machine, rendering convenient service, and often supplying the place of a boy or attendant who was commonly called Jack; as: (a) A device to pull off boots. (b) A sawhorse or sawbuck. (c) A machine or contrivance for turning a spit; a smoke jack, or kitchen jack. (b) (Mining) A wooden wedge for separating rocks rent by blasting. (e) (Knitting Machine) A lever for depressing the sinkers which push the loops down on the needles. (f) (Warping Machine) A grating to separate and guide the threads; a heck box. (g) (Spinning) A machine for twisting the sliver as it leaves the carding machine. (h) A compact, portable machine for planing metal. (i) A machine for slicking or pebbling leather. (k) A system of gearing driven by a horse power, for multiplying speed. (l) A hood or other device placed over a chimney or vent pipe, to prevent a back draught. (m) In the harpsichord, an intermediate piece communicating the action of the key to the quill; -- called also hopper. (n) In hunting, the pan or frame holding the fuel of the torch used to attract game at night; also, the light itself. C. Hallock. 5. A portable machine variously constructed, for exerting great pressure, or lifting or moving a heavy body through a small distance. It consists of a lever, screw, rack and pinion, hydraulic press, or any simple combination of mechanical powers, working in a compact pedestal or support and operated by a lever, crank, capstan bar, etc. The name is often given to a jackscrew, which is a kind of jack. 6. The small bowl used as a mark in the game of bowls. Shak. Like an uninstructed bowler who thinks to attain the jack by delivering his bowl straight forward upon it. Sir W. Scott. 7. The male of certain animals, as of the ass. 8. (Zo?l.) (a) A young pike; a pickerel. (b) The jurel. (c) A large, California rock fish (Sebastodes paucispinus); -- called also boccaccio, and m?rou. (d) The wall-eyed pike. 9. A drinking measure holding half a pint; also, one holding a quarter of a pint. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell. 10. (Naut.) (a) A flag, containing only the union, without the fly, usually hoisted on a jack staff at the bowsprit cap; -- called also union jack. The American jack is a small blue flag, with a star for each State. (b) A bar of iron athwart ships at a topgallant masthead, to support a royal mast, and give spread to the royal shrouds; -- called also jack crosstree. R. H. Dana, Jr. 11. The knave of a suit of playing cards. Note: Jack is used adjectively in various senses. It sometimes designates something cut short or diminished in size; as, a jack timber; a jack rafter; a jack arch, etc. Jack arch, an arch of the thickness of one brick. -- Jack back (Brewing & Malt Vinegar Manuf.), a cistern which receives the wort. See under 1st Back. -- Jack block (Naut.), a block fixed in the topgallant or royal rigging, used for raising and lowering light masts and spars. -- Jack boots, boots reaching above the knee; -- worn in the 17 century by soldiers; afterwards by fishermen, etc. -- Jack crosstree. (Naut.) See 10, b, above. -- Jack curlew (Zo?l.), the whimbrel. -- Jack frame. (Cotton Spinning) See 4 (g), above. -- Jack Frost, frost personified as a mischievous person. -- Jack hare, a male hare. Cowper. -- Jack lamp, a lamp for still hunting and camp use. See def. 4 (n.), above. -- Jack plane, a joiner's plane used for coarse work. -- Jack post, one of the posts which support the crank shaft of a deep-well-boring apparatus. -- Jack pot (Poker Playing), the name given to the stakes, contributions to which are made by each player successively, till such a hand is turned as shall take the pot, which is the sum total of all the bets. -- Jack rabbit (Zo?l.), any one of several species of large American hares, having very large ears and long legs. The California species (Lepus Californicus), and that of Texas and New Mexico (L. callotis), have the tail black above, and the ears black at the tip. They do not become white in winter. The more northern prairie hare (L. campestris) has the upper side of the tail white, and in winter its fur becomes nearly white. -- Jack rafter (Arch.), in England, one of the shorter rafters used in constructing a hip or valley roof; in the United States, any secondary roof timber, as the common rafters resting on purlins in a trussed roof; also, one of the pieces simulating extended rafters, used under the eaves in some styles of building. -- Jack salmon (Zo?l.), the wall-eyed pike, or glasseye. -- Jack sauce, an impudent fellow. [Colloq. & Obs.] -- Jack shaft (Mach.), the first intermediate shaft, in a factory or mill, which receives power, through belts or gearing, from a prime mover, and transmits it, by the same means, to other intermediate shafts or to a line shaft. -- Jack sinker (Knitting Mach.), a thin iron plate operated by the jack to depress the loop of thread between two needles. -- Jack snipe. (Zo?l.) See in the Vocabulary. -- Jack staff (Naut.), a staff fixed on the bowsprit cap, upon which the jack is hoisted. -- Jack timber (Arch.), any timber, as a rafter, rib, or studding, which, being intercepted, is shorter than the others. -- Jack towel, a towel hung on a roller for common use. -- Jack truss (Arch.), in a hip roof, a minor truss used where the roof has not its full section. -- Jack tree. (Bot.) See 1st Jack, n. -- Jack yard (Naut.), a short spar to extend a topsail beyond the gaff. Blue jack, blue vitriol; sulphate of copper. -- Hydraulic jack, a jack used for lifting, pulling, or forcing, consisting of a compact portable hydrostatic press, with its pump and a reservoir containing a supply of liquid, as oil. -- Jack-at-a-pinch. (a) One called upon to take the place of another in an emergency. (b) An itinerant parson who conducts an occasional service for a fee. -- Jack-at-all-trades, one who can turn his hand to any kind of work. -- Jack-by-the-hedge (Bot.), a plant of the genus Erysimum (E. alliaria, or Alliaria officinalis), which grows under hedges. It bears a white flower and has a taste not unlike garlic. Called also, in England, sauce-alone. Eng. Cyc. -- Jack-in-a-box. (a) (Bot.) A tropical tree (Hernandia sonora), which bears a drupe that rattles when dry in the inflated calyx. (b) A child's toy, consisting of a box, out of which, when the lid is raised, a figure springs. (c) (Mech.) An epicyclic train of bevel gears for transmitting rotary motion to two parts in such a manner that their relative rotation may be variable; applied to driving the wheels of tricycles, road locomotives, and to cotton machinery, etc.; an equation box; a jack frame; -- called also compensating gearing. (d) A large wooden screw turning in a nut attached to the crosspiece of a rude press. -- Jack-in-office, an insolent fellow in authority. Wolcott. -- Jack-in-the-bush (Bot.), a tropical shrub with red fruit (Cordia Cylindrostachya). -- Jack-in-the-green, a chimney sweep inclosed in a framework of boughs, carried in Mayday processions. -- Jack-in-the-pulpit (Bot.), the American plant Aris?ma triphyllum, or Indian turnip, in which the upright spadix is inclosed. -- Jack-of-the-buttery (Bot.), the stonecrop (Sedum acre). -- Jack-of-the-clock, a figure, usually of a man, on old clocks, which struck the time on the bell. -- Jack-on-both-sides, one who is or tries to be neutral. -- Jack-out-of-office, one who has been in office and is turned out. Shak. -- Jack the Giant Killer, the hero of a well-known nursery story. -- Jack-with-a-lantern, Jack-o'-lantern. (a) An ignis fatuus; a will-o'-the-wisp. [Newspaper speculations] supplying so many more jack-o'-lanterns to the future historian. Lowell. (b) A lantern made of a pumpkin so prepared as to show in illumination the features of a human face, etc. -- Yellow Jack (Naut.), the yellow fever; also, the quarantine flag. See Yellow flag, under Flag.

JACK

JACK Jack, n. Etym: [F. jaque, jacque, perh. from the proper name Jacques. Cf. Jacquerie.] Defn: A coarse and cheap medi?val coat of defense, esp. one made of leather. Their horsemen are with jacks for most part clad. Sir J. Harrington.

JACK

JACK Jack, n. Etym: [Named from its resemblance to a jack boot.] Defn: A pitcher or can of waxed leather; -- called also black jack. [Obs.] Dryden.

JACK

JACK Jack, v. i. Defn: To hunt game at night by means of a jack. See 2d Jack, n., 4, n.

JACK

JACK Jack, v. t. Defn: To move or lift, as a house, by means of a jack or jacks. See 2d Jack, n., 5.

JACK

JACK-'-LANTERN Jack-o'-lan`tern, n. Defn: See Jack-with-a-lantern, under 2d Jack.

JACK KETCH

JACK KETCH Jack Ketch. Etym: [Perh. fr. Jack, the proper name + Prov. E. ketch a hangman, fr. ketch, for catch to seize; but see the citations below.] Defn: A public executioner, or hangman. [Eng.] The manor of Tyburn was formerly held by Richard Jaquett, where felons for a long time were executed; from whence we have Jack Ketch. Lloyd's MS., British Museum. [Monmouth] then accosted John Ketch, the executioner, a wretch who had butchered many brave and noble victims, and whose name has, during a century and a half, been vulgarly given to all who have succeeded him in his odious office. Macaulay.

JACK-A

JACK-A-DANDY Jack`-a-dandy, n. Defn: A little dandy; a little, foppish, impertinent fellow.

JACK-A

JACK-A-LENT Jack-a-lent, n. Defn: A small stuffed puppet to be pelted in Lent; hence, a simple fellow.

JACK-O

JACK-O'-LANTERN Jack-o'-lan`tern, n. Defn: See Jack-with-a-lantern, under 2d Jack. JACKPOT Jackpot Defn: 1. (a) See jack pot under jack; (b) any larger-than-usual gambling prize formed by the accumulation of unwon bets[=MW10 1(a)(2) and 1(c)]; (c) the highest gambling prize awarded in a gambling game in which smaller prizes are also awarded, especially such a prize on a slot machine. Defn: 2. (a) An unusually large success in an enterprise, either unexpected or unpredictable, esp. one providing a great financial benefit. hit the jackpotto receive an unexpectedly large (or the largest possible) benefit from an enterprise.

JACKAL

JACKAL Jackal`, n. Etym: [Pers. shaghal: cf. OF. jackal, F. chacal; cf. Skr. ?\'f0gala.] 1. (Zo?l.) Defn: Any one of several species of carnivorous animals inhabiting Africa and Asia, related to the dog and wolf. They are cowardly, nocturnal, and gregarious. They feed largely on carrion, and are noted for their piercing and dismal howling. Note: The common species of Southern Asia (Canis aureus) is yellowish gray, varied with brown on the shoulders, haunches, and legs. The common African species (C. anthus) is darker in color. 2. One who does mean work for another's advantage, as jackals were once thought to kill game which lions appropriated. [Colloq.] Ld. Lytton.

JACKANAPES

JACKANAPES Jacka*napes, n. Etym: [For Jack o' (= of) apes; prop., a man who exhibits apes.] [Written also jackanape.] 1. A monkey; an ape. Shak. 2. A coxcomb; an impertinent or conceited fellow. A young upstart jackanapes. Arbuthnot.

JACKAROO

JACKAROO Jack`a*roo, v. i. Defn: To be a jackaroo; to pass one's time as a jackaroo. [Colloq., Australia]

JACKAROO; JACKEROO

JACKAROO; JACKEROO Jack`a*roo, n. Also Jack`e*roo. [Jack + kangaroo.] Defn: A young man living as an apprentice on a sheep station, or otherwise engaged in acquainting himself with colonial life. [Colloq., Australia]

JACKASS

JACKASS Jackass`, n. Etym: [2d jack + ass.] 1. The male ass; a donkey. 2. A conceited dolt; a perverse blockhead. Jackass bark (Naut.), a three-masted vessel, with only the foremast square-rigged; a barkentine. -- Jackass deer (Zo?l.), the koba. -- Jackass hare, Jackass rabbit (Zo?l.). See Jack rabbit, under 2d Jack, n. -- Jackass penguin (Zo?l.), any species of penguin of the genus Spheniscus, of which several are known. One species (S. demersus) inhabits the islands near the Cape of Good Hope; another (S. Magellanicus) is found at the Falkland Islands. They make a noise like the braying of an ass; -- hence the name. -- Laughing jackass. (Zo?l.) See under Laughing.

JACKDAW

JACKDAW Jackdaw`, n. Etym: [Prob. 2d jack + daw, n.] (Zo?l.) Defn: See Daw, n.

JACKEEN

JACKEEN Jack*een, n. Defn: A drunken, dissolute fellow. [Ireland] S. C. Hall.

JACKET

JACKET Jacket, n. Etym: [F. jaquette, dim. of jaque. See 3d Jack, n.] 1. A short upper garment, extending downward to the hips; a short coat without skirts. 2. An outer covering for anything, esp. a covering of some nonconducting material such as wood or felt, used to prevent radiation of heat, as from a steam boiler, cylinder, pipe, etc. 3. (Mil.) Defn: In ordnance, a strengthening band surrounding and re?nforcing the tube in which the charge is fired. 4. A garment resembling a waistcoat lined with cork, to serve as a life preserver; -- called also cork jacket. Blue jacket. (Naut.) See under Blue. -- Steam jacket, a space filled with steam between an inner and an outer cylinder, or between a casing and a receptacle, as a kettle. -- To dust one's jacket, to give one a beating. [Colloq.]

JACKET

JACKET Jacket, v. t. 1. To put a jacket on; to furnish, as a boiler, with a jacket. 2. To thrash; to beat. [Low]

JACKETED

JACKETED Jacket*ed, a. Defn: Wearing, or furnished with, a jacket.

JACKETING

JACKETING Jacket*ing, n. Defn: The material of a jacket; as, nonconducting jacketing.

JACKKNIFE

JACKKNIFE Jackknife`, n. Defn: A large, strong clasp knife for the pocket; a pocket knife.

JACKMAN

JACKMAN Jackman, n.; pl. Jackmen (. 1. One wearing a jack; a horse soldier; a retainer. See 3d Jack, n. Christie . . . the laird's chief jackman. Sir W. Scott. 2. A cream cheese. [Obs.] Sir T. Elyot.

JACKPUDDING

JACKPUDDING Jackpud`ding, n. Defn: A merry-andrew; a buffoon. Milton.

JACKSAW

JACKSAW Jacksaw`, n. (Zo?l.) Defn: The merganser.

JACKSCREW

JACKSCREW Jackscrew`, n. Defn: A jack in which a screw is used for lifting, or exerting pressure. See Illust. of 2d Jack, n., 5.

JACKSLAVE

JACKSLAVE Jackslave`, n. Defn: A low servant; a mean fellow. Shak.

JACKSMITH

JACKSMITH Jacksmith`, n. Defn: A smith who makes jacks. See 2d Jack, 4, c. Dryden.

JACKSNIPE

JACKSNIPE Jacksnipe`, n. (Zo?l.) (a) A small European snipe (Limnocryptes gallinula); -- called also judcock, jedcock, juddock, jed, and half snipe. (b) A small American sandpiper (Tringa maculata); -- called also pectoral sandpiper, and grass snipe.

JACKSTAY

JACKSTAY Jackstay`, n. (Naut.) Defn: A rail of wood or iron stretching along a yard of a vessel, to which the sails are fastened.

JACKSTONE

JACKSTONE Jackstone`, n. (a) One of the pebbles or pieces used in the game of jackstones. (b) (pl.) A game played with five small stones or pieces of metal. See 6th Chuck.

JACKSTRAW

JACKSTRAW Jackstraw`, n. 1. An effigy stuffed with straw; a scarecrow; hence, a man without property or influence. Milton. 2. One of a set of straws of strips of ivory, bone, wood, etc., for playing a child's game, the jackstraws being thrown confusedly together on a table, to be gathered up singly by a hooked instrument, without touching or disturbing the rest of the pile. See Spilikin.

JACKWOOD

JACKWOOD Jackwood`, n. Defn: Wood of the jack (Artocarpus integrifolia), used in cabinetwork.

JACKY

JACKY Jacky, n.; pl. Jackies (#). Dim. or pet from Jack. Hence: (a) A landsman's nickname for a seaman, resented by the latter. (b) English gin. [Dial. Eng.]

JACOB

JACOB Jacob, n. Etym: [Cf. F. Jacob. See 2d Jack.] Defn: A Hebrew patriarch (son of Isaac, and ancestor of the Jews), who in a vision saw a ladder reaching up to heaven (Gen. xxviii. 12); -- also called Israel. And Jacob said . . . with my staff I passed over this Jordan, and now I am become two bands. Gen. xxxii. 9, 10. Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel. Gen. xxxii. 28. Jacob's ladder. (a) (Bot.) A perennial herb of the genus Polemonium (P. coeruleum), having corymbs of drooping flowers, usually blue. Gray. (b) (Naut.) A rope ladder, with wooden steps, for going aloft. R. H. Dana, Jr. (c) (Naut.) A succession of short cracks in a defective spar. -- Jacob's membrane. See Retina. -- Jacob's staff. (a) A name given to many forms of staff or weapon, especially in the Middle Ages; a pilgrim's staff. [Obs.] Spenser. (b) (Surveying) See under Staff.

JACOBAEAN LILY

JACOBAEAN LILY Jac`o*b?an lily. Etym: [See Jacobean.] (Bot.) Defn: A bulbous plant (Amaryllis, or Sprekelia, formosissima) from Mexico. It bears a single, large, deep, red, lilylike flower. [Written also Jacobean.]

JACOBEAN; JACOBIAN

JACOBEAN; JACOBIAN Ja*cobe*an, Ja*cobi*an, a. Etym: [From L. Jacobus James. See 2d Jack.] Defn: Of or pertaining to a style of architecture and decoration in the time of James the First, of England. A Jacobean table. C. L. Eastlake.

JACOBIN

JACOBIN Jaco*bin, n. Etym: [F. See 2d Jack, Jacobite.] 1. (Eccl. Hist.) Defn: A Dominican friar; -- so named because, before the French Revolution, that order had a convent in the Rue St. Jacques, Paris. 2. One of a society of violent agitators in France, during the revolution of 1789, who held secret meetings in the Jacobin convent in the Rue St. Jacques, Paris, and concerted measures to control the proceedings of the National Assembly. Hence: A plotter against an existing government; a turbulent demagogue. 3. (Zo?l.) Defn: A fancy pigeon, in which the feathers of the neck form a hood, -- whence the name. The wings and tail are long, and the beak moderately short.

JACOBIN

JACOBIN Jaco*bin, a. Defn: Same as Jacobinic.

JACOBINE

JACOBINE Jaco*bine, n. Defn: A Jacobin.

JACOBINIC; JACOBINICAL

JACOBINIC; JACOBINICAL Jac`o*binic, Jac`o*binic*al, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to the Jacobins of France; revolutionary; of the nature of, or characterized by, Jacobinism. Burke. -- Jac`o*binic*al*ly, adv.

JACOBINISM

JACOBINISM Jaco*bin*ism, n. Etym: [Cf. F. Jacobinisme.] Defn: The principles of the Jacobins; violent and factious opposition to legitimate government. Under this new stimulus, Burn's previous Jacobitism passed towards the opposite, but not very distant, extreme of Jacobinism. J. C. Shairp.

JACOBINIZE

JACOBINIZE Jaco*bin*ize`, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jacobinized; p. pr. & vb. n. Jacobinizing.] Etym: [Cf. F. Jacobiniser.] Defn: To taint with, or convert to, Jacobinism. France was not then jacobinized. Burke.

JACOBITE

JACOBITE Jaco*bite, n. Etym: [L. Jacobus James: cf. F. Jacobite. See 2d Jack.] 1. (Eng. Hist.) Defn: A partisan or adherent of James the Second, after his abdication, or of his descendants, an opposer of the revolution in 1688 in favor of William and Mary. Macaulay. 2. (Eccl.) Defn: One of the sect of Syrian Monophysites. The sect is named after Jacob Barad?us, its leader in the sixth century.

JACOBITE

JACOBITE Jaco*bite, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to the Jacobites.

JACOBITIC; JACOBITICAL

JACOBITIC; JACOBITICAL Jac`o*bitic, Jac`o*bitic*al, a. Defn: Of or pertaining to the Jacobites; characterized by Jacobitism. -- Jac`o*bitic*al*ly, adv.

JACOBITISM

JACOBITISM Jaco*bit*ism`, n. Defn: The principles of the Jacobites. Mason.

JACOBUS

JACOBUS Ja*cobus, n.; pl. Jacobuses. Etym: [See Jacobite.] Defn: An English gold coin, of the value of twenty-five shillings sterling, struck in the reign of James I.

JACONET

JACONET Jaco*net, n. Etym: [F. jaconas.] Defn: A thin cotton fabric, between and muslin, used for dresses, neckcloths, etc. [Written also jacconet.]

JACQUARD

JACQUARD Jac*quard, a. Defn: Pertaining to, or invented by, Jacquard, a French mechanician, who died in 1834. Jacquard apparatus or arrangement, a device applied to looms for weaving figured goods, consisting of mechanism controlled by a chain of variously perforated cards, which cause the warp threads to be lifted in the proper succession for producing the required figure. -- Jacquard card, one of the perforated cards of a Jacquard apparatus. -- Jackquard loom, a loom with Jacquard apparatus.

JACQUEMINOT

JACQUEMINOT Jacquemi*not, n. Defn: A half-hardy, deep crimson rose of the remontant class; -- so named after General Jacqueminot, of France.

JACQUERIE

JACQUERIE Jacque`rie, n. Etym: [F.] Defn: The name given to a revolt of French peasants against the nobles in 1358, the leader assuming the contemptuous title, Jacques Bonhomme, given by the nobles to the peasantry. Hence, any revolt of peasants.

JACTANCY

JACTANCY Jactan*cy, n. Etym: [L. jactantia, fr. jactans, p. pr. of jactare to throw, boast, freq. fr. jacere to throw; cf. F. jactance.] Defn: A boasting; a bragging. [Obs.]

JACTATION

JACTATION Jac*tation, n. Etym: [L. jactatio, fr. jactare: af. F. jactation. See Jactancy.] Defn: A throwing or tossing of the body; a shaking or agitation. Sir. W. Temple.

JACTITATION

JACTITATION Jacti*tation, n. Etym: [L. jactitare to utter in public, from jactare. See Jactancy.] 1. (Law) Defn: Vain boasting or assertions repeated to the prejudice of another's right; false claim. Mozley & W. 2. (Med.) Defn: A frequent tossing or moving of the body; restlessness, as in delirium. Dunglison. Jactitation of marriage (Eng. Eccl. Law), a giving out or boasting by a party that he or she is married to another, whereby a common reputation of their matrimony may ensue. Blackstone.

JACULABLE

JACULABLE Jacu*la*ble, a. Defn: Fit for throwing. [Obs.]

JACULATE

JACULATE Jacu*late, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jaculated; p. pr. & vb. n. Jaculating.] Etym: [L. jaculatus, p. p. of jaculari. See Ejaculate.] Defn: To throw or cast, as a dart; to throw out; to emit.

JACULATION

JACULATION Jac`u*lation, n. Etym: [L. jaculatio.] Defn: The act of tossing, throwing, or hurling, as spears. Hurled to and fro with jaculation dire. Milton.

JACULATOR

JACULATOR Jacu*la`tor, Etym: [L.] 1. One who throws or casts. [R.] 2. (Zo?l.) Defn: The archer fish (Toxotes jaculator).

JACULATORY

JACULATORY Jacu*la*to*ry, a. Etym: [L. jaculatorius: cf. F. jaculatoire.] Defn: Darting or throwing out suddenly; also, suddenly thrown out; uttered in short sentences; ejaculatory; as, jaculatory prayers. Smart.

JADDING

JADDING Jadding, n. (Mining) Defn: See Holing.

JADE

JADE Jade, n. Etym: [F., fr. Sp. jade, fr. piedra de ijada stone of the side, fr. ijada flank, side, pain in the side, the stone being so named because it was supposed to cure this pain. Sp. ijada is derived fr. L. ilia flanks. Cf. Iliac.] (Min.) Defn: A stone, commonly of a pale to dark green color but sometimes whitish. It is very hard and compact, capable of fine polish, and is used for ornamental purposes and for implements, esp. in Eastern countries and among many early peoples. Note: The general term jade includes nephrite, a compact variety of tremolite with a specific gravity of 3, and also the mineral jadeite, a silicate of alumina and soda, with a specific gravity of 3.3. The latter is the more highly prized and includes the feitsui of the Chinese. The name has also been given to other tough green minerals capable of similar use.

JADE

JADE Jade, n. Etym: [OE. jade; cf. Prov. E. yaud, Scot. yade, yad, yaud, Icel. jalda a mare.] 1. A mean or tired horse; a worthless nag. Chaucer. Tired as a jade in overloaden cart. Sir P. Sidney. 2. A disreputable or vicious woman; a wench; a quean; also, sometimes, a worthless man. Shak. She shines the first of battered jades. Swift. 3. A young woman; -- generally so called in irony or slight contempt. A souple jade she was, and strang. Burns.

JADE

JADE Jade, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jaded; p. pr. & vb. n. Jading.] 1. To treat like a jade; to spurn. [Obs.] Shak. 2. To make ridiculous and contemptible. [Obs.] I do now fool myself, to let imagination jade me. Shak. 3. To exhaust by overdriving or long-continued labor of any kind; to tire or wear out by severe or tedious tasks; to harass. The mind, once jaded by an attempt above its power, . . . checks at any vigorous undertaking ever after. Locke. Syn. -- To fatigue; tire; weary; harass. -- To Jade, Fatigue, Tire, Weary. Fatigue is the generic term; tire denotes fatigue which wastes the strength; weary implies that a person is worn out by exertion; jade refers to the weariness created by a long and steady repetition of the same act or effort. A little exertion will tire a child or a weak person; a severe or protracted task wearies equally the body and the mind; the most powerful horse becomes jaded on a long journey by a continual straining of the same muscles. Wearied with labor of body or mind; tired of work, tired out by importunities; jaded by incessant attention to business.

JADE

JADE Jade, v. i. Defn: To become weary; to lose spirit. They . . . fail, and jade, and tire in the prosecution. South.

JADEITE

JADEITE Jadeite, n. (Min.) Defn: See Jade, the stone.

JADERY

JADERY Jader*y, n. Defn: The tricks of a jade.

JADISH

JADISH Jadish, a. 1. Vicious; ill-tempered; resembling a jade; -- applied to a horse. 2. Unchaste; -- applied to a woman. L'Estrange.

JAEGER

JAEGER Jaeger, n. Defn: See Jager.

JAG

JAG Jag, n. Etym: [Prob. of Celtic origin; cf. W. gag aperture, cleft, chink; akin to Ir. & Gael. gag.] [Written also jagg.] 1. A notch; a cleft; a barb; a ragged or sharp protuberance; a denticulation. Arethuss arose . . . From rock and from jag. Shelley. Garments thus beset with long jags. Holland. 2. A part broken off; a fragment. Bp. Hacket. 3. (Bot.) Defn: A cleft or division. Jag bolt, a bolt with a nicked or barbed shank which resists retraction, as when leaded into stone.

JAG

JAG Jag, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jagged; p. pr. & vb. n. Jagging.] Defn: To cut into notches or teeth like those of a saw; to notch. [Written also jagg. Jagging iron, a wheel with a zigzag or jagged edge for cutting cakes or pastry into ornamental figures.

JAG

JAG Jag, n. Etym: [Scot. jag, jaug, a leather bag or wallet, a pocket. Cf. Jag a notch.] Defn: A small load, as of hay or grain in the straw, or of ore. [Prov. Eng. & Colloq. U.S.] [Written also jagg.] Forby.

JAG

JAG Jag, v. t. Defn: To carry, as a load; as, to jag hay, etc. [Prov. Eng. & Colloq. U.S.]

JAGANATHA; JAGANATHA

JAGANATHA; JAGANATHA Jag`a*natha, Jag`a*natha, n. Defn: See Juggernaut.

JAGANNATH; JAGANNATHA

JAGANNATH; JAGANNATHA; JUGGERNAUT Jagan*nath, Jag`an*natha, n. Also Jugger*naut. [Hind. Jagan-nath lord of the world, Skr. jagannatha.] (Hinduism) Defn: A particular form of Vishnu, or of Krishna, whose chief idol and worship are at Puri, in Orissa. The idol is considered to contain the bones of Krishna and to possess a soul. The principal festivals are the Snanayatra, when the idol is bathed, and the Rathayatra, when the image is drawn upon a car adorned with obscene paintings. Formerly it was erroneously supposed that devotees allowed themselves to be crushed beneath the wheels of this car. It is now known that any death within the temple of Jagannath is considered to render the place unclean, and any spilling of blood in the presence of the idol is a pollution.

JAGER

JAGER Jager, n. Etym: [G. j?ger a hunter, a sportsman. Cf. Yager.] [Written also jaeger.] 1. (Mil.) Defn: A sharpshooter. See Yager. 2. (Zo?l.) Defn: Any species of gull of the genus Stercorarius. Three species occur on the Atlantic coast. The jagers pursue other species of gulls and force them to disgorge their prey. The two middle tail feathers are usually decidedly longer than the rest. Called also boatswain, and marline-spike bird. The name is also applied to the skua, or Arctic gull (Megalestris skua).

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